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From Scientific Inquiry to Global Applications- Development

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Title: From Scientific Inquiry to Global Applications- Development


1
From Scientific Inquiry to Global Applications-
Development of a Two-course Sequence in
Integrative Sciences
Amy Jessen-Marshall Chair- Integrative Studies
Program, Assoc. Prof of Life Sciences Wendy
Sherman Heckler Assoc. Prof of Education Lisa
Marr Asst. Prof of Life Sciences
2
Overview
  • Otterbein (Who are we?)
  • Integrative Studies Program Sciences
  • Role of AACU- Shared Futures for Global Learning
    and LEAP
  • Process of designing a development model in the
    sciences
  • Models for curricular design implementation and
    assessment.
  • Examples of courses and learning objectives
  • Recommend strategies for implementation on
    campuses
  • Professional Learning Communities as a model for
    faculty and curriculum development
  • Where we are today and where we are going
  • New Mission Goals and Learning Outcomes

3
  • Comprehensive Liberal Arts college
  • Westerville Ohio
  • Traditional Undergraduate population of
    approximately 2400.
  • Graduate and Continuing studies approximately
    800.

4
Integrative Studies is
  • The core curriculum of liberal learning at
    Otterbein.
  • Ten courses spread across all four years,
    conceived sequentially
  • Two required Integrative Studies Science Courses
  • Make integrative connections across disciplines,
    helping to engage complex problems with
    interdisciplinary knowledge.

5
Topics for discussion
  • It is increasingly important in todays global
    society for all students, including non-science
    majors, to become scientifically literate and
    understand the processes and limitations of
    science and the role of science in a global
    context.
  • What models for course design are most successful
    in developing scientific literacy for non-science
    majors?
  • What themes or content areas are most important
    to develop scientifically literate global
    citizens?

6
First questions
  • Is science literacy important for all students?
  • Why?
  • Educated society
  • Consumer issues
  • (quantitative literacy)
  • Journalism/news
  • (Critical evaluation)
  • Voters
  • (Support for science in politics)
  • (NSF funding)
  • Jury of peers
  • Science is COOL!

7
Otterbeins IS Science Curriculum
  • The Science Division at Otterbein decided to
    reform
  • our non-majors science curriculum within our
  • general education program (Integrative studies)
    (2004)
  • We noticed a dichotomy in how we taught science.
  • Department mission for Life Science
  • Focus on scientific method.
  • Engage student in the process of science through
    active inquiry.
  • Create a community of scientists.
  • Create scientifically literate citizens.
  • Why arent we applying this to all students?
  • Why just our majors?

8
Where we started
  • Specific goals for new Integrative Studies
    science courses
  • Shared with Majors courses
  • Focus on scientific method.
  • Engage student in the process of science through
    active inquiry.
  • Create a community of scientists.
  • Create scientifically literate citizens.
  • Unique to Integrative Studies courses
  • Reduce anxiety
  • Focus on science as a way of knowing (Mode of
    inquiry)
  • Team teach courses with an interdisciplinary/multi
    disciplinary
  • focus.
  • Engage students to consider the role of science
    in global context.

9
Is science too hard?
Rosalind Franklin
Watson and Crick Structure of DNA
Not meant to be pedantic statement. (Common
complaint of IS science courses and premise of
Emeriti chemistry professor)
10
Is science harder than other subjects to learn?
11
Where does the perception that science is hard
come from?
12
  • But is it unlearnable and should we give up?
  • What do we know?
  • Students have anxiety/avoidance/phobia about
    science,particularly concerning math.
  • Sheila Tobias has written since the 1980s about
    the impact of Math anxiety on students
    perceptions of science.
  • Educators in physics have studied anxiety
    related to this discipline and found math phobia
    a major indicator.

13
  • 2. Students bring misperceptions about science
  • into the classroom.
  • Students tend to approach science as a fact based
    field that needs
  • to be memorized, and the language is too foreign.
  • Content, not process is stressed.

14
  • Students tend to bring information from earlier
  • experiences into the classroom, that is very
    difficult to unlearn. This sets up blocks to
    accepting different information.
  • Example Evolution is defined as Survival of the
    Fittest
  • The strongest, and fastest survive.
  • True or False?

