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International Panorama of Electromobility R&D

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International Panorama of Electromobility R&D Jean-Charles Jacquemin FUNDP (Namur) March 31st 2011 (Presentation version : March 30 2011) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: International Panorama of Electromobility R&D


1
International Panorama of Electromobility RD
  • Jean-Charles Jacquemin
  • FUNDP (Namur)
  • March 31st 2011
  • (Presentation version March 30 2011)

2
Presentation
  • What panorama ? Reminder
  • Panorama 1 Main trends and synthetic results
  • Conclusions
  • Access to the knowledge base via Inet

3
1. What panorama ?
  • Reminder
  • Global vision and  holistic  survey
  • given interactions between
  • Techniques
  • Managerial aspects
  • Sociopolitical aspects
  • Economic issues
  • Difficulties exponential growth of the number
    of relevant informations this slideshow is a
    summary of summaries of

4
Answer
  • Creation of a
  • Content Management System (CMS) to structure
  • a knowledge base.
  • Access to this CMS via Internet for the Be.eV
    members (see 4. infra)

5
2. Panorama 1 Main Trends Synthetic Results
6
Technology (1/68)
  • Electricity storage

7
Trend 1
  • A confirmation of significative progresses in
    battery capacities (and a correlative decrease in
    their cost) (cf P0) but also a growing interest
    for hybridization with supercapacitors to get
    bacitors, the best of both worlds

8
Trend 2
  • New technologies (3D nanostructures, solid
    state, printing, ) to increase the energy
    density, the charge/discharge efficiency,

9
Technology (3/68)
  • Electricity storage Batteries (1/8)
  • From Tesla CEO Elon Musk
  • Batteries Arent The Future
  • Progress in specific energy
  • 1. The specific energy of EVs batteries increases
  • Targets to be verified in several prototypes
    (Saab epower, Mazda Axela, , etaxis, ) include
    a projected driving range of 200 kilometers
    through the use of high density energy storage in
    lithium-ion battery cells.
  • As an example Envia Systems (link) states that
    By putting more energy in each battery, the
    number of batteries required decreases by 50
    in Envias case, dramatically reducing the
    overall cost of the application..

10
Technology (4/68)
  • Electricity storage Batteries (2/8)
  • Significative Progress in (dis)charging time of
    batteries
  • 2. The use of 3D nano structures to  give
    capacitor-like power with battery-like energy.
    "Braun, a professor of materials science and
    engineering at the University of Illinois at
    Urbana-Champaign, states  "Most capacitors store
    very little energy. They can release it very
    fast, but they can't hold much. Most batteries
    store a reasonably large amount of energy, but
    they can't provide or receive energy rapidly.
    This does both."
  • Braun's group wraps a thin film into
    three-dimensional structure, achieving both high
    active volume (high capacity) and large current.
    (link)
  • They have demonstrated battery electrodes that
    can charge or discharge in a few seconds, 10 to
    100 times faster than equivalent bulk electrodes,
    yet can perform normally in existing devices.

11
Trend 3
  • Propositions and business moves to decrease the
    cost of batteries Second life market and Large
    scale stationary electricity storage.

12
Technology (5/68)
  • Electricity storage Batteries (3/8)
  • Markets for the Second life of batteries
  • 3. Second life of batteries  ENERDEL partners
    with ITOCHU for a second smart grid project in
    apartment building in Tokoyama, with the intent
    to develop a secondary market to lower battery
    costs for automotive buyers (p.34 in link)
  • This development of a secondary market is
    considered as very important to decrease the TOC
    of Evs. (See also recycling) As well as

13
Technology (6/68)
Electricity storage Batteries (4/8)
Stationary storage to decrease the costs and
increase efficiency 4. The addition of a robust
stationary energy storage market offers the
opportunity to drive down the unit cost for
mobile energy storage. This is a trend that
encompasses two different market areas
(automotive and electrical power) that could be
mutually beneficial.  (link) Several scientific
congresses have concluded that specific policies
should focus on this trend and encourage large
scale stationary storage to decrease (trough
economies of scale) the battery costs while
allowing a better management of renewable
electricity sources. (link)
14
Trend 4
  • Prototypical metal-air batteries close to the
    energy density that petroleum products currently
    provide.

