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Recruitment & Selection and the Management of Change

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Title: Recruitment & Selection and the Management of Change


1
Recruitment Selection and the Management of
Change
  • Chapter 4 of Thornhill et al Management of Change
  • MBA 642 Robin Snell

2
Chapter Coverage
  • A. Case Study of Protection Royale
  • B. Defining recruitment selection.
  • C. The traditional model of recruitment
    selection.
  • D. A strategic model of recruitment selection
    and the challenges it faces.
  • E. Where strategic RS fits with higher-level
    strategies
  • F. Strategic RS when higher levels of strategy
    have already been decided (planned change)
  • G. Strategic RS when higher levels of strategy
    are still undecided (uncertain, unpredictable
    futures)

3
A1. The case of Protection Royale
  • The focus is on the Financial Consultancy
    Division of this insurance company
  • There had been very low turnover among the sales
    consultants whose job had been to market the
    companys insurance products to insurance
    brokers.
  • Recruitment was by replacement
  • advertise in the trade press
  • use specialist recruitment agencies
  • recommendations from existing staff
  • shortlist from applications
  • interviews, roles plays, psychometric testing
  • references
  • But the job became harder as products diversified
    and become more complex

4
A2. Protection Royale...
  • Customers lost confidence, the company lost its
    position in the marketplace
  • There was a big shake-up
  • The company recognised the need to have a more
    focused product range and high-performing staff
    who could persuade brokers that these were worth
    selling on to clients.
  • A new person specification emerged
  • excellent product knowledge
  • influential and persuasive
  • negotiation skill

5
A3. Protection Royale ...
  • Furthermore, legislation introduced in 1994
    required financial sales practitioners to hold
    various qualifications
  • Therefore there was a big reduction in eligible
    people within the external labour market.
  • Existing staff were deemed either suitable,
    unsuitable or possible many left
  • Line managers tried to head-hunt replacements,
    but failed.
  • A crisis became apparent

6
A4. Protection Royale ...
  • Recruitment champions were appointed
  • Line managers and HR specialists were given
    performance indicators relating to recruitment
    objectives
  • A new search for direct recruits and for
    trainees.
  • A matrix of selection methods (e.g. Application
    form, testing of job knowledge/ skills/attitudes,
    psychometric testing, interviews, simulations,
    presentations, references) and competencies.

7
A5. Protection Royale...
  • National advertising
  • 7 day phone-in interviews, followed by
    screening interviews
  • Assessment centre based selection
  • Appointment of an induction manager
  • Thorough procedural knowledge training for all
    those involved in the recruitment and selection
    process.

8
B1. Defining Recruitment Selection
  • Recruitment
  • Defining the vacancy (the job or role to be
    filled)
  • Identifying relevant personal attributes
    correlated with effectiveness (person
    specification)
  • Searching for and attracting relevant applicants
  • Selection
  • Assessing candidates
  • Narrowing down the field
  • Making the final decision

9
B2. Internal vs. External Recruitment
  • Internal recruitment meets manpower requirements
    from the existing stock of employees, except at
    the lowest level.
  • Internal recruitment may be vehicle for
    establishing cultural fit, morale, and
    commitment, reinforced by socialisation
  • External recruitment meets manpower requirements
    by recruiting from outside
  • May be used as a symbol that times are changing

10
C. Traditional Recruitment Selection Model (p.
96)
  • Vacancy
  • Job description
  • Personnel specification
  • Publicise vacancy
  • Shortlist
  • Interview
  • Select
  • Offer accepted?
  • References
  • Appoint
  • Engage and induct
  • Fits people to existing jobs
  • Not a vehicle for change
  • Reflects the status quo
  • Over-emphasis on the interview as a selection
    tool
  • Neglects the interests of customers, peers,
    providers
  • Needs adapting!

11
D1. Strategic Recruitment Selection (see p. 115)
  • Linked to corporate strategy
  • Integrated with other HR strategies
  • Strategic job analysis
  • Incorporate core values
  • Front-loaded
  • investment

R S
  • Represent all stakeholder interests
  • Continuous
  • improvement
  • Reliable, valid selection methods
  • Job previews

12
D2. Challenges to Strategic Recruitment
Selection
  • Expensive
  • Short-term orientation/pressures
  • Often the lack of clear or coherent corporate
    strategy
  • Difficulty validating selection decisions
  • The authors urge companies to embrace strategic
    recruitment selection nonetheless

13
E. Levels of Strategy
Upstream (bottom-up) integration
  • 1. Corporate - Long term, big decisions, e.g.
    focus on innovation, cost reduction, etc)

2. Structural (e.g. delayering, decentralisation)
- Operating procedures
3. Functional (HR)
Other functions
Downstream (top down) integration
Culture
Recruitment. Selection.
Training Devel.
Performance Mgt.
Rewards
Downsizing
14
F1. Recruitment Selection and
PLANNED/PREDICTABLE Change
  • When the strategists believe that the future is
    predictable, Human Resource Planning seeks to
    provide human resources for envisaged FUTURE jobs
  • Recruits will be selected on those attributes
    that are judged necessary for successful future
    performance

15
F2. Recruitment Selection and
PLANNED/PREDICTABLE Change
  • We now consider strategic RS under 3 conditions
  • F3a/b When corporate strategy has been decided
  • F4 When desired organisation structure is known
  • F5 When management has decided what assumptions
    it will make about employee motivational attitude
    and trustworthiness.