15
  • False.
  • Evolution is gradual change over time.
  • The mechanism of evolution is Natural Selection.
  • Natural selection shows that those individuals
  • most capable of leaving offspring are the most
  • reproductively fit. Not necessarily the
    strongest
  • or fastest.

16
3. Students bring different skills and histories
to the classroom. In Cross and Steadmans
Classroom Research, a discussion about
students prerequisite knowledge and learning
strategies points out that students may be quite
successful in one discipline, yet not have the
skills to cross that divide into a different
discipline.
17
  • This raises the very important point, that it is
    not that general concepts in Science are Harder
    than other subjects, its that science is
    Different than other subjects.
  • Students may not have the skill set, or the
    mindset to see
  • that difference.
  • They get trapped in memorization of unrelated
    facts.
  • They fear the use of math.
  • They set themselves up for frustration.

18
So what can we do?
19
  • Goals of new science courses
  • Introduce science into the Integrative studies
    curriculum earlier. (Move one required course to
    the sophomore year.)
  • Rationale Reduce science anxiety by modeling
    that science is not
  • so Hard that a student cant handle learning
    college science until
  • their upper level years.
  • 2. Introduce inquiry based labs into each
    course.
  • Rationale To refocus student learning from fact
    based science to
  • the METHODS of science focusing on the principles
    of scientific
  • Inquiry.

20
3. Team teach courses with faculty from different
scientific disciplines. Rationale Model how the
scientific disciplines approach related problems
from different perspectives and with different
techniques. We want our students to discover
that science method is universal, and that
scientific theories are even stronger
when evidence is available from several fields of
study.
21
  • Key point
  • Non-majors wont have the opportunity to
    experience multiple fields
  • of science if we are using Introductory Majors
    courses as the way to
  • fulfill science requirements.
  • Students end up with a small sampling of content
    in one
  • field, where the level of content is designed for
    majors.
  • Interdisciplinary courses-
  • Model how the scientific disciplines approach
  • related problems from different perspectives and
    with different
  • techniques.
  • Science methods are universal
  • Scientific theories are even stronger when
    evidence is available
  • from several fields of study.

22
  • Courses offered to date
  • Origins (Paleontology/ Molecular Biology)
  • The Atom (Chemistry/ Physics)
  • Why sex? (Ecology/ Molecular Biology)
  • Exobiology (Physics/ Microbiology)
  • Water (Ecology/ Chemistry)
  • Faculty driven topics-
  • Content is not the driving goal!

23
So have we been successful?
24
  • One of our main focuses has been impact on
    science anxiety.
  • A series of statistical comparisons were made to
    assess levels of
  • pre-existing Science anxiety in the populations,
    and to correlate
  • variables related to anxiety.
  • Of the students who responded,
  • 157 reported some level of science anxiety
  • 170 reported no significant anxiety

25
  • Variables considered to determine the underlying
  • factors that correlate with anxiety.
  • 1. Current GPA
  • 2. Year in College
  • 3. Major (grouped by Academic Division)
  • 4. Previous High School experience in science
    courses.
  • 5. Gender

26
Gender compared to Science Anxiety
P-value 0.0001 Statistically significant
correlation reported
Udo, M., Ramsey, G., Mallow, J., (2004) Science
Anxiety and Gender in Students Taking General
Education Science Courses. Journal of Science
Education Technology, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p435-446
27
But did the students actually learn more about
scientific method?
28
Results of course comparison for the ability to
define scientific method.
29
  • What have we learned?
  • Gender is a strong predictor of science anxiety,
    and is closely
  • tied to experience in High School science.
  • Anxiety is difficult to alleviate, as evidenced
    by both versions
  • of our non-majors science courses.
  • 2. The majority of students regardless of
    science background,
  • see the value of learning about science in
    todays society, and
  • understand that participating in labs is a major
    part of learning.
  • 3. Focusing on science method and modeling its
    use
  • through labs and team teaching does result in
  • statistically significant improvement in the
    ability
  • to define the process of science method.
  • 4. Team teaching is difficult to assess,
    although overall it has been
  • reported as positive. Individual courses are
    more or less successful.
  • small correlation that women are more critical
    of team teaching.
  • All classes are effective at increasing student
    awareness and
  • interest in science related current events.

