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Falling, impact, acceleration, lifting, and vision hazards


Chapter 15 Falling, impact, acceleration, lifting, and vision hazards Major Topics Causes of falls Slip and fall prevention program OSHA fall prevention standards ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Falling, impact, acceleration, lifting, and vision hazards

Chapter 15
  • Falling, impact, acceleration, lifting, and
    vision hazards

Major Topics
  • Causes of falls
  • Slip and fall prevention program
  • OSHA fall prevention standards
  • Ladder safety
  • Lifting hazards
  • Personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Forklift safety

Primary causes of falls
  • More than 16 percent of all disabling work
    related injuries are the result of falls.
  • The primary causes of falls are
  • A foreign object on the walking surface.
  • A design flaw in the walking surface.
  • Slippery surfaces.
  • An individuals impaired physical condition.

Most Common Kinds of Falls
  • Trip and fall accidents occur when worker
    encounters an unseen foreign object in their
  • Stump and fall accidents occur when a workers
    foot suddenly meets a sticky surface or a defect
    in the walking surface.
  • Step and fall accidents occur when a worker
    encounters an unexpected step down.
  • Slip and fall accidents occur when the workers
    center of gravity is suddenly thrown out of
    balance (oily spot). This is the most common type
    of fall.
  • (Falling from ladders is covered later)

How surface traction is measured
  • Use the coefficient of friction which is a
    numerical comparison of the resistance of one
    surface (shoe or boot) against another surface
    (the floor).
  • Surfaces with a coefficient of friction of 0.2 or
    less are very slippery and very hazardous. e.g.
    ice is 0.1
  • Surfaces with a coefficient of friction of 0.4 or
    higher have a good traction. e.g. concrete is 0.43

Strategies for preventing slips
  • Choose the right material from the outset For
    walking surfaces, select surface material that
    has the highest coefficient of friction.
  • Retrofit an existing surface Retrofit existing
    surfaces with friction enhancement devices such
    as runners, skid strips, carpet, grooves,
    abrasive coatings, grills, and textured
  • Practice good housekeeping Regardless of the
    type of surface, keep it clean and dry. Spilled
    water, grease, oil, solvents should be removed
    immediately. When cleaning or mopping rope off
    area and erect warning signs.
  • Require nonskid footwear Employees who work in
    areas where slipping is likely to be a problem
    should be required to wear shoes with special
    nonskid soles.
  • Inspect surfaces frequently Safety and health
    professionals should conduct frequent inspections
    and act immediately when a hazard is identified.

Slip and Fall Prevention Programs
  • Every year slips, trips, and falls cause more
    than one million workplace injuries and
    approximately 16,000 deaths.
  • A policy statement/commitment Statement to
    convey managements commitment to safety to
    include - intent, scope of activity,
    responsibility, accountability, the safety
    professionals role, authority, and standards.
  • Review and acceptance of walkways Contain the
    criteria that will be used for reviewing all
    walkway surfaces and determining if they are
  • Reconditioning and retrofitting include
    recommendations and timetables for reconditioning
    or retrofitting existing walkways that do not
    meet review and acceptance criteria.
  • Maintenance standards and procedures How often
    surfaces should be cleaned, resurfaced, replaced
    and procedures for meeting maintenance standards.
  • Inspections, audits, tests and records List of
    inspections, audits and tests that will be done,
    how frequently and where. Record of results.
  • Employee footwear program Specify type of
    footwear for employees who work on different
    types of surfaces.
  • Defense methods for legal claims Outline of
    companys legal defense to show that the company
    was not negligent (slip and fall prevention
  • Measurement of results Explain how the program
    will be evaluated, and how often. Record of
    results of evaluations.

Trigger Height Controversy over OSHAs Fall
Protection Standards for Construction
  • OSHAs current Fall Protection Standard sets the
    trigger height at 6 feet. This means that any
    construction employee working higher than 6 feet
    off the ground must use a fall protection device
    such as a safety harness and line.
  • The trigger height means that virtually every
    small residential builder and roofing contractor
    is subject to the standard. Because most
    residential builders and roofing contractors are
    small, subpart M of 29 CFR 1926 is a source of
    much controversy.

