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Title: Higher Education and Knowledge Transfer: Key to Entrepreneurial Development International Conference on Information Security and Management(ICMIS2010)- IIIT-Allahabad (January 21st - 24th 2010)


1
Higher Education and Knowledge Transfer Key to
Entrepreneurial DevelopmentInternational
Conference on Information Security and
Management(ICMIS2010)- IIIT-Allahabad(January
21st - 24th 2010)
  • Dr. Ajay Singh(MIET, Meerut)
  • Dr. Shashi Singh (MIET, Meerut)
  • Dr. Kiran Singh(University of Allahabad)

2
Entrepreneurship Concepts Definitions
  • Entrepreneurship is the process of creating
    something new with value by devoting the
    necessary time and effort, assuming the
    accompanying financial, psychic, and social
    risks, and receiving the resulting rewards of
    monetary and personal satisfaction of
    independence. Robert Hisrich

3
Entrepreneurship Concepts Definitions
  • Entrepreneurship is an act of initiative,
    drive, commitment, diligence, perseverance,
    organized effort, and achievement outlook, to
    undertake some specific functions of performing
    productive activities and the capacity to bear
    and associated with the investment.
  • Economic Policy Paper on Entrepreneurship
    Development through Educational
    Reform-Bangladesh

4
Entrepreneurship Concepts Definitions (The
Revised GEM Model)
  • Basic Requirements
  • Institutions Infrastructure
  • Economic Stability
  • Health Primary Education
  • Efficiency Enhancer
  • Higher Education Training
  • Goods Labour Market Efficiency
  • Financial Market
  • Innovation Entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial Finance
  • Entrepreneurship Education
  • R D Transfer etc

Entrepreneurship Attitudes Perceived
Opportunity Activity Early Stage Aspiration Grow
th
National Economic Growth (Jobs Technical
Innovations)
5
Entrepreneurship The Importance
  • Central to the development of economy
  • The micro and small enterprises (MSEs) constitute
    over 90 of total enterprises in most of the
    economies.
  • Employment generation
  • MSE sector accounts for about 39 of the
    manufacturing output and around 33 of the total
    export of the India (in term of value).
  • Ministry of MSME-GOI

6
Entrepreneurship The Importance
  • The nation that fosters an infrastructure of
    linkages among and between firms, universities
    and government gains competitive advantage
    through quicker information diffusion and product
    deployment..US Council on Competitiveness 1998
  • Leading knowledge based economy in the World
    (Lisbon Council) and key issue for the EU is to
    build a climate in which entrepreneurial
    initiative and business activity can thrive..
    green paper on entrepreneurship- EC
    Commission-2003

7
Methodology and Objectives
  • Exploratory Research
  • Data Source Secondary- From newspaper articles
    of the last 3 years
  • Objectives To study
  • Prerequisites of Entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial Initiatives in India
  • Knowledge Transfer Problems faced
  • Approach to Higher Education and Knowledge
    Transfer

8
Prerequisites of Entrepreneurship
  • Creative mind, Risk taking capacity and Need to
    achieve (Most important factors)
  • Support of infrastructural facilities and
    cultural acceptance recognition

9
Entrepreneurial Initiatives in India
  • Institutes of national importance that have been
    setup through an act of parliament (IITs, IIMs,
    NITs, AIIMS, IISc etc.) are the main leaders in
    the field of knowledge transfer.
  • Examples
  • Organizing Competitions like Great Idea,
    helping and incubating ideas.
  • IIT Kharagpur Nina Saxena Excellence in
    Technical award (Yearly).

10
Entrepreneurial Initiatives in India- Top
Incubation Center
  • 1. Centre for Innovation, Incubation
  • Entrepreneurship (CIIE) - IIM Ahmedabad
  • Set up in 2001
  • Since inception CIIE has 15-odd innovations grow
    out of the incubation centre in varied
    technologies
  • 2. Society for Innovation and Entrepreneurship
    (SINE)- IIT Bombay
  • Set up in 2004
  • It currently has 16 companies under its
    incubation programme

11
Entrepreneurial Initiatives in India- Top
Incubation Center
  • 3. Cell for Tech Innovation, Development
    entrepreneurship support- IIT Chennai
  • Set up in 2000
  • Organises national level competitions,
    Breakthrough (general business plan
    competition) and Genesis (social
    entrepreneurship plan competition)
  • 4. Society for Innovation and Development (SID) -
    IISc, Bangalore
  • Set up in 2006
  • The investigator is given a seed capital for Rs
    20 lakh a year for two years as soft loan for the
    approved plan

12
Entrepreneurial Initiatives in India- Top
Incubation Center
  • 5. The SP Jain Centre for Entrepreneurship
    Development- SPJIMR
  • 16-week 'Start Your Own Business' programme-a
    public programme held every six months.
  • 6. Technology Business Incubator (TBI) - BITS
    Pilani
  • In association with DST, BITS has established
    Technology Business Incubator in the area of
    embedded systems and VLSI design back in 2004
  • So far, TBI has helped spawn ten companies.