30
Where do we go from here? Focus on upper level
courses! Three years ago- Otterbein selected
by American Association of Colleges and
Universities to be one of sixteen schools in a
joint project Shared Futures General Education
and Global Learning. Piloting courses
throughout our INST Core curriculum focused on
Global Learning. (Not just science)
31
Two INST Science Courses Developmental Model
Lower level course Fundamentals of scientific
inquiry Upper level course The main theme of
this course is to show how science and scientific
data are foundational to society, through the
exploration of a current global issue. The
course will explore how science is applied to the
issue, and how other influences also impact the
issue.
32
INST upper level courseswith a global focus
Definitions and Learning Objectives
Initially adopted AACUs definition from
Diversity Digest To produce global thinkers -
students who reach beyond the classroom to apply
their developing analytical skills and ethical
judgment to concrete challenges in the world
around them.
33
INST upper level courseswith a global focus
  • Interested science faculty interested in
    developing a pilot class formed a Professional
    Learning Community (PLC).
  • Nine faculty, Four Departments
  • (Life and Earth Science, Physics and Astronomy,
    Chemistry and Biochemistry, Education-Science Ed)
  • Goals
  • Definitions of Global Learning
  • Common Learning Objectives
  • Curriculum Implementation and Assessment
  • Met biweekly throughout the academic year 07-08.
  • Shared our ideas / efforts / syllabi / activities
  • Presented Common Hour, Center for Teaching and
    Learning, e-portfolios

34
INST upper level courseswith a global focus
Definitions and Learning Objectives
Current Working Definition To foster student
understanding and appreciation of science and its
cultural significance. To empower students to
develop and apply scientific and analytical
skills both in further understanding of
themselves and human nature and in an ethical
context towards solving global, national and
local problems.
35
INST upper level courseswith a global focus
Definitions and Learning Objectives
  • Common Global Objectives
  • Understanding of
  • data as the foundation of course topic
  • the active building of scientific body of
    knowledge new advances, future challenges
  • how the issue differently affects parts of the
    world
  • how cultures react to the global issue
    differently
  • how student decisions/actions impact the issue
    (locally and globally)
  • ethical considerations

36
We chose a global issueas the focus of each
course
  • Each professor free to choose own issue.
  • Each course will apply scientific principles to
    an issue facing the world today.
  • Each course will also explore how other
    non-scientific influences also impact the issue.

37
Global Issues?
  • Share your ideas of possible topics

38
Global Focus Courses offered to date
  • INST 350 Biological Sciences-Plagues and
    Pandemics
  • Course is in its 5th offering this quarter
  • INST 400 Earth Science Society- Coral Reef
    Resources
  • Course is in its 3rd offering this quarter
  • INST400 Earth Science Society-Energy Resources
  • Course will be offered for the 2nd time winter
    quarter
  • In development INST 360 Energy and Society
  • Others ?

39
Course Example 1 INST400 Earth Science and
Society Coral Reefs
  • Coral reefs are at the same time one of the most
    beautiful and one of the most endangered biomes
    on earth. They have historically provided food,
    shelter, and other resources for people, yet they
    are now facing world wide decline. This course
    examines reef issues from the vantage points of
    different countries and regions.
  • This course explores the science of coral reefs,
    including the physical (oceanography,
    mineralization) and biological (diversity,
    community ecology) aspects. Then we apply this
    scientific understanding to learn about the value
    of reefs, the current challenges facing reefs,
    and the potential actions we could take to
    conserve reefs.

40
Course Example 1 Specific objectives from the
syllabus
  • To understand/ learn about
  • the science behind coral reefs and that several
    different fields contribute to that science.
  • the services provided by reefs and the current
    trends in coral reef health.
  • how reef issues affect various regions of the
    world differently.
  • a specific country in depth and complete
    assignments about that country and its reefs.
  • how ones own actions have impacts on this
  • global biome.

