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Essentials of Fire Fighting,

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Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5th Edition Chapter 20 Fire Prevention and Public Education Firefighter II Chapter 20 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essentials of Fire Fighting,


1
  • Essentials of Fire Fighting,
  • 5th Edition

Chapter 20 Fire Prevention and Public
Education Firefighter II
2
Chapter 20 Lesson Goal
  • After completing this lesson, the student shall
    be able to give fire prevention and public
    education presentations following the policies
    and procedures set forth by the authority having
    jurisdiction (AHJ).

3
Specific Objectives
  • 1. Describe a survey and an inspection.
  • 2. Discuss the fire prevention activities of
    reviewing community data and code enforcement.
  • 3. Summarize common fuel and heat-source
    hazards.

(Continued)
4
Specific Objectives
  • 4. Discuss common fire hazards and why they
    increase the likelihood of a fire.
  • 5. Summarize special fire hazards in commercial,
    manufacturing, and public-assembly occupancies.
  • 6. Summarize target hazard properties.

(Continued)
5
Specific Objectives
  • 7. Discuss personal requirements and equipment
    requirements for conducting inspections.
  • 8. Discuss scheduling and conducting fire
    inspections.
  • 9. Discuss the benefits of preincident planning
    surveys.

(Continued)
6
Specific Objectives
  • 10. Explain how a preincident planning survey is
    conducted.
  • 11. Explain the purpose of a residential fire
    safety survey.
  • 12. Summarize guidelines for conducting
    residential fire safety surveys.

(Continued)
7
Specific Objectives
  • 13. Summarize common causes of residential
    fires.
  • 14. Summarize items to address when conducting
    residential fire safety surveys.

(Continued)
8
Specific Objectives
  • 15. Discuss general considerations for the
    preparation and delivery of fire and life safety
    information.
  • 16. Discuss presenting fire and life safety
    education for adults.
  • 17. Discuss presenting fire and life-safety
    information for young children.

(Continued)
9
Specific Objectives
  • 18. Discuss fire and life-safety presentation
    topics.
  • 19. Discuss fire station tours.
  • 20. Prepare a preincident survey. (Skill Sheet
    20-II-1)

(Continued)
10
Specific Objectives
  • 21. Conduct a residential fire safety survey.
    (Skill Sheet 20-II-2)
  • 22. Make a fire and life safety presentation.
    (Skill Sheet 20-II-3)
  • 23. Conduct a fire station tour. (Skill Sheet
    20-II-4)

11
Surveys
  • Used to gather/impart information
  • Used to gather information for preincident
    planning
  • If conducted while buildings are under
    construction, helpful in identifying certain
    characteristics

(Continued)
12
Surveys
  • Help to familiarize firefighters with contents,
    manufacturing processes, layouts of buildings
  • What a survey includes
  • Voluntary residential life safety surveys

13
Inspections
  • May be made by fire inspectors or company
    officers and crews
  • Usually include enforcement of most common code
    requirements
  • May uncover more serious code violations

14
Fire Incident Records
  • Contain critical information about fire history
    of community
  • Can be helpful with fire prevention efforts

15
Code Enforcement Inspections
  • Conducted in commercial, institutional,
    industrial occupancies
  • Ensure citizens have safe physical environment
    in which to work, study, worship, play

(Continued)
16
Code Enforcement Inspections
  • May be conducted by fire inspectors with special
    training in code requirements for various types
    of occupancies or by fire company personnel
  • Should document any unsafe conditions that are
    found

17
Fire Hazard
  • Condition increasing likelihood of fire starting
    or increasing the extent/severity of a fire if
    one did start

(Continued)
18
Fire Hazard
  • Can be prevented by eliminating one element of
    fire tetrahedron
  • Considerations of eliminating elements

19
Fuel Hazards
  • Ordinary combustibles
  • Flammable, combustible gases
  • Flammable, combustible liquids
  • Chemicals

(Continued)
20
Fuel Hazards
  • Dusts
  • Metals
  • Plastics, resins, and cellulose

21
Heat Source Hazards
  • Chemical heat energy
  • Electrical heat energy
  • Mechanical heat energy
  • Nuclear heat energy