15
Technology (7/68)
Electricity storage Batteries (5/8)
Metal-air better than fossil fuels ? 5. An
ever increasing interest on metal-air batteries
The look forward came at the 10X Advanced
Battery R D Conference held in Santa Clara,
California, January 10 12. The Metal-Air
batteries offer some phenomenal energy densities
(hence the 10X conference title) that could
significantly increase the range and bring down
the cost of on-board energy storage for future
electric vehicles. An example was presented of a
100kg battery pack that could provide enough
energy for a 700km range. Mobile applications
of Metal-air batteries are very attractive as
they come close to the energy density that
petroleum products currently provide.  (link) (to
compare to the DBM data with a LMP battery).
16
Trend 5
  • Practical progresses in battery recycling but a
    political question about the rent distribution
    between the manufacturer, the consumer and the
    recycler.

17
Technology (8/68)
Electricity storage Batteries (6/8)
Recycling the closed loop and the rent
distribution problem 6. A new value chain and a
rent distribution problem Through their
partnership Tesla and Umicore (se also new
partnerships) intend to "take the lead in
developing a closed loop battery recycling
system" As stated by Tesla Umicores factory
plants are able to recycle our batteries into
completely reusable materials and substantially
reduce the carbon footprint of manufacturing
Lithium-ion batteries. The Umicore battery
recycling technology is able to save at least 70
percent on CO2 emissions at the recovery and
refining of these valuable metals. (). This is
not only an attractive process for Tesla from an
environmental aspect, but it also provides a high
margin of return. (link) So, who has paid for
the new battery ? Is he paid for the true value
of its used battery ?
18
Trend 6
  • Research on batteries is federating in the US
    and EU with precise progress objectives.

19
Technology (9/68)
  • Electricity storage Batteries (7/8)
  • Research (1/2) In the US
  • Fundamental research on batteries is now on
    track as an example the Batteries for Advanced
    Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program is the
    premier fundamental research program in the U.S.
    for developing high-performance. It proceeds by
    quarterly reports of progress towards milestones
    themselves based on the USABC goals. LBNL to
    Chair 4th Symposium on Energy Storage Beyond Li
    Ion at PNNL
  • June 7-9, 2011 (link)

20
Technology (10/68)
  • Electricity storage Batteries (8/8)
  • Research (2/2) and in the EU
  • The creation in Europe of a battery research
    consortium under the project  SOMABAT.  
  • Numerous partners, among them Umicore and
    University of Liège, will investigate ways to
    produce working prototype lithium polymer
    batteries with the primary goals set to decrease
    environmental impact, increase stability and
    enhance performance.
  • The 36 month project, is aspiring to produce a
    battery with an energy density of up to 220 Wh/kg
    and a final cost less than 208/kWh (150/kWh),
    incorporating recyclable solid components.
  • The European Commission is supplying 5.1
    million (3.7 million) of the total 7 million
    (5.04 million) project cost. (link)

21
Technology (11/68)
  • Electricity storage Fuel Cells
  • New tests
  • 1.  Mercedes has announced that its B-class
    F-Cell will be driven around the world to promote
    hydrogen fuel cell powered cars. (link)
  • 2. Fuel-cell etrucks are tested in California.
    (link). As well as transit buses like the
    Proterra bus (infra).

22
Technology (12/68)
  • Electricity storage Other devices Carbide
    derived carbon(1/3)
  • 1. "Skeleton Technologies, an energy-storage
    start-up based in Tartu, Estonia, has been
    awarded a US patent on its nanoporous carbon
    powder supercapacitor material.  (link1)
  • Today, the energy density and maximum power of
    Skeleton Technologies' ultracapacitors reach 13
    Wh/L and 70 kW/L respectively roughly a 50
    higher energy density and 4 higher power
    density.
  • The technology permits to deliver the same
    performance as competition, but at a lower price
    and in a smaller, more compact form-factor.
    Today, the price of quality carbon is USD 20/kg
    the target price for a superior performance
    carbide-derived carbon is USD 10/kg.
  • The supercapacitors have passed initial tests by
    industry experts and major corporations and
    Skeleton Technologies plans to enter production
    for the market by 2013."