41
Course Example 2 INST350 Biological Sciences-
Plagues and Pestilence
This course is focused on the global nature of
infectious diseases. Discovering how plagues and
pandemics, both historical and emerging, impact
human health and play a role in shaping societies
is an important piece of understanding your role
as a global citizen. Infectious diseases do not
recognize state or national boundaries. The
interconnected relationship among microbiology,
virology, medicine, epidemiology, sociology,
economics, politics and history provide a
framework for making decisions in todays world.
This course will engage you in issues that affect
your personal health, the health of your
community and the health of people across the
planet.
42
Course Example 2 Specific objectives from the
syllabus
  • By the time you complete this course you should
    be able to
  • Identify and describe what types of microbes are
    considered pathogens.
  • Describe historical plagues and pandemics that
    shaped civilizations.
  • Identify key advances in medicine and technology
    that contain or prevent pandemics.
  • Describe newly emerging and reemerging infectious
    agents that influence current societies.
  • Compare historical events to current events and
    draw inferences for future pandemic risks.
  • Identify current challenges in human health care
    and treatment of infectious disease that impact
    future pandemic risks.
  • Consider how society and culture recognize and
    respond to pandemic threat, based on societal
    practices and resource availability.
  • Reflect on how your major and other courses
    integrate into these topics and what role you
    play in human health, personally and as a global
    citizen.

43
Surprising Insights
  • Some students dont know what are countries.
  • Chosen countries included Africa, Puerto Rico,
    Hawaii, Guam, Virgin Islands, and the Caribbean.
  • Many students dont know global geography.
  • Chose to study coral reefs in Germany, Japan and
    other countries without reefs or even land-bound.
  • Many students have a distorted view of US and
    world
  • Some students think 25-50 of US Budget goes to
    foreign aid
  • Most students think the US pop is 15-20 of
    global pop
  • (range 5-33)

44
Coral Reef CourseInteractive Exercises
  • Country project (handout)
  • Application of material to a new setting
  • Global Perspectives
  • Research, oral presentation, and writing skills
  • Each student gives five 1 min presentations on
    country chosen country intro, organisms, uses of
    reef, reef health, countrys policies plans re
    reef
  • Bingo exercises invertebrates, fish, countries,
    human use of reef resources uses (8 am class
    first 6 to bingo get donuts)

45
Plagues and Pestilence Interactive Exercises
  • Jig Saws (sample in handout)
  • Rationing vaccines meds during an
    epidemic/pandemic ethical considerations
  • Epidemiology figure out patient zero
  • Characteristics of the perfect pathogen for
    bio-warfare
  • Selection pressure lab Colored MMs (prey) and
    silverware (predators)
  • still trying to design simple pathogen/host lab

46
Writing In the Plagues and Pestilence Course
  • Initial Reflection Essay Background knowledge of
    and personal experience with infectious diseases.
  • Historical ID Paper Each student chooses a book
    to read Barrys Great Influenza or Fenns Pox
    Americana
  • Emerging Disease Each student chooses a disease
    --factors affecting emergence land use, climate
    change, human travel, cultural activities,
    pathogen details
  • Position Paper Avian Flu should we devote
    resources now to prevent excess deaths in the
    future, or is the risk of an avian pandemic too
    distant?
  • Final Reflection Essay Effect of course on
    students perspective, life, etc

47
Use of DVDs to aid in Global Learning
  • In order for students to experience other
    cultures to go places, see things, and learn
    more about the diseases within the context of the
    communities.
  • In addition, some historical events/ case studies
    are less dry (more alive) when seen on the screen
    as opposed to read in a book.

48
DVDs seen in Coral Reefs Class
  • Grouper Moon (grouper over fishing),
  • Silent Sentinels (global warming and reefs)
  • Stewards of the Reef (sharks and shark finning
    /fishing)
  • Blast fishing (film by anthropologist re dynamite
    fishing )
  • FYI dynamite in water kills fish but also
    destroys coral structure. 
  • Marine Debris  the stuff that washes up on
    remote atoll, dissect bird guts and see all the
    netting and plastic. 