22
Common Fire Hazard
A condition prevalent in almost all occupancies
that increases likelihood of fire starting
23
Be Alert to Common Hazards
  • Obstructed electrical panels
  • Poor housekeeping, improper storage of
    combustible materials
  • Defective or improperly used heating, lighting,
    power equipment

(Continued)
24
Be Alert to Common Hazards
  • Improper disposal of floor-cleaning compounds
  • Misuse of fumigation substances and flammable or
    combustible liquids

25
Increasing Likelihood of Fire
  • Poor housekeeping
  • Improperly functioning components can provide
    ignition source for nearby combustibles
  • Sheer fabrics being draped over lamps as a
    decoration

(Continued)
26
Increasing Likelihood of Fire
  • Floor cleaning compounds, fumigating substances,
    and other flammable and combustible liquids If
    improperly used and stored, can provide volatile
    fuel source
  • Personal fire hazards

27
Special Fire Hazards in Commercial Occupancies
  • Lack of automatic sprinklers/other relevant fixed
    fire protection systems
  • Change of occupancy exceeding use for which
    permits issued
  • Display/storage of large quantities of
    combustible products

(Continued)
28
Special Fire Hazards in Commercial Occupancies
  • Mixed varieties of contents
  • Difficulties in entering occupancies during
    closed periods
  • Illegal building additions
  • Illegal storage

(Continued)
29
Special Fire Hazards in Commercial Occupancies
  • Storage aisles incorrect distance apart
  • Fire department connection obstructed
  • Storage obstructing sprinklers
  • Existence of party walls, common attics,
    cocklofts, other open voids in multiple
    occupancies

30
Special Fire Hazards in Manufacturing Occupancies
  • High-hazard processes using volatile substances,
    oxidizers, extreme temperatures
  • Flammable liquids in dip tanks, ovens, and dryers
    in addition to those used in mixing, coating,
    spraying, degreasing processes

31
Special Fire Hazards in Manufacturing Occupancies
  • High-piled storage of combustible materials
  • Operation of vehicles, fork trucks, other trucks
    inside buildings

(Continued)
32
Special Fire Hazards in Manufacturing Occupancies
  • Large, open areas
  • Large-scale use of flammable, combustible gases
  • Lack of automatic sprinklers/other fixed fire
    protection systems

33
Special Fire Hazards in Public-Assembly
Occupancies
  • Lack of automatic sprinklers, detection systems,
    fire notification systems
  • Large numbers of people present
  • Insufficient, obstructed, locked exits

(Continued)
34
Special Fire Hazards in Public-Assembly
Occupancies
  • Materials stored in paths of egress
  • Highly combustible interior finishes
  • Inadequate/inoperative fire extinguishers
  • Inadequate/inoperative exit lighting

35
Target Hazard Properties
  • Any structure in which there is
    greater-than-normal potential for loss of
    life/property from fire
  • Should receive special attention during surveys

36
Target Hazard Examples
  • Lumberyards
  • Bulk oil storage facilities
  • Shopping malls
  • Hospitals
  • Theaters

(Continued)
37
Target Hazard Examples
  • Nursing homes
  • Rows of frame tenements
  • Schools
  • High-rise hotels/condominiums
  • Large public assemblies concert halls,
    stadiums, etc.

38
Fire Inspection Requirements
  • Every firefighter engaged in fire prevention
    efforts must be capable of meeting with property
    owners/occupants
  • Firefighters who are technically competent can
    provide valuable service to the public

(Continued)
39
Fire Inspection Requirements
  • Especially important that firefighters convey
    only technically accurate information during
    inspections
  • Firefighters ability to conduct inspections
    competently will improve with study, experience,
    and on-the-job training

40
Personal Requirements
  • Firefighters should be well-informed about fire
    and life safety issues
  • Firefighters should present a well-groomed, neat
    appearance
  • Uniforms should be clean and in good condition

41
Equipment Requirements
  • Research on occupancies
  • Writing equipment
  • Drawing equipment
  • Other equipment

42
Scheduling Fire Inspections
  • During normal business hours
  • Some scheduled by contacting business owner ahead
    of time

