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Explicit Instruction for RTI

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Explicit Instruction for RTI Barbara A. Marinak bam234_at_psu.edu * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Informational Grammar Just as there is a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Explicit Instruction for RTI


1
  • Explicit Instruction for RTI
  • Barbara A. Marinak
  • bam234_at_psu.edu

2
(No Transcript)
3
RTI
  • IDEIA (Individuals with Disabilities Education
    Improvement Act 2004) mandates the use of early
    intervening services) to
  • Identify children who are members of a
    disaggregated subgroup with a specific learning
    disability whereby the discrepancy model could
    result in over identification.

4
  • Provide intervention to all children at risk for
    school failure.

5
RTI Practice Guide
  • Intervention should take place in small
  • homogenous groups ranging
  • from three to four students using curricula that
  • address the major components of reading
  • instruction(comprehension, fluency, phonemic
  • awareness, phonics, and vocabulary).
  • IES, 2009

6
Assess Comprehensively
  • Narrowly focused assessments lead to limited
    interventions
  • For example, assessing and intervening in a
    reading sub skill such as rate, nonsense word
    recognition, or phonemic awareness results in
    minimal gains in the sub skill and no gains in
    reading comprehension.

7
  • Explicit reading instruction should be informed
    by a balanced portfolio of instrumentation that
    includes criterion-referenced measures and
    performance based assessments.

8
Explicit?
  • Precisely and clearly expressed
  • Readily observable
  • Fully and clearly defined
  • Generalizations that are powerful and precise

9
Explicit Reading Instruction
  • Reading instruction that is readily observable,
    precise and clearly expressed
  • Reading instruction that teaches powerful
    generalizations by affording immediate
    opportunities for application

10
  • Explicit instruction involves more
  • teacher-student interaction, student talk,
  • opportunities for reading practice in high
  • interest, challenging text and specific
  • feedback.

11
cv
  • Avoid The Matthew Effect by committing to The
    Practice Effect!

12
The I in RTI
  • Intervention or Instruction?

13
Tier 1 Core Classroom Instruction
  • Research indicates that core classroom
    instruction should contain the following
  • Explicit reading instruction for every child,
    every day in a small group that provides
    appropriate text-reader match (Pressley, 1998)
  • Differentiated instruction in word study,
    vocabulary, and comprehension at every grade
    level (NRP, 2000)

14
  • Use of flexible grouping patterns (heterogeneous
    and homogenous grouping based on need) (Pressley,
    1998)
  • Use of a balanced text collection (leveled
    readers and authentic text) based on need and
    purpose) (Duke, 2003, Pressley, 1998)

15
Intervention
  • Research indicates that core classroom
    instruction should contain the following
  • Explicit reading instruction for every child,
    every day in a small group that provides
    appropriate text-reader match (Pressley, 1998)
  • Differentiated instruction in word study,
    vocabulary, and comprehension at every grade
    level (NRP, 2000)

16
  • Use of flexible grouping patterns (heterogeneous
    and homogenous grouping based on need) (Pressley,
    1998)
  • Use of a balanced text collection (leveled
    readers and authentic text) based on need and
    purpose) (Duke, 2003, Pressley, 1998)

17
The I in RTI
  • Intervention or Instruction?

18
  • Today's discussion will focus on explicit
  • reading instruction that can take place in
  • core or intervention.

19
  • Intervention cannot be considered effective
    unless it provides for greater levels of
    proficiency in core.

20
Before Reading Vocabulary
  • Text Impression
  • Vocabulary Anticipation

21
  • Antarctic

22
  • Antarctic
  • African

23
  • Antarctic
  • African
  • One

24
  • Antarctic
  • African
  • One
  • Rookery

25
  • Antarctic
  • African
  • One
  • Rookery
  • Herd

26
  • Antarctic
  • African
  • One
  • Rookery
  • Herd
  • Kindergarten

27
(No Transcript)
28
  • Give it a try!

29
Vocabulary Anticipation
  • We will continue with Wild Babies by reading
    about alligators and frogs. What words do you
    think you will read in the text about these two
    young animals?
  • If not anticipated, add

30
Features of Text
  • Structural Grammars
  • Questioning

31
Elements of Fiction
  • Characters The living beings in stories, plays,
    and poems that speak, think, and carry out the
    action. A character can be a person, animal or a
    personified object.
  • Setting When and where the story occurs. 
  • Problem The conflict or goal around which the
    story is organized. 
  • Events One or more attempts by the main
    character(s) to achieve the goal or solve the
    problem. 
  • Resolution The outcome of the attempts to
    achieve the goal or solve the problem.
  • Theme The main idea or moral of the story.
  •  

32
Research Findings
  • Studies also indicate that children become aware
    of and are comfortable with narrative story
    structure (characters, setting, problem, events,
    solution) at an early age. In other words, due to
    narrative reading practice and instruction in
    story grammar, fiction text becomes predictable
    (Williams, 2005).

33
  • It is just as important that informational
    reading practice be increased and that students
    become aware of and comfortable with the
    predictable elements and text structures that
    occur across informational text (Marinak
    Gambrell, 2007).