49
DVDS seen in Plagues and Pestilence
  • Rx for Survival, by Bill and Melinda Gates
    Foundation
  • Pandemic Facing AIDS 5 individuals
  • stories with HIV in 5 different countries
  • Influenza 1918
  • The Plague
  • Typhoid Mary
  • Ebola Hunters
  • Avian Flu
  • Malaria Fever Wars

50
Student comments on DVDS
  • I think that as a white, middle class American
    it is very easy to separate people living in
    other countries from myself, to other them, to
    dissimilate our coexistence entirely,
    particularly when you only hear about them.
    Statistics, numbers, graphs these things do not
    adequately describe human suffering the way the
    Farmers novel and images do. The AIDS video in
    particular struck me, because the people in it
    were not so unlike me
  • Seeing how other peoples lives were devastated
    by disease caused me to feel a sense of
    connection with them on a very fundamentally
    human level.
  • As a student, I appreciated the world
    perspective .to watch first hand accounts from
    people who live or treat infectious diseases
    daily in different countries.

51
Several specific case examples
  • Reefs Tuvulu Atoll--Global warming raising sea
    level, crops failing, citizens ultimately will
    have to leave, but are not Refugees" as no war
    involved.
  • Reefs Shark fins-- increased market due to
    increased affluence, but as shark reproduction
    similar to seals, population being decimated
    (soup-weddings, fins dried)

52
Several specific case examples
  • Plagues 1991 Outbreak of Cholera in Peru traced
    to Chinese Ship emptying of bilge water off coast
    .Ship brought cholera-laden plankton from China
  • Plagues teeth from several mass grave sites
    provide DNA to identify Yersinia pestis in all 3
    pandemics was the same strain
  • Reference Drancourt et al. Emerging Infectious
    Diseases, Vol.13, No.2, Feb 2007 (332-333)
  • Plagues experiment in Uganda on HIV transmission
    to hetrosexual partners.volunteers werent told
    HIV status
  • Reference Paul Farmers Pathologies of Power

53
Student feedback Plagues
  • After this class, I am much more informed on
    the understanding of how new discoveries are made
    in the field of sciences. Even though it sounds
    strange and a bit naive, I always had the thought
    that scientists knew everything and could figure
    everything out if not the first time around, then
    definitely the second. However, I now know that
    there is a lot of trial and error that goes into
    new discoveries, and that there is a lot science
    can not answer.

54
More Student feedback
  • I really enjoyed the class. I thought it was
    pleasantly different than anything else I had
    taken at Otterbein. It really broadened my view
    of the world and made me feel privileged for my
    education and
  • environment. I would recommend the class to
    anyone at Otterbein.

55
More Student feedback
  • I knew there were viruses and bacteria, but I
    had no idea what the difference was between the
    two, I also didnt understand prions and
    parasitesNot only did we learn about these
    pathogens, but we learned about how they
    reproduced, how our body responds, how antibodies
    are created (and how they work), and pathogens
    hosts, reservoirs, and vectors. Before this class
    I had not even heard of those terms. Now, I can
    explain how the whole process works.

56
More Student feedback
  • I think we learned just as much about
    infectious diseases and the healthcare systems of
    other nations as we did about the US. I think
    having this global focus was very beneficial
    because the majority of the time, we are
    concerned only with our lives, which means our
    nation.

57
More Student feedback
  • I adored this class. I felt that it has been
    the most effective INST class I have taken. I
    feel it achieved its main goals by causing us to
    think critically about issues outside ourselves
    while helping us to think of ourselves as world
    citizens. This class was incredibly effective in
    connecting me to them and allowing me to
    realize that as an educated global citizen I have
    a responsibility to be informed, pay attention,
    care, and take action. This is the first class
    that has caused a personal change of view in my
    life. The class, and others like it, are what
    the INST program should really be about and are
    definitely valuable assets that the college needs
    to pursue further. I am thrilled, as a senior,
    that I was able to have this experience before
    graduating

58
More Student feedback
  • I used to pay little or no attention to
    epidemics and such occurring in other parts of
    the world. I simply saw it as their problem and
    felt, because I lived in the US, that I had
    nothing to worry about. However, after taking
    this course, I have come to realize that there is
    nothing us or them about infectious diseases

59
More Student feedback
  • It was a pleasant surprise for me to be able,
    in this class, to learn about science through a
    variety of other subjects (history, economics,
    etc. ) because it made the concepts easier for me
    to comprehend. I surprised myself when I learned
    that by understanding the basics of biology I was
    able to understand ideas and processes that
    originally seemed complicated and intimidating.