Requirements for personal fall arrest system in
OSHA 1926.451d16
  • Personal fall arresting systems, when stopping a
    fall shall
  • Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to
    900 pounds when used with a body belt.
  • Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to
    1800 pounds when used with a body harness.
  • Be rigged such that employee can neither
    free-fall more than 6 feet nor contact any lower
  • Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit
    maximum deceleration distance an employee travels
    to 3.5 feet.
  • Have sufficient strength to withstand twice the
    potential impact energy of an employee
    free-falling a distance of 6 feet or the free
    fall distance permitted by the system, whichever
    is less.

What is a Lanyard
  • A lanyard is a flexible line of rope, wire rope,
    or strap that generally has a connector at each
    end for connecting the body belt or harness to a
    deceleration device, lifeline or anchorage.

OSHAs recommendation for effective fall
  • Slip and fall injuries account for approximately
    one million workplace injuries every year.
  • Have a plan An organization should develop a
    written fall protection plan that contains a
    statement of commitment from both management and
    employees, rules and regulations relating to fall
    protection, and explanation of the training
    programs and training requirements.
  • Establish proper fall protection requirements
    Require the use of fall protection equipment
    anytime an employee works more than 4 feet above
    the floor in general industry, 6 feet or more in
    construction, and 10 feet or more when on a
  • Provide proper fall protection equipment and
    procedures and require their use Might include
    personal fall arrest systems, guardrails, safety
    nets, positioning devices, warning lines,
    controlled access zones, and safety monitoring.
  • Ensure proper use and type of equipment Proper
    type for the situation, employees inspect it
    before putting it on, fits properly, and is
    properly attached to anchor points.
  • Provide Training Fall protection training for
    supervisors and employees including how to
    recognize fall hazards and how to properly use
    all equipment.

Assessing workplace for eye hazards
  • Do employees perform tasks that may produce
    airborne dust or flying particles?
  • Do employees work near others who perform tasks
    that may produce airborne dust or flying
  • Do employees handle hazardous liquid chemicals or
  • Do employees work near others who handle
    hazardous liquid chemicals or blood?
  • Do employees work in situations that may expose
    their eyes to chemical or physical irritants?
  • Do employees work in situations that might expose
    their eyes to intense light or lasers?
  • Based on the answers to these questions, the
    vision protection program can be developed.

Eye protection training
  • Ensures that eye protection devices are used
    properly. Shows employees that they have a
    critical role to play in protecting their eyes.
    OSHA recommend the following topics
  • Why is it important to use the eye protection
  • How the devices protect the eyes
  • Limitations of the devices
  • When the devices should be used
  • How the devices are properly worn
  • How straps are adjusted for both comfort and
  • How employee can identify signs of wear that may
    lessen the effectiveness of the devices
  • How the devices are cleaned and disinfected and
    how often

Inspecting ladders
  • The National Safety Council recommends the
  • See if the ladder has the manufacturers
    instruction label on it.
  • Determine whether the ladder is strong enough.
  • Read the label specifications about weight
    capacity and applications.
  • Look for the following conditions cracks on side
    rails loose rungs, rails or braces or damaged
    connections between rungs and rails.
  • Check for heat damage and corrosion.
  • Check wooden ladders for moisture that may cause
    them to conduct electricity.
  • Check metal ladders for burrs and sharp edges.
  • Check fiberglass ladders for signs of blooming
    deterioration of exposed fiberglass.

Evolution of Hard Hats
  • Originally introduced in 1919, the hard hats
    first introduced for head protection in an
    industrial setting were inspired by the helmets
    worn by soldiers in World War I. They were made
    of varnished resin impregnated canvas.
  • Todays hard hats are made from the thermoplastic
    material polyethylene using injection molding
  • They are designed to provide limited protection
    from impact primarily to the top of the head and
    thereby reduce the amount of impact transmitted
    to the head, neck and spine.
  • Hard hats are tested for a 40 foot pound impact,
    which is equivalent to a two pound hammer falling
    about 20 feet.
  • OSHA standard 29 CFR 1010.135 requires hard hats
    since 1971 in an industrial setting in which
    falling objects are likely.

