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Every Child Achieving: The ABCs of Addressing the Educational Needs of Children with Learning Disabilities

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Title: Every Child Achieving: The ABCs of Addressing the Educational Needs of Children with Learning Disabilities


1
Every Child Achieving The ABCs of Addressing the
Educational Needs of Children with Learning
Disabilities
  • Nancy Hennessy M.Ed.
  • nhennessy_at_charter.net
  • ORBIDA
  • Feb. 24, 2007

2
Knowledge rich vs. knowledge poor
instructional environments in which informed vs.
uninformed professional judgments guide teaching
learning process in reading instruction. How do
we get there?
3
By understanding
  • Dyslexia
  • Science of Reading
  • Connection between the Structure of Language and
    the Science of Reading
  • Need for Continuum of Learning Opportunities
  • Remediation to accommodation.

4
Learning disabilities can affect a person's
ability in the areas of
dyslexia
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Mathematics

dyscalculia
dyspraxia
dysgraphia
5
Masks of Learning Disabilities
  • Super competence
  • Contempt
  • Victim
  • Perfection
  • Helplessness
  • Outrageousness
  • Good Samaritan
  • Clown
  • Bad behavior
  • Invisibility
  • Not caring
  • The Masks Students Wear, Sally Smith

6
Statistics
  • 60-80 of students with an identified specific
    learning disability have that disability in the
    area of reading and language
  • 1 out of every 5-10 students has some degree of
    dyslexia

National Institute of HealthChild Health and
Human Development
7
Dyslexia is..
comprehension phonological disability encoding une
xpected neurologically
  • a specific learning _________ that is
  • ___________ based and manifested by
  • difficulties with decoding and _______ that are
  • the result of a deficit in the ________component
    of language
  • and is often______ and
  • secondary consequences may include problems
    in_________.

8
Dyslexia Defined
  • a specific learning disability that is
    neurological in origin.
  • difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word
    recognition and by poor spelling and decoding
    abilities
  • deficit in the phonological component of language
    that is often unexpected
  • secondary consequences may include problems in
    reading comprehension and reduced reading
    experience

9
What it might look like.
  • Problems with
  • language development
  • remembering oral language e.g. words and
    directions
  • letter-sound recall
  • segmenting, blending speech sounds to read words
  • segmenting speech sounds and identifying letters
    to spell words
  • reading words, phrases, and passages
    automatically
  • comprehending words, phrases, sentences and
    passages

10
Though she seemed to have an above average
vocabulary for her age, Sarah couldnt seem to
translate it to paper. It was as if she couldn't
learn to read or write. Sarahs Mother What
had been a shadowy suspicion that hovered on the
edge of consciousness became a certain knowledge
the year I was nine and entered fourth grade. I
seemed to be like other children, but I was not
like them I could not learn to read or
spell. Eileen (In the Minds Eye) I am a
dyslexic and I feel that this learning disability
is like a thief in the night. It (dyslexia) never
will rob you completely, but rob you just enough
to make you work twice as hard to become
productive in comparison to other people without
this disability. Adult Dyslexic
11
Closing the gap If a child is dyslexic early
on in school, that child will continue to
experience reading problems unless he is provided
with scientifically based proven
intervention. Shaywitz, 2003
12
By understanding
  • Dyslexia
  • Science of Reading
  • Connection between Structure of Language and the
    Science of Reading
  • Continuum of instructional options
  • Remediation to accommodation.