34
Informational Grammar
  • Just as there is a narrative story grammar,
    there is also an informational grammar (Marinak
    Gambrell, 2007).

35
  • Five Text Elements of Informational Grammar
  • Authors Purpose
  • Major Ideas
  • Supporting Details
  • Aids
  • Important Vocabulary
  • (Marinak, Moore, Henk, 1998)

36
Teach the Text Structures
  • Hall, Sabey, and McClellan (2005) and
  • Williams (2005) found that text structure
  • instruction promotes informational text
  • comprehension.
  • Text structure awareness has also been
  • linked to accurate recall and retelling
  • (Richgels, McGee, Lomax Sheard,1987).

37
  • Four text structures occur frequently in
    elementary books and textbooks
  • Enumeration
  • Time Order
  • Compare/Contrast
  • Cause and Effect
  • (Hall, Sabey McClellan, 2005 Neufeld, 2005
    Richgels, McGee, Lomax Sheard,1987 Williams,
    2005)

38
During Reading
  • Questioning
  • Self-Questioning

39
Q-Matrix
40
Q-Matrix
  • TEXT me literal (stems 1-12)
  • Text Me inferential (stems 13-24)
  • text ME extended (stems 25-36)

41
Q-Matrix
42
Q-Matrix
43
Q-Matrix
44
TEXT me literal
  • How long do penguin chicks stay in a
    kindergarten?
  • How old is a giraffe calf when it enters a
    kindergarten?

45
Text Me inferential
  • When would penguins and giraffes form
    kindergartens?

46
text ME extended
  • Giraffes and penguins use kindergartens to
    protect their young. What might other animals do
    to protect their babies?

47
  • Give it a try!

48
After Reading Retelling
  • Text Pyramids

49
Retelling Pyramid
  • one
  • How many babies do giraffes and penguins have at
    a time?
  • Antarctica Africa
  • Use two words to describe where this penguin and
    giraffe live?
  • egg live birth
  • In three words, list how the giraffe and penguin
    have babies?
  • cared for in kindergartens
  • In four words, describe how giraffes and penguins
    protect their babies?

50
  • Give it a try!

51
After Reading Responding
  • Reading
  • Compare and Contrast
  • Compare, Contrast, Compare and Contrast
  • Responding
  • Text
  • Attribute Map
  • Writing Guide
  • Summary Pattern

52
After Reading Summarization
  • Summary Frameworks

53
Summary Paragraph Pictures and Words
  • Name _____________________________________________
    _____________
  • Summary of _______________________________________
    ______________
  • A suggestion for the construction of a primary
    summary is
  • 1 picture and words from the beginning (including
    book title)
  • 3 pictures and words of important information
    from the middle
  • 1 picture and words from the end
  • Summary Paragraph 5 pictures and words

54
Summary Paragraph Sentences
  • Name _____________________________________________
    ______________________________________
  • Summary of _______________________________________
    _______________________________________
  • A suggestion for the construction of a primary
    summary is
  • 1 sentence from the beginning (including book
    title)
  • 3 sentences of important information from the
    middle
  • 1 sentence from the end
  • Summary Paragraph 5 sentences
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.

55
Summary Paragraph Sentences
  • Name _____________________________________________
    ______________________________________
  • Summary of _______________________________________
    _______________________________________
  • A suggested framework for the construction of a
    summary paragraph is
  • 1 sentence of introduction (including book,
    title, etc.)
  • 3 sentences of important information (major
    idea(s) told with important vocabulary, readers
    aids, etc.)
  • 1 sentence of conclusion (authors purpose)
  • Summary Paragraph 5 sentences
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.

56
Motivation to Read
  • One of our recent studies using the MRP revealed
    that elementary boys are less motivated to read
    than elementary girls.
  • While there were no statistically significant
    differences in boys and girls self-concepts as
    readers, there were statistically significant
    differences in the value they placed on reading
    activities and experiences.

57
  • Specifically, boys responses suggest they do not
    value reading books, spending time reading,
    visiting the library, or choosing to read as an
    adult.

58
  • In addition, qualitative data from student
  • interviews indicated that third and fifth
  • grade boys
  • do not enjoy being read to because they are not
    involved in choosing the book and most read-aloud
    books are girl books.

59
  • like reading magazines and newspapers more than
    books.
  • reading material (library materials, read-aloud,
    etc) does not include enough non-fiction.

60
Motivation Interventions
  • Arrange SSR during a workshop to ensure that all
    students have the opportunity to read for
    pleasure.
  • Read-aloud all types of print- including a
    generous amount informational text.
  • Honor all print for SSR.
  • Offer choice as much as possible- especially
    during read-aloud and SSR.

61
  • Joanne Yatvin (1995) pleads that educators are
    todays catchers in the rye. She suggests it
    is our job to work together to rescue children-
    one at a time if necessary. Though permanent
    rescue is an imperfect process, children who are
    carrying intolerable burdens can shake them off
    in weeks when a caring teacher takes time with
    them.
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