Kinds of Injuries to Foot and Toes
  • OSHA regulations for foot protection are found in
    29 CFR 1910.132 and 126
  • Foot and toe injuries account for almost 20 of
    all disabling work place injuries in the United
    States. There are over 180,000 foot and toe
    injuries in the workplace each year. Major
    injuries are
  • Falls and impacts from sharp or heavy objects
    (accounts for 60 of all injuries).
  • Compression when rolled over or pressed between
    heavy objects.
  • Punctures through the sole of the foot.
  • Conductivity of electricity or heat.
  • Electrocution from contact with an energized
    conducting material.
  • Slips on unstable walking surfaces.
  • Hot liquid or metal splashed into shoes or boots.
  • Temperature extremes.

Typical Causes of Back Injuries
  • Back injuries account for approximately 12
    billion in workers compensation costs annually.
  • Lower back injuries account for 20 to 25 of all
    workers compensation claims.
  • 33 to 40 of all workers compensation costs are
    related to lower back injuries.
  • Each year there are approximately 46,000 back
    injuries in the workplace.
  • Back injuries cause 100 million lost workdays
    each year.
  • Approximately 80 of the population will
    experience lower back pain at some point in their
  • Back injuries are typically caused by improper
    lifting, reaching, sitting, and bending.
  • Lifting hazards such as poor posture, ergonomic
    factors and personal lifestyles also contribute
    to back problems.
  • Companys overall safety and health program
    should have a back/safety lifting component.

Six Step Back Safety Lifting Program
  • 1. Display Poster Illustrations Proper lifting,
    reaching, sitting, and bending techniques
    strategically throughout the workplace.
  • 2. Pre-employment Screening Identify people who
    have back problems.
  • 3. Regular Safety Inspections So corrective
    action can be taken immediately.
  • 4. Education and Training To help employees
    understand how to lift, bend, reach, stand, walk,
    and sit safely.
  • 5. Use external services Identify local health
    care providing agencies and organizations.
  • 6. Map out the prevention program First five
    steps should be incorporated into companys
    overall safety and health program. Reviewed
    periodically and updated as needed.

Ways to Minimize Standing Hazards
  • Anti-Fatigue Mats provide cushioning between
    feet and hard working surfaces. Reduce muscle
    fatigue and lower back pain.
  • Shoe inserts For employees on the move. Reduce
    lower back, foot and leg pain.
  • Foot Rails allow employees to raise one foot at
    a time four or five inches. Relieves pressure on
    spinal column.
  • Workplace Design Adjust height of workstation to
    match physical needs.
  • Sit/Stand Chairs Give feet, legs and back
    occasional rest.
  • Proper Footwear Well fitting comfortable shoes
    for employees who stand prolonged periods of time.

Strategies for proper lifting
  • Plan ahead
  • Determine if you can lift the load.
  • Decide if you need assistance.
  • Check your route to see whether it has
    obstructions or slippery surfaces.
  • Lift with your legs, not your back
  • Bend your knees, keeping your back straight.
  • Position your feet close to the object.
  • Center your body over the load.
  • Lift straight up do not jerk.
  • Keep your torso straight do not twist while
    lifting or after the load is lifted.
  • Set the load down slowly and smoothly with
    straight back and bent knees do not let go until
    the object is on the floor.
  • Push do not pull
  • Pushing puts less strain on your back.
  • Use rollers under the object whenever possible.

Critical Factors when selecting Gloves
  • Choose depending on type of hazard
  • Leather offers comfort, excellent abrasion
    resistance, and minimum cut resistance.
  • Cotton offers comfort, minimal abrasion
    resistance and minimum cut resistance.
  • Aramids offer comfort. Good abrasion resistance,
    excellent cut resistance, and excellent heat
  • Polyethylene offer comfort, excellent abrasion
    resistance, minimal cut resistance. Should not be
    subjected to high temperatures.
  • Stainless steel cord (wrapped in synthetic
    fiber) offer comfort, good abrasion resistance
    and optimal cut resistance.
  • Chain link or metal mesh offer very little
    comfort, bit maximum abrasion and cut resistance.
  • Butyl rubber offer little comfort, but has
    excellent resistance to heat, ozone, tearing, and
    certain chemicals.
  • Viton rubber offer little comfort, but perform
    well with chemicals that butyl rubber cannot
    protect against.