13
Research is the only defensible foundation for
educational practice.
  • If not scientific evidence, then what
  • tradition
  • philosophy
  • superstition
  • anecdote
  • intuition
  • The Voice of Evidence, 2004

14
Research
  • Whether we enter the best of times is dependent
    on whether or not we use the gifts research has
    provided wisely or foolishly. Marzano, 2003

15
Three Decades of Research..
  • National Institute of Child and Health
    Development www.nichd.org
  • National Right to Read Foundation www.nrrf.org
  • Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young
    Children- National Research Council
    www.nationacademies.org/nrc
  • NATIONAL READING PANEL www.nationalreadingpanel.or
    g
  • Reading for Understanding Toward a RD Program
    in Reading Comprehension www.rand.org
  • Institute of Educational Sciences-What Works
    Clearinghouse www.ed.gov

16
Catalyst for Change based on reliable, valid and
converging evidence
  • Policy
  • Reading Excellence Act
  • NCLB
  • Reading First
  • Reauthorization of IDEA
  • Practice
  • Curriculum
  • Assessment
  • Professional Development

evidence based practices
17
Age Old Questions?
  • Are our students learning?
  • If not, why not?
  • Which kids need a nudge?
  • How do we know?
  • How can we intervene?
  • Is it working or not?
  • How do we know?
  • Are there some kids that need a bigger nudge?
  • How can we further intervene?

18
So, who needs the nudge?
Emma
Avi
Joseph
  • 25-30 at risk
  • (percentage is higher for poor, minority
    students)

Jamal
Sally
19
What does the nudger do..
  • Screens K-2 to identify at risk readers
  • Systematically delivers research based
    instruction initially in general education. Uses
    a tiered approach to instruction
  • Core reading program
  • Small group intervention, then for some
  • Intensive strategic intervention/remediation 11
    or small group (potentially special education)
  • Measures student response to intervention
    (progress monitoring)
  • Uses student data to inform instruction

20
Catch them before they fail.
  • It takes 4 times as long to intervene in
    fourth grade as it does in late
    kindergarten. NICHD
  • One of the most compelling findings from
    reading research is that children who get off to
    a poor start in reading rarely catch
    up. Torgeson, 1998

21
Screening, progress monitoring.
22
A tiered approach to instruction?
Layers of intervention responding to student needs
TIER I
70-80
Each tier provides more intensive and supportive
intervention
TIER II
10-30
TIER III
Aimed at preventing reading disabilities Dr.
Joseph Torgeson, 2004
5-10
23
Research Based Instruction
  • phonemic awareness
  • phonics
  • fluency
  • vocabulary
  • text comprehension
  • writing
  • assessment
  • Put Reading First, The Research Building Blocks
    for Teaching Children to Read, 2001
  • www.nifl.gov

24
Most powerful instruction.. Torgeson, 2005
  • More time
  • Smaller group
  • Targeted at right level
  • Provide systematic and explicit instruction in
    deficient component skills-phonemic awareness,
    phonics, fluency, vocabulary and reading
    comprehension
  • Clearer, more detailed explanations, more
    systematic instructional sequence
  • More extensive opportunity for guided practice
  • More opportunity for error corrections and
    feedback

25
Linnae Ehris Phases of Word Reading- LETRS
Mature Alphabetic
Orthographic
reading fluently by sound, syllable, morpheme, wh
ole word, families and analogies
early sight word learning
Early Alphabetic
letter knowledge
Logograhic
phoneme- grapheme correspondence
incidental visual cues
partial phoneme awareness
complete phoneme awareness
26
In what ways might this information inform my
practice??
27
By understanding
  • Dyslexia
  • Science of Reading
  • Connection between Structure of Language and the
    Science of Reading
  • Continuum of Learning Opportunities
  • Remediation to accommodation.