13
Entrepreneurial Initiatives in India- Top
Incubation Center
  • 7. Technology Incubation and Entrepreneurial
    Training Society (TIETS) IIT Kharagpur
  • Set up in 2005, So far, the institute has been
    able to incubate two companies through Concipio
    over the last three years. Besides, an in house
    panel has helped 11-12 ventures take wing
  • 8. Nirma Labs, Nirma University, Ahmedabad
  • Established in 2004, Nirma Labs used to pride
    itself in a three-step model for students who
    were interested to start their own
    businesses-training, incubation and funding.

14
Entrepreneurial Initiatives in India-
Industry-Academia Interface
  • Biocon Ltd and Indian School of Business (ISB)
    have launched a cell for innovation management.
  • Hewlett-Packard (HP) India recently announced the
    winners of the second annual edition of HP
    innovate 2009. The award has been instituted to
    recognise and reward outstanding creative ideas
    of young engineering graduates in India

15
Entrepreneurial Initiatives in India-
Industry-Academia Interface
  • Month long Igniting Minds and Ideas-IEEE
    certification programme by the Delhi based ISO
    certified strategy consulting firm Total
    Solutions Incorporation (TSI) and Total
    Resource Academy of India (TRAIN) a knowledge
    management , training and development
    organisation held for students of Delhi Public
    School (DPS), R K Puram.

16
Entrepreneurial Initiatives in India-
Industry-Academia Interface
  • The National Geographic Channel recently
    announced a Nationwide contest shaping the
    future with the collaboration of the Foundation
    for Information Technology Transfer at
    IIT-Delhi Society for Innovation Entrepreneur
    at IIT-B, Nedathur S Raghvan Centre for
    entrepreneurial Learning (NSR-CEL) at IIM-B and
    the Technopreneur Promotion Programme at the
    Department of Scientific and Industrial Research
    DSIR

17
Entrepreneurial Initiatives in India-
Government and Non Government Support
  • Delhi Technical University announced the setting
    up of water technology and management centre with
    the support of UNESCO.
  • The Entrepreneurship Development Cell (EDC) of
    University School of management Studies, Guru
    Gobind Singh Indraprastha University (GGSIPU) has
    launched a one month business skill development
    programme in association with the Ministry of
    Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises.
    Representatives from KVIC, NABARD will share
    their knowledge.

18
Entrepreneurial Initiatives in India-
Government and Non Government Support
  • NASSCOM has signed a Memorandum of Understanding
    (MoU) with University Grants Commission (UGC),
    for
  • Faculty Development Programme (FDP)
  • Re-skilling the faculty in IT
  • Framework for co-operation to catalyze
    industry-academia interface

19
Entrepreneurial Initiatives in IndiaThe
National Entrepreneurship Network (NEN)
  • The National Entrepreneurship Network (NEN) is a
    network of academic institutions across India
    performing research developing and delivering
    world-class education, skill-building programs,
    networking activities and company-starting
    assistance to new, high-growth entrepreneurs.

20
Entrepreneurial Initiatives in IndiaThe
National Entrepreneurship Network (NEN)
  • NEN was launched in 2003 through an India-wide
    selection process to select the Founding Partner
    Institutions to anchor this network. The five NEN
    Partners are
  • Birla Institute of Technology and Science- Pilani
  • Indian Institute of Technology- Bombay
  • Indian Institute of Management- Ahmedabad
  • Institute of Bioinformatics andApplied
    Biotechnology- Banglore
  • S P Jain Institute of Management andResearch-
    Mumbai
  • Goal
  • NENs goal is to launch 2,500 entrepreneurs who
    will create a minimum of 500,000 jobs by 2014.

