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Monoclonal Antibodies

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Production of long-lasting monoclonal antibodies is a recent invention and it is used in both medicine and research. Monoclonal Antibody: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Monoclonal Antibodies


1
Monoclonal Antibodies
2
  • Antibodies have important uses beyond fighting
    infections in the body.
  • Production of long-lasting monoclonal antibodies
    is a recent invention and it is used in both
    medicine and research.
  • Monoclonal Antibody a stable antibody which can
    be used over a period of time

3
Producing Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Inject a mouse with a specific antigen to
    stimulate its immune system to produce necessary
    antibodies.
  • Extract mouse spleen cells (containing
    B-lymphocytes) and culture them in the lab.
  • Extract mouse tumour cells, which grow
    continuously, and culture them in the lab.
  • Mix spleen cells and tumour cells on the same
    plate and culture.

4
Producing Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Add polyethylene glycol this causes some
    B-lymphocytes to fuse with tumour cells to
    produce a hybrid cell called a hybridoma.
  • Grow the cells under conditions that allow only
    hybridoma cells to survive.
  • Extract the cells, culture them separately and
    test the medium around each cell for the specific
    antibody of interest.
  • Culture the cells making the desired antibody and
    use as needed.

5
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6
http//youtu.be/7ymKofaHCoY
7
Pregnancy Tests
  • A pregnant woman has the hormone human chorionic
    gonadotrophin (HCG) in her urine.
  • Monoclonal antibodies to HCG have been produced.
    These have been attached to enzymes which can
    later interact with a dye molecule and produce a
    colour change.

8
Pregnancy Tests
  • Pregnancy test contains three regions reaction
    region, test region and control region
  • Reaction region contains monoclonal anti-HCG
    antibodies linked to enzyme
  • Test region contains polyclonal anti-HCG
    antibodies, which will bind to HCG molecules
    bound to monoclonal anti-HCG antibodies. Also
    contains dye molecules which will be activated if
    monoclonal antibodies bind to polyclonal anti-HCG
    antibodies
  • Control region contains anti-mouse antibodies
    and dye molecules which will be activated if
    monoclonal antibodies bind here

9
Pregnancy Tests
  • When pregnant womans urine travels up the
    pregnancy test, HCG will bind to monoclonal
    antibodies in reaction region
  • Movement of the urine will move the monoclonal
    antibodies up to the test region
  • Monoclonal antibodies with bound HCG will bind to
    antibodies in test region and activate dye
    molecules, producing a colour change
  • Any unbound monoclonal antibodies will continue
    to travel to control region and will bind to
    anti-mouse antibodies, activating dye molecules
    and producing a colour change

10
Pregnancy Tests
11
Diagnosis of HIV Infection
  • The test of HIV infection is based on detecting
    the presence of HIV antibody in the patients
    blood serum.

12
  • HIV antigen is attached to the plate.
  • Patients serum passed over the plate. Any HIV
    antibody in the patients serum will attached to
    the antigen already on the plate.
  • A second antibody which is specific to the HIV
    antibody is passed over the plate. This antibody
    will attach to the concentrated HIV antibody on
    the plate. This second antibody has an enzyme
    attached to its structure.
  • Chromagen dye is passed over the complex of
    concentrated HIV antibody/conjugated antibody.
  • The enzyme will turn the chromagen to a more
    intense colour. The more intense the colour, the
    greater the HIV antibody level. This would be the
    a positive result for a HIV test.

13
Treatment of Cancer
  • Cancer cells carry specific tumour-associated
    antigens (TAA) on their plasma membrane.
  • Monoclonal anti-TAA antibodies have been
    produced.
  • Drugs which kill tumour cells or inhibit key
    proteins in tumour cells are attached to
    monoclonal anti-TAA antibodies.
  • Cancer cells are specifically targeted, avoiding
    damage to healthy host cells.

14
Problems
  • Many patients develop immune response to
    monoclonal antibodies produced in mice, as these
    are foreign proteins.
  • Genetically engineered antibodies are being
    perfected to avoid triggering immune response.
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