28
The structure of language.
  • Phonology
  • Morphology
  • Orthography
  • Semantics
  • Syntax
  • Discourse and pragmatics
  • Etymology

no clue know that word but... own it
29
The Sound Factory
  • Phonology
  • Phonological awareness

30
Phonological Processing
Verbal short term memory
Rapid serial naming
Phonological awareness
Articulation speed
Phonemic awareness
Word awareness
Syllable awareness
Uhry, 2005
31
Phonological awareness
  • attending to, thinking about and manipulating
    the individual phonemes within spoken words and
    syllables.
  • (Brady Scarborough, 2003)
  • ability to manipulate and play with sounds

32
Five levels of difficulty, an instructional
sequence Adams, 1990
  • Sensitivity to rhyme
  • Recognition of patterns of rhyme and alliteration
    in words
  • Partial phoneme segmentation-syllable splitting
    and onset-rime
  • Full Phoneme segmentation
  • Phoneme manipulation

Let's exercise our ph awareness
33
Instruction
  • Morning news
  • Poetry, songs, jingles
  • Language themes/embed
  • teach explicitly
  • use a sequence
  • teach as an oral activity working toward using
    letters to represent sounds as segmentation is
    mastered
  • 15 minutes..

34
..phonological component
  • A child has to develop the insight that spoken
    words can be pulled apart into phonemes and that
    letters in a word represent these sounds.
  • Oh, I get it-sounds make words!

35
Sound Letter Factory
  • Phonology
  • Orthography
  • Morphology
  • Phonics
  • Advanced Phonics

36
Orthography How do we represent these sounds??
  • Consonant sounds
  • Vowel sounds

37
Phonics
  • learning of letter-sound associations used for
    reading and spelling. (Gillon, 2004)

38
Decoding-Spelling Continuum
Compounds
ABC
Consonants
Vowels
Latin
Greek
Prefixes/ Suffixes
PA
Sounds
Syllables Patterns
Fluency
Marcia Henry, 2003
39
Vowels
  • Vacation came on a rainy day/ so eight reindeer
    would not obey.
  • He needs meat and candy./ These I believe he will
    receive for his money.
  • I like to be under the night sky/ to eat my pie
    in style.
  • Go home on a boat/ and show a shoulder and toe.
  • Soon the new ruby in June/ will fit you. The blue
    suit is neutral.

40
Effective instruction.
  • Systematic
  • Explicit
  • Provides opportunity to practice and apply
    learning (letters and sounds to reading of words)
  • PFR
  • www.nifl.org

41
The Meaning Factory
  • Semantics
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension

42
Semantic Map (Moats, 2003)
target word
antonyms
synonyms
definition
More examples
Other categories
multiple meanings
Linguistic structure phonemes syllables morphemes
spelling patterns
connotation Personal experiences Idioms Specific
texts
sometimes confused with
43
What is vocabulary?
  • Receptive
  • listening
  • reading
  • Expressive
  • speaking
  • writing
  • No clue
  • Heard it but dont know it means
  • Recognize it, know it t has something to do
    with____
  • Own it

storehouse of word meanings
44
Becks Tiers of Words
3 Used Infrequently Limited to Specific Domains
Tier 3
7,000 Word Families
Tier 2
Tier 1 Most Familiar Words Need No Instruction
8,000 Word Families
Tier 1
  • Words have different utilities. Suggested goal
    of
  • 400 Tier 2 words per year.

45
Characteristics of Tier 2 Words
  • sophisticated
  • ordinary words for mature language users
  • generous vs. nice
  • high utility
  • useful across many contexts
  • devour vs. ingest
  • conceptually appropriate
  • students understand general concepts but lack
    precision and specificity
  • anxious vs. sultry

46
Instructional Guidelines
  • Provide a context
  • Build a student friendly definition
  • Provide examples beyond context of the story
  • Interact with words
  • Reinforce use beyond class
  • (adapted from Beck, 2002)
  • To have an impact on comprehension, vocabulary
    instruction must be rich-simply defining words is
    not enough.
  • Beck, 2002

47
The Meaning Factory
  • Syntax Discourse
  • Comprehension

48
Sentence Comprehension-some observations
  • Essential to forming accurate concepts
    (understanding of whole)
  • Two critical areas are sentence structure
    (simple, compound, complex) and cohesive ties
  • Normally achieving readers gain ability to
    understand and use increasingly complex
    syntactical patterns while poor readers lag
    behind
  • Children who perform well on grammatical
    awareness tasks tend to be better able to monitor
    accuracy of reading.
  • Carlisle, 2001