21
Knowledge Transfer Problems Faced (Status of
Entrepreneurship Higher Education)
  • India is ninth in the Global Entrepreneurship
    Monitor (GEM) survey of entrepreneurial countries
  • It is highest among 28 countries in Necessity
    based entrepreneurship, while 5th from the lowest
    in opportunity based entrepreneurship.
  • Entrepreneurship in India is basically necessity
    based. Number of individuals taking
    entrepreneurship as a career choice is much lower
    as compared to forced entrepreneurs

22
Knowledge Transfer Problems Faced (Status of
Entrepreneurship Higher Education)
  • Universities and Colleges (in 2007)
  • Universities 378 NAAC Accredited 140
  • Colleges 18064 NAAC Accredited 3492
  • UGC-NAAC (Panning Commission Vol. 2 p-22)
  • Despite such growth, Indias Gross Enrolment
    Ratio (GER) of around 11 is very low compared to
    the World average of 23.2, 36.5 for countries
    in transition, 54.6 for the developed countries,
    and 22 for Asian countries.

23
Knowledge Transfer Problems Faced (Status of
Entrepreneurship Higher Education)
  • 38.8 of the Indian labour force is illiterate,
    24.9 of the labour force has had schooling up to
    the primary level and the balance 36.3 has had
    schooling up to the middle and higher level.
  • About 80 of the workforce in rural and urban
    areas does not possess any identifiable
    marketable skills.

24
Knowledge Transfer Problems Faced (Status of
Entrepreneurship Higher Education)
  • Times Higher - QS World University Rankings 2008
    (on the dimensions Research Quality, Teaching
    quality, Graduate Employability, International
    Outlook)
  • No Indian University in the top100 universities
    of the world.
  • US- 37, UK-17 and China-5 Universities in top 100
    universities of the world
  • IIT- Delhi 154th position. IIT-B 174th, IIT-K
    242nd, Delhi University 274

25
Knowledge Transfer Problems Faced Training
Research
  • Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring report
    (GEM-08) Positive relationship between training
    in starting a business and entrepreneurial
    attitudes, aspirations and activity.
  • The proportion of individuals who had received
    any training in starting a business, either in
    school or after school, varied from
  • 40 in Colombia to 8 in Egypt (among factor
    driven countries)
  • 43 in Chile to 6 in Turkey (among efficiency
    driven countries)
  • 48 in Finland to 13 in Israel (among innovation
    driven countries)

26
Knowledge Transfer Problems Faced Training
Research
  • Our education system lacks encouragement for
    short term and useful vocational training courses
    and research.
  • We take 7.5 lakh engineers on an average every
    year but only a handful approx 4000 opt for
    research.
  • India spent 6 of GDP on education while China
    10 and Malaysia 10.
  • India accounts for less than 2 of the world
    publications in the areas of science and
    technology research.

27
Knowledge Transfer Problems Faced Training
Research
  • Proportion of trained youth in India is one of
    the lowest in the world. The corresponding
    figures for industrialized countries are much
    higher, varying between 60 and 96 of the youth
    in the age group of 2024 years.
  • One reason for this poor performance is the near
    exclusive reliance upon a few training courses
    with long duration (2 to 3 years) covering around
    100 skills. In China, for example, there exist
    about 4000 short duration modular courses which
    provide skills

28
Knowledge Transfer Problems Faced Course
Curriculum
  • NCERT has introduced new subjects like heritage
    crafts, creative writing and translation,
    computer and communication technology, human
    ecology and family studies, but there are few
    takers of these courses.
  • The admission procedure for the first year at
    colleges have remained as rigid as they were,
    reinforcing the rigidity of the class XII
    examination.

29
Knowledge Transfer Problems Faced Course
Curriculum
  • Average Indian students are generally
    hard-working but they lack research orientation.
    Average American University relies heavily on
    self-discovery, reflection, open ended questions
    and analysis.
  • These concerns have also been raised by National
    Curriculum Framework (NCF-2005). It poses three
    key challenges Linking the childs life at home
    with learning at school, Discouraging rote
    learning and moving beyond the textbook.

30
Knowledge Transfer Problems Faced Faculty,
Infrastructure Society
  • There is shortage of quality teachers in India.
    Faculty are generally not available in the
    universities and they lack research orientation.
    The student teacher ratio is too high which
    hinders the personal monitoring and guidance from
    faculty.
  • Even today 9-5 jobs people are treated with added
    respect than a starter of a business.