Getting employees comfortable when wearing PPE
  • Personal protective equipment (PPE) is critical
    in head, hand, back, eye, face, foot, skin and
    breathing protection.
  • Make maximum use of engineering and
    administrative controls PPE should be the last
    line of defense.
  • Ensure optimum choice of PPE by using risk
    assessment employees who know that the PPE
    provides adequate protection from hazards will be
    more likely to use it.
  • Involve employees in all aspects of PPE program
    may provide valuable input, and are more likely
    to buy into support and use.
  • Provide comprehensive education and training
    programs employees need to understand why PPE is
    important and how to use it.
  • Reinforce proper use and challenge improper use
    Compliments should be given publicly, corrections
    should be done in private.
  • Be sensitive to fit, comfort and style issues
    ill fitting PPE may not provide proper
    protection, and make employees reluctant to wear
  • Work to make PPE a normal part of the uniform
    using PPE will become standard operating
    procedure and its proper use will cease to be an

Training equipment contained in OSHA 29 CFR
1910.178 (powered industrial trucks)
  • Before operating industrial truck (forklift)
    employees are required to complete OSHA CFR
    1910.178 initial training
  • 1. Operating instructions, warnings, and
  • 2. Differences between truck and automobile.
  • 3. Truck controls and instrumentation where they
    are located and how to use them.
  • 4. Engine or motor operation.
  • 5. Steering and maneuvering.
  • 6. Visibility (including restrictions due to
  • 7. Fork and attachment adaptation, operation and
    use limitations.
  • 8. Vehicle capacity.
  • 9. Vehicle stability.
  • 10. Vehicle inspection and maintenance.
  • 11. Refueling and charging/recharging the
  • 12. Operating limitations.
  • 13. Other operating instructions, warnings,
    precautions listed in operators manual.
  • 14. Work place related topics including surface
    conditions where vehicle will be operated,
    composition of loads, stability, load
    manipulation, stacking, unstacking, pedestrian
    traffic, etc.

  • The primary causes of falls are a foreign object
    on the walking surface, a design flaw in the
    walking surface, a slippery surface, and a
    persons impaired physical working condition.
  • Strategies for preventing slips include the
    following choose the right material from the
    outset, retrofit an existing surface, practice
    good housekeeping, require nonskid footwear, and
    inspect surfaces frequently.
  • OSHAs requirements for fall protection include
    the following have a plan, establish
    requirements, provide equipment and procedures,
    ensure proper use and type of equipment, and
    provide training.

  • Dos and do nots of ladder safety include
    checking for slipperiness, allowing only one
    person on the ladder at a time, securing the base
    and top on a level surface, facing the ladder
    while climbing, avoiding leaning, and always
    holding with one hand.
  • Protection from impact injuries from falling
    objects include PPE to protect the head (hard
    hats), eyes and face (goggles or shields), and
    feet (footwear).
  • Before using PPE, every feasible engineering and
    administrative control should be employed.

Home work
  • Answer questions 1, 4, 5, 7, 9, 18, and 21 on
    page 354.
  • 1. List the primary causes of falls.
  • 4. List and briefly explain 5 strategies for
    preventing slips.
  • 5. Describe the various components of a slip and
    fall prevention program.
  • 7. What are the requirements of personal fall
    arrest systems in OSHA regulation
  • 9. Explain OSHAs recommendations for effective
    fall protection, and what action to take when a
    worker is dangling from his fall arrest gear.
  • 18. Explain the strategies for proper lifting
    that should be taught as part of the safety
  • 21. Explain the training requirements contained
    in OSHAs standard 29 CFR 1910.178 (powered
    industrial trucks).
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