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Occupational Health


Occupational Health Introduction Occupationally-related disease reported as early as the 4th century B.C. 1700 - Bernadino Ramazzini- father of occupational health ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Occupational Health

Occupational Health
  • Occupationally-related disease reported as early
    as the 4th century B.C.
  • 1700 - Bernadino Ramazzini- father of
    occupational health
  • Mid-1880s, 1st occupational cancer observed in
    chimney sweepers (England)
  • 1885 U.S. Bureau of Labor
  • 1913 U.S. Department of Labor- its goals did NOT
    include workers health beyondpromoting their
    material, social, intellectual and moral
  • 1943 Alice Hamilton- mother of occupational
    health (Exploring the Dangerous Trades)

Protective Legislation in the Workplace
  • Federal Workers Compensation Act-
  • Workers Compensation
  • No-fault system
  • Settlements are reached promptly
  • Payments are based on predetermined benefits
  • Worker waves the right to sue employer
  • Worker must prove work-relatedness
  • 1936 Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act
  • Federal Coal Mine Health Safety Act
  • 1970 Occupational Safety Health Act
  • 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act-
    Right-to-Know Act
  • 1990 Pollution Prevention Act

Identification of Occupational Health Problems
  • Large percentages of Americans employed in small
    companies (lt20 or lt100 employees)
  • Multiple exposures
  • Interactions
  • Inadequate reporting of work-related illnesses

Types Sources of Occupational Exposures
  • Toxic Chemicals
  • Examples metal fabrication, machining, welding,
    brazing, plating, painting can result in
    exposures to
  • Airborne chemicals metal dusts, metal fumes,
    acid mists, solvents
  • Skin chemicals cutting fluids, coolants, oils,
  • Biological agents
  • Infectious diseases, hepatitis B, AIDS virus
  • Physical agents
  • Noise, heat stress, inadequate lighting,
    radiation, vibration, ergonomic hazards

Occupational Exposure Standards
  • The American Conference of Governmental
    Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) was established in
  • Had a major role in developing limits for
    exposures in the workplace
  • A consensus group
  • Established TLVs (8-hour-TWA).
  • OSHA adopted 450 TLVs in 1971 and turned them
    into PELs (8-hourTWA). Not protective enough
  • TLVs are designed to protect the average worker
    from either recognized acute effects or easily
    recognized chronic effects.
  • TLVs are based on animal toxicity data or
    available epi studies.
  • They do not address sensitive populations,
    workers with prior exposures
  • They do not address carcinogenocity, mutagenicity
    or teratogenicity
  • OSHA later developed standards for asbestos,
    vinyl chloride, arsenic, DBCP, coke oven
    emissions, acrylonitrile, lead, cotton dust,
    benzene, , ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, and 14
  • OSHAs Carcinogen Standard.

Occupational Exposure Standards
  • The OSHA Act states under section 6(b)(5) that
    the Secretary of Labor in promulgating standards
    dealing with toxic material or physical agents,
    shall set the standard that most adequately
    assures, to the extentfeasible, on the basis of
    the best available evidence, that no employee
    will suffer material impairment of health or
    functional capacity, even if such employee has a
    regular exposure to the hazardous dealth with by
    such standard for the period of jis
  • working life.
  • OSHA PEL (8 hour Time-Weighted Average)
  • OSHA STEL (15 minute TWA)
  • OSHA Ceiling
  • ACGIH established TLVs BEIs
  • TLVs are standards for maximum airborne
    concentration that may be inhaled by a worker ?
  • BEIs are for monitoring chemicals or their
    metabolites in biological fluids or tissues
    (urine, blood, and exhaled air) ? dose

Monitoring the Workplace
  • Airborne Chemicals
  • Air pump used
  • Sample collected on a filter, a sorbent tube, a
    liquid or in a bag.
  • Sample type
  • 1. Area air sample
  • 2. Personal air sample
  • 3. Biological monitoring
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Sampling method
  • 1. Grab sampling
  • 2. Integrated sampling
  • 3. Passive sampling

Monitoring the Workplace
  • Biological Agents
  • Air pump used
  • Sample collected on a medium that can be
  • Bioaerosols come in many different types
    sampling and analytical methods vary.
  • Physical Agents
  • Real-time measurement instruments are often used
  • Integrated measurements are also used to evaluate
  • Physical hazards include

Hierarchy of Occupational Exposure Controls
  • Elimination or Substitution
  • Process or equipment modification
  • Isolation or Enclosure
  • Local exhaust ventilation
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Work practices and housekeeping
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