60
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62
How to Assess INST Goals?
  • INST goals Understanding of
  • data as a foundation of the course topic
    (societal issue or problem)
  • the active building of a scientific body of
    knowledge new advances, future challenges
  • how a global issue affects different parts of the
    world differently
  • how different cultures react to the global issue
    in different ways
  • how student decisions/actions (in the role of
    scientist or citizen) impact the issue
  • ethical considerations

63
  • Preliminary understanding 1
  • Nature of scientific practice and knowledge
  • Science is an active and contemporary practice
    while it encompasses more-or-less stable ideas,
    science is not a collection of dead facts. There
    is no one definitive scientific method, but
    scientists tend to solve problems in systematic
    ways and operate under shared beliefs about the
    ways in which the natural world operates.

64
  • Preliminary understanding 2
  • Relationship between science, society, and
    technology
  • There is a relationship between science as a
    human practice, and the larger society. On the
    one hand, this implies that the people who
    practice science are influenced by and influence
    the society in which they live. There is a
    practical relationship in the sense that society
    at large helps determine what scientific research
    questions get asked and funded, and how results
    get applied. In the broadest sense, the
    relationship between science and society can be
    described as the natural world constrains
    society, and understanding the natural world (the
    broad goal of science) gives us more possible
    directions for human society (through
    technology).

65
  • Preliminary understanding 3
  • Application and limitations of science to address
    societal issues and problems
  • There is a relationship between science and
    societal problems and issues. Science can be a
    powerful means of explaining and predicting
    natural phenomena. However, natural phenomena are
    typically only one aspect of a societal problem
    or issue, and so solutions often require that
    scientific understandings are integrated with
    other kinds of human knowledge.

66
  • Preliminary understanding 4
  • Relationship between science and global society
  • Many contemporary societal issues and problems
    are global in scope. This means that many human
    actions need to be understood beyond their local
    implications decisions made one place impact and
    are impacted by decisions made in many other
    parts of the world. In another sense, the global
    scope of societal issues and problems means that
    scientific knowledge meant to inform solutions to
    issues and problems may get integrated with other
    kinds of knowledge differently in different parts
    of the world.

67
How to Assess INST Goals?
  • INST Goals
  • Understanding data as a foundation of the course
    topic (a societal issue or problem)
  • Understanding of the active building of a
    scientific body of knowledge new advances,
    future challenges
  • Understanding of how a global issue affects
    different parts of the world differently
  • Understanding of how different cultures react to
    the global issue in different ways
  • Understanding of how student decisions/actions
    (in the role of scientist or citizen) impact the
    issue
  • Understanding of ethical considerations
  • Preliminary Understandings
  • 3. Application and limitations of science to
    address societal issues and problems
  • 1. Nature of scientific practice and knowledge
  • 4. Relationship between science and global
    society
  • 4. Relationship between science and global
    society
  • 2. Relationship between science, society, and
    technology
  • 2. Relationship between science, society, and
    technology
  • 3. Application and limitations of science to
    address societal issues and problems

68
Science Course Assessment
  • Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS)
    assessment (Aikenhead Ryan, 1992) Pool of 114
    multiple-choice items addressing
  • Students conceptions of the nature of scientific
    knowledge and practice
  • Students acceptance of sociological descriptions
    of scientific practice
  • Students ideas about the interrelatedness of
    science, technology and society

69
VOSTS
  • Definitions
  • Science
  • Technology
  • External Sociology of Science
  • Influence of Society on Science/Technology
  • Influence of Science/Technology on Society
  • Influence of School Science on Society
  • Internal Sociology of Science
  • Characteristics of Scientists
  • Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge
  • Social Construction of Technology
  • Epistemology
  • Nature of Scientific Knowledge

70
Otterbein Survey Questions
  • Definitions
  • Science (1)
  • Technology
  • External Sociology of Science
  • Influence of Society on Science/Technology (3, 4)
  • Influence of Science/Technology on Society (7, 8,
    9)
  • Influence of School Science on Society
  • Internal Sociology of Science
  • Characteristics of Scientists
  • Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge (5,
    6)
  • Social Construction of Technology (10)
  • Epistemology
  • Nature of Scientific Knowledge (2)