49
Discourse and text structures
  • Expository
  • Narrative

Mix
50
Narrative Expository
  • Purpose is to entertain
  • Consistent text structure
  • Focus on characters/goals
  • Requires multiple perspectives
  • Connective words not as critical-and, then, so
  • Text can stand alone
  • Purpose is to inform
  • Variable text structure
  • Focus on facts, ideas
  • Perspective of author
  • Connective words critical-because, if-then,
    before
  • Integration of information across texts

51
Text comprehension can be improved by
instruction that helps readers use specific
comprehension strategies.
  • recognizing story structure
  • using graphic and semantic organizers
  • summarizing
  • answering questions
  • generating questions
  • monitoring comprehension

52
Effective comprehension strategy instruction is
explicit or direct.
  • direct explanation
  • modeling
  • guided practice
  • application
  • www.nifl.org

53
Fluency
  • Ability to read quickly, effortlessly and with
    expression
  • The ability to read connected text rapidly,
    smoothly and effortlessly with little attention
    to mechanics of reading such as decoding.
  • (Meyers Felton, 1999)

54
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55
Instruction
  • Modeling
  • Repeated reading with guidance
  • Monitoring progress

56
By understanding
  • Dyslexia
  • Science of Reading
  • Connection between Structure of Language and the
    Science of Reading
  • Continuum of Learning Opportunities
  • Remediation to accommodation.

57
Remediation multisensory structured language
programs
  • Phonology and
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Sound-Symbol Association
  • Syllable Instruction
  • Morphology
  • Syntax
  • Semantics
  • Simultaneous, Multisensory
  • Systematic and Cumulative
  • Direct Instruction
  • Diagnostic Teaching
  • Synthetic and Analytic Instruction

58
Effective teachers Research has shown that
teachers who are most effective at including
students with disabilities and other diverse
learning needs are also generally effective
classroom teachers. (Mastropieri et al,
1998)
59
Classroom Instruction That Works Marzano et al,
2001 ASCD
  • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
  • Strategic instruction
  • Nonlinguistic representation
  • Questions, cues and advance organizers
  • Summarizing and note-taking
  • Cooperative learning
  • Homework and practice
  • Getting objectives and providing feedback
  • Generating and testing hypotheses
  • Identifying similarities and difference

60
Study Skills and Learning Strategies Defined
  • A systematic plan for
  • acquiring
  • obtaining
  • inputting
  • storing
  • organizing
  • processing
  • expressing
  • outputting
  • applying

61
They are reflective practitioners flexible und
erstand individualization caring open to natural
supports fairness Adapted Bauer Kroeger,2004
62
Accomodations
Services
Supports
Adaptations
Modifications
Instructional Tools
63
Think about accommodations..
64
Compensatory tools Assistive technology
  • Word processing software
  • Voice recognition software
  • Text to speech software
  • Presentation software
  • Organizing ideas software
  • Electronic organizers

65
Knowledge rich vs. knowledge poor
instructional environments in which informed vs.
uninformed professional judgments guide teaching
learning process in reading instruction. How do
we get there?
66
Then she went into the living room and found the
book on the shelf, the very book, that her
grandpa had shown her so many years ago. She
spooned honey on the cover and tasted the
sweetness, and said to herself, The honey is
sweet, and so is knowledge, but the knowledge is
like the bee who made the honey, it has to be
chased through the pages of the book! Thank
You, Mr. Falker P. Polacco
67
By understanding
  • Dyslexia
  • Science of Reading
  • Connection between the Structure of Language and
    the Science of Reading
  • Need for Continuum of Learning Opportunities
  • Remediation to accommodation.