16
F3a. Recruitment Selection flowing down from
Corporate Strategy
  • Here the objective of recruitment section would
    be to recruit people who will enhance the org.s
    capacity to deliver its corporate strategy.
  • E.g. for an INNOVATION corp. strategy, the
    company would seek to recruit people with
  • highly innovative behaviour
  • preference/ability for co-operative behaviour
  • relatively high risk taking
  • tolerant of uncertainty
  • moderate concern for quality of output
  • balanced orientation toward process and results
  • longer-term focus
  • For a QUALITY ENHANCEMENT or COST REDUCTION corp.
    strategies, the patterns would be different

17
F3b. Employee Behaviour Continua Relevant to
Corporate Strategy
  • Innovation (lo to hi)
  • Self-autonomy (lo to hi, etc.)
  • Risk taking
  • Adaptability to change
  • Comfort with certainty
  • Concern for quality
  • Concern for quantity
  • Concern for outcomes Responsibility preference
    (avoids vs. seeks)
  • Job/org involvement
  • Skill base (broad-narrow)
  • Time focus (long/short term)

18
F4. Recruitment Selection Flowing down from
Organisation Structure
  • Mgt competencies required in Organic
    organisations
  • info search
  • concept formation
  • conceptual flexibility
  • interpersonal search
  • managing interaction
  • developmental orientation
  • self confidence
  • proactivity
  • achievement orientation
  • (These may be needed by non-managers too)
  • Behaviours required in managers in Organic
    Organisations
  • networking
  • team building
  • information retrieval
  • innovative problem solving

19
F5. Recruitment Selection Flowing down from a
desire to recruit Theory Y employees
  • The target candidates would be
  • committed to the job
  • accepting of change
  • flexible
  • Their precise qualities would depend on the
    context and circumstances that are envisaged

20
G1. Recruitment Selection and
uncertain/UNPREDICTABLE Change
  • When the higher level strategies are undetermined
    and uncertain, Strategic RS seeks to provide
    new people who can help to shape future
    strategies and help the organisation to be more
    FLEXIBLE

21
G2. Recruitment Selection and
Uncertain/UNPREDICTABLE Change
  • We now consider strategic RS under 3 conditions
  • G3 When corporate strategy has NOT been decided
  • G4 When desired organisation structure is NOT
    known but will be built around teams
  • G5abcd When management has decided that it wants
    employees who will lead change and contribute to
    strategy development, whatever their level in the
    company

22
G3. Recruitment Selection driving Corporate
Strategy
  • There is a business case for building more
    DIVERSITY into organisations
  • enhances creative capability
  • greater flexibility in global markets
  • more widely equipped to face unpredictable
    challenges

23
G4. Recruitment Selection driving Org.
Structure
  • e.g. Recruiting people in order to help
    reconfigure the organisation as delayered and
    TEAM-BASED rather than tall.
  • Therefore look for people
  • who are dependable
  • have interpersonal skills
  • are self-motivated
  • have integrity
  • have leadership potential
  • are assertive
  • tolerate ambiguity
  • are able to cope with stress
  • Make recruitment a two-way process
  • Involve existing team members in the final
    selection

24
G5a. Recruitment Selection and
Unplanned/Unpredictable Change (Future Imperfect)
  • When the strategists believe that the future is
    UNPREDICTABLE, Human Resource Planning seeks to
    provide human resources for jobs that cannot be
    prescribed
  • Continuous modifications are expected as the
    future unfolds, numerous changes are likely to
    systems of recruitment and development
  • Transformational criteria
  • ability to work in the learning organisation -
    one that is sensitive to environmental change and
    constantly changes and adapts through continuous
    learning
  • attributes that are required to enable change to
    happen, i.e. change agent competencies
  • leadership traits

25
G5b. Necessary Characteristics for Workers in a
Learning Organisation
  • Desired traits
  • Experiments
  • admits mistakes
  • open
  • encourages ideas
  • makes joint decisions
  • Undesired traits
  • Cautions
  • rationalises mistakes
  • defensive
  • discourage ideas
  • dominates

26
G5c. Necessary Qualities of Change Champions
Change Agents
  • Take calculated risks
  • Good product knowledge technical skills
  • Good motivation work attitudes
  • Achievement-oriented
  • Good people skills and communication skills.
  • Probably require political skills and
    sensitivities to survive organisational politics
    games.

27
G5d. Qualities of Transformational Leaders
  • Charisma
  • Provides vision
  • Generates respect, trust pride
  • Inspiration
  • Conveys high expectations
  • Intellectual stimulation
  • Promotes rational approaches to problem solving
  • Individualised consideration
  • Individual needs are addressed through
    personalised approaches

28
We Covered (recap)
  • A. Case Study of Protection Royale
  • B. Defining recruitment selection.
  • C. The traditional model of recruitment
    selection.
  • D. A strategic model of recruitment selection
    and the challenges it faces.
  • E. Where strategic RS fits with higher-level
    strategies
  • F. Strategic RS when higher levels of strategy
    have already been decided (planned change)
  • G. Strategic RS when higher levels of strategy
    are still undecided (uncertain, unpredictable
    futures)

29
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
  • 1. Using the behaviour continua on slide 17,
    please indicate the employee behaviours that are
    most appropriate to corporate strategies based on
  • a. Quality enhancement
  • b. Cost reduction
  • 2. How might recruitment and selection contribute
    to culture change programmes?
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