71
  • Defining science is difficult because science is
    complex and does many things. But MAINLY science
    is
  • Students in global courses moved toward defining
    science as a body of knowledge, rather than as a
    process or societal institution
  • (41 on pre-survey and 54 on post-survey)
  • Students who confused science and technology
    (application of science) was small to begin with
    and did not change (7)

72
  • When scientists investigate, it is said that they
    follow the scientific method. The scientific
    method is
  • Majority of students defined the scientific
    method as questioning, hypothesizing, collecting
    data and concluding trend only increased (59
    on pre- and 70 on post)
  • No student (pre- or post-) said that there is no
    such thing as the scientific method (2 of high
    school students responded this way in the
    original study)

73
  • A countrys politics affect that countrys
    scientists. This happens because scientists are
    very much a part of a countrys society (that is,
    scientists are not isolated from their society).
    Your position is
  • A majority of students said that politics affects
    scientists, for various reasons (78 pre- and 89
    post-) Very few said politics does not influence
    scientists (8 pre- 4-post)
  • Most common reasons chosen for why politics
    affects science was that it would dictate policy
    and funding, and that politics affects everyone
    in society generally, including scientists
  • The number of students who said that politics
    affects scientists because scientists try to
    help society while small nearly doubled from
    pre- to post- (7 to 12)

74
  • Some cultures have a particular viewpoint on
    nature and man. Scientists and scientific
    research are affected by the religious or ethical
    views of the culture where the work is done. Your
    position is
  • The percentage of students who agreed that
    scientists are affected by religious or ethical
    views increased from 58 to 82 in the global
    courses
  • Most students saw the individual (rather than
    cultural norms) as the most important determinant
    of how these religious/ethical views would affect
    scientific research

75
  • Scientists trained in different countries have
    different ways of looking at a scientific
    problem. This means that a countrys education
    system or culture can influence the conclusions
    which scientists reach. Your position is
  • Students in the global classes changed their
    answers from pre- to post- survey most students
    disagree to most students agree
  • Students agreeing with this statement (for
    various reasons) increased pre- to post- from 45
    to 62 of global classes
  • Students disagreeing with this statement (or,
    saying it depends) decreased from 47 to 27 of
    global classes

76
  • A team of scientists in any part of the world
    (for example, Italy, China or Nigeria) would
    investigate the atom in basically the same way as
    a team of U.S. scientists. Your position is
  • Most students said that a scientists country
    would affect the way he/she would approach a
    scientific problem (57 pre- and 68 post-)
  • However, most students said the reason for this
    would be because of the technology that would be
    available, not because of any difference in
    societal norms or values

77
  • Heavy industry has greatly polluted North
    America. Therefore, it is a responsible decision
    to move heavy industry to underdeveloped
    countries where pollution is not so widespread.
    Your position is
  • Most students said that moving pollution was not
    a responsible solution we should reduce or
    eliminate our own pollution (45 pre- 47 post-)
  • The percentage of students who said that industry
    should not be moved because these countries have
    enough problems already increased from 0 to 9
  • The percentage of students who said that moving
    the industry was irrelevant because pollution is
    global decreased from 26 to 14

78
  • Science and technology offer a great deal of help
    in resolving such social problems as pollution
    and overpopulation. Your position is
  • Students positions on this question changed
    little from pre- to post- surveys
  • Most students responded with qualified agreement
    (61 pre-/64 post-)
  • Some students responded with enthusiastic
    (possibly simplistic) agreement (19 pre-/22
    post-)
  • Few students responded with disagreement or
    outright pessimism (7 pre-/5 post-)

79
  • Science and technology can help people make some
    moral decisions (that is, one group of people
    deciding how to act towards another group of
    people). Your position is
  • Majority of students felt that scientific and
    technological knowledge had some role to play in
    informing moral decisions (58 pre-/64- post)
  • More than a fifth of the students felt that
    scientific or technological knowledge had no role
    in moral decision making (28 pre-/22 post-)

80
  • When a new technology is developed (for example,
    a better type of fertilizer), it may or may not
    be put into practice. The decision to use a new
    technology depends on whether the advantages to
    society outweigh the disadvantages to society.
    Your position is
  • Most students identified a technologys
    advantages/ disadvantages with its costs and
    efficiency (45 pre-/47 post)
  • Small number of students felt that advantage
    and disadvantage were relative terms, and this
    number decreased in the global classes (20 pre-
    to 7 post-)