68
Thank you!!!!
  • nhennessy_at_charter.net

69
Personal Picks
  • General
  • Moats, L.(2005). Language Essentials for
    Teachers of Reading and Spelling. Longmont, CO
    Sopris West.
  • Research
  • McCardle, P. Chhabra, V. The Voice of Evidence
    in Reading Research (2004). Baltimore Paul
    Brookes.
  • Learning Disabilities Roundtable. (2005,
    February). Comments and recommendations on
    regulatory issues under the Individuals with
    Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004,
    Public Law 108-446.
  • Lyon, G. R., Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E.,
    Shaywitz, B. A., Torgesen, J. K., Wood, F., et
    al. (200l). Rethinking learning disabilities. In
    C. E. Finn Jr., A. J. Rotherham, C. R. Hokanson
    Jr. (Eds.), Rethinking Special Education for a
    New Century (pp. 259287). Washington, DC Thomas
    B. Fordham Foundation. l
  • National Joint Committee on Learning
    Disabilities. (2005). Responsiveness to
    Intervention and Learning Disabilities.
    www.interdys.org

70
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Gillon, G. Phonological Awareness From Research
    to Practice (2004). New York The Guilford Press
  • Torgesen, J.K., Mathes, P. (2000). A Basic
    Guide to Understanding, Assessing, and Teaching
    Phonological Awareness. Austin, TX PRO-ED.
  • Dyslexia and MSL Instruction
  • Birsh, J. (2005). Multisensory Teaching of Basic
    Language Skills (2nd Ed). Baltimore Brookes
    Publishing.
  • Cunningham, A.E. Stanovich, K.E. (1998). What
    reading does for the mind. American Educator,
    22(Spring/Summer), 8-15.
  • Gough, P. B. (1996). How children learn to read
    and why they fail. Annals of Dyslexia, 46, 3-20.
  • Joshi, M. (2004) Dyslexia Myths, Misconceptions
    and Some Practical Applications. Baltimore, MD
    International Dyslexia Association.
  • Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia. New
    York Alfred A. Knopf

71
  • Decoding and Spelling
  • Moats, L., Speech to Print. (2000), Baltimore.
    MD Paul Brookes Publishing.
  • Henry, M., Unlocking Literacy (2003). Baltimore,
    MD Paul Brookes Publishing.
  • Juel, C., Minden-Cupp, C. (2000). Learning to
    read words Linguistic units and instructional
    strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 35,
    458-492.
  • Fluency
  • Torgesen, J.K., Rashotte, C.A., Alexander, A.
    (2001). Principles of fluency instruction in
    reading Relationships with established empirical
    outcomes. In M. Wolf (Ed. ), Dyslexia, Fluency,
    and the Brain. Parkton, MD York Press.

72
  • Vocabulary
  • Baumann, J. Ed Kameenui, E. (2002). Vocabulary
    Instruction Research to Practice. New York
    Guilford Press.
  • Beck, I. McKeown, M. (2002). Bringing Words to
    Life Robust Vocabulary Instruction. New York
    Guilford Press.
  • Graves, M.F. Vocabulary Book (2006).New York
    Teachers College Press.
  • Hart, B. Risley, T.R. (1995) Meaningful
    Differences. Baltimore, MD Brookes Publishing.
  • Comprehension
  • Beck, I. Et al. (1998). Getting at the meaning.
    American Educator, Summer, 66-71
  • Carlisle, J. ice, M. (2002) Improving Reading
    Comprehension Research-Based Principles and
    Practices. Baltimore York Press.
  • Reading for Understanding Toward An RD program
    in Reading Comprehension. Rand Reading Study
    Group Rand Education, 2000.

73
Resources
  • www.ldonline.org
  • www.schwablearning.org
  • www.interdys.org
  • www.ncld.org
  • www.rfbd.org
  • www.sparktop.org

74
Curriculum, programs
  • IDA Matrix-www.interdys.org
  • Alliance-www.the alliance.org
  • AOGPE-www.ortonacademy.org
  • www.fcrr
  • www.uoregon.edu
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