(Continued)
43
Scheduling Fire Inspections
  • Scheduling allows inspections to be conducted at
    least disruptive time
  • Other inspections conducted systematically no
    scheduling

44
Conducting Fire Inspections
  • Firefighter conduct
  • Enter premises at main entrance, contact the
    individual with whom inspection scheduled

(Continued)
45
Conducting Fire Inspections
  • Introduce team, briefly review inspection
    process, answer any questions occupant may have

(Continued)
46
Conducting Fire Inspections
  • Occupant or a representative should accompany the
    inspection team
  • Inspection team should ask that all locked rooms
    or closets be opened for inspection
  • Most start from outside

(Continued)
47
Conducting Fire Inspections
  • Survey team moves to interior
  • Regardless of the type of occupancy, specific
    code requirements that apply, each item inspected
    should be explained to person accompanying
    inspection team

(Continued)
48
Conducting Fire Inspections
  • If one or more code violations are found, plan of
    correction must be agreed upon between inspection
    team and occupant

(Continued)
49
Conducting Fire Inspections
  • Form and content of plan of correction should be
    clearly defined in departmental SOPs covering
    inspection process

(Continued)
50
Conducting Fire Inspections
  • In most departments, occupant or representative
    required to sign inspection form
  • Inspection team leader should thank occupant for
    cooperating

51
Preincident Planning Surveys
  • Allow firefighters to gather information about
    conditions that might affect future emergency
    operations in a building
  • Allow firefighters to develop plans that minimize
    a buildings deficiencies, maximize strengths

(Continued)
52
Preincident Planning Surveys
  • Residential fire safety surveys
  • Firefighters need a number of personal, technical
    skills to conduct fire safety surveys properly

53
Benefits of Preincident Planning Surveys
  • Allow firefighters to gather information about
    the structure under ideal conditions
  • Can provide firefighters with critical
    information that might not be available during
    active fire

(Continued)
54
Benefits of Preincident Planning Surveys
  • Allow firefighters to become aware of building
    components
  • Can greatly improve emergency operations,
    substantially improve firefighter, citizen safety

(Continued)
55
Benefits of Preincident Planning Surveys
  • Include maps, drawings, photographs, written
    notes that may help firefighters

56
Fuel Loads
  • Bulk of fuel available to burn and generally
    refers to the contents of a building
  • Major fuel sources

(Continued)
57
Fuel Loads
  • Knowing combustibles in a building
  • Imperative that this information be gathered
    during preincident surveys

58
Conducting Preincident Planning Survey Outside
Building
  • Make general observations, complete preliminary
    notes, take photographs
  • Note locations
  • Make notations of construction attributes, other
    information
  • Check address/accessibility issues

59
Conducting Preincident Surveys Inside Building
  • When survey of exterior is completed, go directly
    to roof or basement and proceed with systematic
    survey
  • If floor plan drawings are not available from
    building owner, firefighters create

(Continued)
60
Conducting Preincident Surveys Inside Building
  • To conduct a thorough survey, firefighters must
    take enough time to make notes, take photographs
    of observed hazards, unsafe conditions
  • Drawings of interior layout, high-hazard areas,
    egress routes, important features should be made

(Continued)
61
Conducting Preincident Surveys Inside Building
  • Complete set of notes, photographs, well-prepared
    drawings of the building
  • Large or complex buildings

(Continued)
62
Conducting Preincident Surveys Inside Building
  • If a floor plan used on a previous survey is
    available, make sure to record any changes made,
    update floor plan drawings accordingly

63
Making Maps and Drawings
  • Large occupancies, complexes may already have
    maps
  • For buildings where existing maps are unavailable
    or outdated, firefighters should include simple
    plot plan drawing

(Continued)
64
Making Maps and Drawings
  • In many cases, drawings are the most important
    product of survey
  • Data should be recorded by using common plan
    symbols as often as possible

(Continued)
65
Making Maps and Drawings
  • Use of computerized Geographic Information System
    (GIS) or other electronic mapping programs can
    save hours, should be used where available