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Our VOSTS Conclusions
  • INST goal Understanding data as a foundation of
    the course topic (societal issue or problem)
  • In general, students were optimistic (but not
    blindly so) about the possibility that science
    had something to contribute in devising solutions
    to societal problems

82
  • INST goal Understanding of the active building
    of a scientific body of knowledge new advances,
    future challenges.
  • -Students saw science as a body of knowledge
    rather than a method or societal institution
  • -Students identified a basic set of practices as
    the scientific method
  • -In general, students did not seem to confuse
    science with the application of science, although
    there was some movement toward identifying
    scientists as wanting to help society

83
  • INST goal Understanding of how a global issue
    affects different parts of the world differently.
  • Not clear for example, in the fertilizer
    question, students seemed to believe that a
    technology had absolute advantages and
    disadvantages (relative to costs and efficiency)
    rather than advantages and disadvantages that
    could be relative to a society

84
  • INST goal Understanding of how different
    cultures react to the global issue in different
    ways.
  • -Not clear from the VOSTS assessment but it
    does seem to be the case that students recognize
    that science itself is affected by various
    societal factors also, the global courses seemed
    to play some role in developing this
    understanding.

85
  • INST goal Understanding of how student
    decisions/actions (in the role of scientist or
    citizen) impact the issue.
  • -Seemed to be more awareness of others
    suffering in the pollution question
  • -Understanding that one is accountable for ones
    own problematic behavior (pollution question) but
    decrease in pointing out global connectedness

86
  • INST goal Understanding of ethical
    considerations.
  • Certainly seemed to understand that scientists
    may be affected by their individual or cultural
    ethical standards

87
New Directions for Integrative Studies
  • Newly adopted mission
  • The Integrative Studies program aims to prepare
    Otterbein
  • undergraduates for the challenges and complexity
    of a 21st century world.
  • It foregrounds interdisciplinary and integrative
    skills, competencies,
  • and ways of knowing and is committed to the
    premise that ones learning
  • should serve and shape ones responsibilities in
    and to the world.
  • Goals and Outcomes based on AACU-
  • LEAP Essential Learning Outcomes
  • Assessing Global Learning Matching Good
    Intentions with Good Practice
  • Caryn McTighe Musil

88
Goals and Learning Outcomes
GOAL ONE To inspire intellectual curiosity about
the world as it is and a deeper understanding of
the global condition. Outcomes Students grasp
the significance of past and present global
interconnections and interdependences in the
human, natural and physical worlds. Students
recognize the interactive and dynamic
relationship of global and local issues or
problems. Students understand sustainability as
an economic, social and environmental
practice. Students imagine and explore likely
and alternative global futures.
89
Goals and Learning Outcomes
GOAL TWO To assist students in cultivating
intercultural knowledge and competencies. GOAL
THREE To promote active and critical reflection
on the human self and its place in the
world. Outcomes Students study the self and
the ways in which self is situated in human,
physical and natural worlds.
90
Goals and Learning Outcomes
GOAL FOUR To challenge students to critically
examine their ethical choices and
responsibilities for a global context. Outcomes
Students affirm the value of an enlarged ethical
responsibility to other persons, the natural
world, and future generations. Students explore
and engage their relationship to the global
public good. Students explore and engage the
larger goals of human and ecological
flourishing. Students appreciate
sustainability as an economic, social and
environmental value.
91
Goals and Learning Outcomes
GOAL FIVE To encourage purposeful public
engagement and social responsibility. Outcomes
Students acquire intellectual and practical
skills necessary for meaningful work and active
participation in the local community and the
larger world. Students explore multiple and
evolving forms of civic identification and
belonging, with particular attention to the
practice of citizenship in local, national and
global contexts. Students explore the purpose
of responsiveness and value of action in the
face of the pressing problems of the 21st
century. Students come to see themselves as
responsible, engaged and informed persons,
capable and willing to act in ways that will
improve or reshape the world.
92
Acknowledgments Otterbein College Science
Division Department of Life Science Department of
Education The Integrative Studies
Program Otterbein Center for Teaching and
Learning The McGregor Fund National Science
Foundation Grant 0536681 AACU Shared Futures
FIPSE Grant
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