31
Knowledge Transfer Problems Faced Faculty,
Infrastructure Society
  • Procedural simplicity to start a business is a
    great motivation factor for
  • entrepreneurs

32
Approach to Higher Education Knowledge
Transfer
  • The functioning of Indian universities has to be
    reformed (Yash Pal committee report and the
    Knowledge Commission recommendations)
  • Since a vast majority of our graduates are
    getting taught in colleges that are affiliated to
    some university, it should be clear that if the
    quality of higher education is to be improved,
    this system of affiliating university has to be
    reformed.

33
Approach to Higher Education Knowledge Transfer
  • Entrepreneurship needs to be taught in schools
    and colleges. They should be encouraged to
    consider entrepreneurship as one of the career
    option
  • India National Knowledge Commission (NKC) was
    constituted on June 13, 2005 by Prime Minister
    Manmohan Singh to advise the PM to encourage
    innovation led growth and improve the state of
    research in India.

34
Approach to Higher Education Knowledge Transfer
  • Indian government initiatives to make Indian
    higher education innovation oriented
  • The government plans to set up 14 innovation
    universities over the next few years.
  • For this the ministry for human resource
    development is keen to tie up with the worlds
    leading universities (Like Yale, Standford and
    MIT) to ensure that its innovation universities
    are a class apart from the pack.

35
Approach to Higher Education Knowledge Transfer
  • Societal sentiment towards entrepreneurship can
    be changed by increasing literacy rate among the
    population of India. Government has put emphasis
    on these aspects in twelfth plan paper We should
    aim to increase the GER to 21 by the end of the
    Twelfth Plan.
  • Evolve suitable eco-system for the promotion of
    entrepreneurship Easing of financing the
    project, suitable changes in labour laws, company
    law and taxation.
  • Government should also help open various
    entrepreneurship cells in schools and colleges.

36
Approach to Higher Education Knowledge Transfer
  • Educational institutions can be setup near the
    research facilities.
  • Greater industry-academia interface in the
    education system.
  • Universities should have separate research and
    innovation wing. Universities should provide the
    necessary resources required for spin off and
    incubation.

37
Approach to Higher Education Knowledge Transfer
  • The idea of creating National Higher Education
    Finance Corporation by HRD ministry can be said a
    step taken in right direction. It will also
    provide venture capital to a university to
    incubate any scientific or technological idea or
    product that has emerged as an outcome of any
    research undertaken by the university.

38
Approach to Higher Education Knowledge Transfer
  • University should encourage flexibility in their
    course curriculum. It should be adaptive and
    relevant. Problem solving, project based academic
    curriculum right from elementary school all the
    way through college and university education.
  • People from business and industry can be engaged
    on course programme advisory committee. Companies
    can also work as an advisory capacity with
    universities to provide appropriate inputs.

39
Approach to Higher Education Knowledge Transfer
  • Education system must also be corruption free.
  • Patent regime can also encourage the innovation
    in universities. After 2005, since the time India
    has agreed to recognised product patents as per
    WTO-TRIPS agreement, the research activities has
    increased.
  • A good qualified research oriented Mentor is must
    for the Knowledge transfer process.

40
Approach to Higher Education Knowledge
Transfer Importance of a Mentor
  • Mentors are the linking pin between the idea
    germination business conception and one of the
    very important constituents of the
    entrepreneurship process. A mentor can ease the
    process of building up a business from scratch.
  • Faculty acting as mentor must have research
    orientation and experienced enough to judge the
    soundness and feasibility of the idea.
  • He should not only be capable of giving a vague
    idea into a concrete concept, but also
    terminating an idea if he or she happens to be
    unclear about the business objective and the
    method of execution.

41
Approach to Higher Education Knowledge Transfer
  • Importance of a Mentor
  • One thing is quite clear. A mentor can ease the
    process of building up a business from scratch.
    When 20-year old Kolkata-based Karan Walia
    attended a one-month management and
    entrepreneurship course at the London School of
    Economics in August last year, he was heavily
    influenced by Ian Richardson, a faculty member at
    LSE. Even before his plane had landed in Kolkata,
    he was determined to start a brokerage on his
    own.
  • Menon, N., Class room CEOs Economic Times, 13
    June 2008, p11

42
Conclusions
  • Universities must act as the center of research
    and knowledge development.
  • Universities have to accept greater
    responsibilities and challenges.
  • Able mentors.
  • Creating synergy with greater industry- academia
    interface.
  • Building entrepreneurial culture in the education
    system right from secondary to higher education.
  • Infrastructural support.

43
Thank You
  • ICMIS 2010
  • (21st January 2010)
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