(Continued)
66
Making Maps and Drawings
  • Components included in maps and drawings
  • Sectional elevation drawing of a structure may be
    needed to show elevation changes, mezzanines,
    balconies, other structural features

67
Photographs
  • Can show important details that even accurate
    drawings cannot
  • Can quickly/easily record tremendous amount of
    information

(Continued)
68
Photographs
  • May include interior, close-up photographs
  • Video

69
Residential Fire Safety Surveys
  • Can only be conducted on a voluntary basis
  • Require great deal of advanced planning and
    publicity
  • Main objectives

(Continued)
70
Residential Fire Safety Surveys
  • Provide other benefits in addition to reducing
    loss of life and property
  • Increase fire awareness, interest in public
    education efforts

(Continued)
71
Residential Fire Safety Surveys
  • May be the best time for firefighters to
    distribute literature, promote programs
  • May include special cards or slips
  • Provide firefighters with valuable information

72
Residential Fire Safety Survey Guidelines
  • Conduct surveys in teams of two
  • Dress and act professionally
  • Introduce team, provide proper identification
  • Explain survey procedure

(Continued)
73
Residential Fire Safety Survey Guidelines
  • Maintain courteous, businesslike attitude
  • Focus on preventing fires, eliminating threats to
    life safety
  • Compliment occupants when favorable conditions
    found

(Continued)
74
Residential Fire Safety Survey Guidelines
  • Offer constructive suggestions for
    correcting/eliminating hazardous conditions
  • Survey all rooms
  • Discuss survey results with owner/occupant,
    answer any questions

(Continued)
75
Residential Fire Safety Survey Guidelines
  • Thank owners or occupants for invitation into
    their homes
  • Keep survey confidential
  • If no one home, leave appropriate materials
    between storm door and front door or partially
    beneath doormat

76
Common Residential Fire Causes
  • Malfunctioning heating appliances and water
    heaters
  • Combustibles too close to heating appliances or
    lamps
  • Unsafe cooking procedures
  • Smoking materials

(Continued)
77
Common Residential Fire Causes
  • Overloaded extension cords and multiple-outlet
    devices
  • Exposed electrical wiring
  • Defective electrical appliances

(Continued)
78
Common Residential Fire Causes
  • Improper use of combustible or flammable liquids
  • Poor housekeeping
  • Untended candles

79
Address During Interior Surveys
  • Combustible materials
  • Appliances
  • Electrical wiring/equipment
  • Portable heating units
  • Woodstoves/fireplaces
  • Heating fuel

(Continued)
80
Address During Interior Surveys
  • General housekeeping practices
  • Smoke alarms
  • Electrical distribution panels
  • Gas appliances
  • Oil-burning units
  • Furnaces

(Continued)
81
Address During Interior Surveys
  • Water heaters
  • Shop/work rooms
  • Accumulated waste
  • Flammable liquids

82
Address During Exterior Surveys
  • Roof
  • Chimneys/spark arrestors
  • Yard/porch areas
  • Barbecues and fuel

(Continued)
83
Address During Exterior Surveys
  • Outside waste burners
  • Garages, sheds, barns, outbuildings
  • Flammable liquids/gases
  • Lightning protection
  • Security devices
  • Power lines

84
Home Safety Issues
  • Maintaining clear/unobstructed exit pathways
  • Safety concerning water

85
Fire and Life Safety Messages Must Be
  • Accurate
  • Positive
  • Targeted to specific audience

86
Accurate Messages
  • Conveying wrong information can be deadly
  • Sources available to assist in verifying accuracy
    of content

87
Positive Messages
  • Adults want to know what to do without being
    scared
  • Positive messages more likely to be remembered
    during emergency

88
Targeted Messages
  • Fire, life safety educational messages can be
    based on variety of issues
  • Audiences may vary
  • Knowing audience helps prepare needs-specific
    presentation

89
Presenting Fire, Life Safety Education for Adults
  • Teachable moments
  • Basic four-step method of instruction

90
Basic Four-Step Method of Instruction
  • Preparation
  • Presentation
  • Application
  • Evaluation

91
Presenting Fire, Life Safety Information to Young
Children
  • Children often interpret literally
  • Children have limited attention spans
  • Remain flexible when presenting information

(Continued)
92
Presenting Fire, Life Safety Information to Young
Children
  • When in a classroom, decide with the teacher
    ahead of time how questions will be handled
  • Get down to the childrens eye level
  • Ask a misbehaving child for help to provide
    redirection

(Continued)
93
Presenting Fire, Life Safety Information to Young
Children
  • DO NOT scare children!
  • Remember that firefighters in protective clothing
    and breathing apparatus can be very frightening
    to children

(Continued)
94
Presenting Fire, Life Safety Information to Young
Children
  • Children learn by doing, not by listening
  • Home fire safety concepts are complicated, so
    messages for young children must communicate
    basic simple concepts

95
Stop, Drop, and Roll
  • Do more than simply inform of actions
  • Point out if someones clothes catch on fire,
    bystander may need to assist them

96
Home Safety
  • Promote home escape plans, Exit Drills in the
    Home program, similar efforts
  • Communicate fire, life safety rules to
    residential occupants

97
Candles
  • Open flame that can ignite nearby combustibles
  • Accounted for 4 percent of all reported
    residential fires in 2004
  • Safety messages

98
Smoke Alarms
  • May be battery-operated
  • May be part of security alarm system hardwired,
    monitored by central alarm, reporting station

(Continued)
99
Smoke Alarms
  • Location
  • Maintenance, testing
  • Carbon monoxide detectors

100
Fire Station Tours
  • May be spur-of-the-moment visits from people who
    walk in off the street or scheduled visits
  • Common during Fire Prevention Week
  • More than just an opportunity to enhance
    departments public image

101
Procedures During Station Tours
  • Firefighters should be dressed appropriately
  • Firefighters should conduct themselves with
    courtesy, professionalism

(Continued)
102
Procedures During Station Tours
  • All television sets should be turned off, other
    activities should be as positive as possible
  • Firefighters should answer all questions
    courteously, to best of their ability

(Continued)
103
Procedures During Station Tours
  • While some departments allow visitors to climb on
    apparatus or don equipment items, many others do
    not
  • Do not allow children to wear helmets
  • Visitors should never be allowed to roam around
    fire station unescorted

(Continued)
104
Procedures During Station Tours
  • Special care should be taken to protect curious
    children, other individuals around shop areas or
    slide poles
  • All groups should be kept together

(Continued)
105
Procedures During Station Tours
  • Equipment, apparatus should be demonstrated with
    appropriate caution to ensure no one endangered

(Continued)
106
Procedures During Station Tours
  • Appropriate caution should be exercised when
    blowing sirens in presence of children because
    decibels produced can be harmful to their hearing

(Continued)
107
Procedures During Station Tours
  • Remember that station mascots (dogs, cats, etc.)
    can be potential safety and liability hazards

108
Summary
  • Inspections are sometimes conducted by fire
    inspectors, but are often conducted by company
    officers and their crews.

(Continued)
109
Summary
  • Public education is the process of teaching
    members of the public how they can protect
    themselves from fires and other contingencies.

(Continued)
110
Summary
  • Recognizing that the most conscientious code
    enforcement and public education efforts will not
    eliminate all uncontrolled fires, fire
    departments must prepare to suppress those fires
    that do start.

111
Review Questions
  • 1. What is the difference between a survey and
    an inspection?
  • 2. List four common fire hazards.
  • 3. List five items that should be identified in
    an inspection.

(Continued)
112
Review Questions
  • 4. What items should firefighters check in a
    preincident planning survey?
  • 5. What are the main objectives of a residential
    fire safety survey?

(Continued)
113
Review Questions
  • 6. What are five questions that firefighters
    should ask themselves when conducting interior
    and exterior residential fire safety surveys?
  • 7. What are the steps in presenting fire and
    life safety information?

(Continued)
114
Review Questions
  • 8. What are some important characteristics and
    needs of children when presenting fire and life
    safety information?
  • 9. List common topics for fire and life safety
    presentations.
  • 10. What precautions should be taken when giving
    fire station tours?
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