23
Technology (13/68)
  • Electricity storage Other devices Bacitors
    (supercabatteries), etc. (2/3)
  • 2.  Taiyo Yuden in Japan and others have
    recently announced lithium bacitors with improved
    properties. (link) 
  • Combining the strength of lithium-ion secondary
    batteries with conventional Electric Double Layer
    Capacitors (EDLC)s, this next-generation energy
    device offers an energy density 4 to 10 times
    greater than EDLCs.
  • Taiyo Yuden's Hybrid LIC (Cylindrical Lithium
    Ion Capacitor) boasts the key features of
    batteries (high voltage and high energy) while
    maintaining the traditional characteristics of
    capacitors (rapid charge/discharge, high
    durability, safety and environmental
    friendliness).

24
Technology (14/68)
  • Electricity storage Other devices
    Solid-state. (3/3)
  • Planar Energy is one such company who has
    produced a solid state battery to rival
    traditional li-ions.  
  • This advanced solid-state battery technology has
    three times the energy density of current li-ion
    batteries, costing less than half the price per
    kilowatt-hour.
  • The researchers have confirmed that (...) the
    inorganic, solid state materials used by Planar
    create a stable, longer-lasting unit than
    convential Li-Ion batteries. The company says
    that Streaming Protocol for Electroless
    Electrochemical Deposition (SPEED) is "a
    low-cost, high-speed, roll-to-roll deposition
    process, which is significantly more flexible and
    scalable than existing deposition methods".
    (...). This process will enable manufacturers to
    reduce costs by more than 50 percent whilst
    increasing capacity by 200-300 percent. Applying
    this to the automotive industry allows for a
    decrease in cost and increase in the practicality
    of EVs. (...) " (link1)

25
Technology (15/68)
  • Recharging Standards (1/2)
  • 1. A British report, dated June 2010, on the
    Current Situation and Future Direction of
    Electric Vehicle Charger Standards by the SMMT
    (Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders Ltd)
    concludes (p.16 in file, link), concludes
  • - The SAE J1772 vehicle inlet and vehicle
    connector are rapidly becoming the accepted
    charging connector for the US and are likely to
    become mandated by Californian legislation in the
    near future.
  • - SAE J1772 compliant vehicle inlets and vehicle
    connectors are already available from at least
    one supplier, with other suppliers due to begin
    production by the end of 2010.
  • - Whilst the SAE J1772 vehicle inlet and vehicle
    connector provide an excellent solution for the
    US market, where three phase electrical supply is
    not commonly available and where it is common
    practice for the charge cable to form part of the
    charging point, they do not provide an ideal
    solution for Europe.

26
Technology (16/68)
  • Recharging Standards (2/2)
  • - The IEC 62196-2 Type 2 vehicle inlet, vehicle
    connector, outlet socket and plug appears to
    offer a better solution for the European market,
    permitting single or three phase charging at up
    to 70A.
  • - IEC 62196-2 Type 2 vehicle inlets, vehicle
    connectors, outlet sockets and plugs are already
    available from at least one supplier, with other
    suppliers due to begin production by the end of
    2010. The European Automobile Manufacturers
    Association (ACEA) favour the IEC 62196-2 Type 2
    connector.
  • - The main obstacle to the adoption of the IEC
    62196-2 Type 2 connector as the standard European
    charge connector is that some European countries
    have national building codes/regulations on
    electrical installation which require electrical
    contacts to be "shuttered" and the IEC 62196-2
    Type 2 connector specification does not include
    "shutters".
  • - The IEC 62196-2 Type 3 vehicle inlet, vehicle
    connector, outlet socket and plug may provide a
    solution as they have the necessary "shutters"
    and permit single or three phase charging at up
    to 32A."
  •  
  • Recharging Standards (2/

27
Technology (17/68)
  • Recharging Prospective
  • 2. A study presented by the Energy Harvesting
    Journal (link) states
  • About 2.3 billion will be spent on plug in
    charging stations at ex factory prices in 2015.
    However, in contrast to the market for the
    vehicles, the market for their charging stations
    is greatly dominated by car versions.
  • The non-car charging station business will peak
    in numbers in 2019 and value in 2017. There are
    several reasons.
  • - Innovation is slower with cars
  • - Batteries with longer range reduce the need
    for charging stations
  • Global demand for charging stations using
    contacts to the vehicle will quintuple in the
    next decade to reach over 20 billion including
    installation. East Asia takes 40 of the EV
    charging station market by value in 2021.
  • However other devices of energy harvesting are
    gaining efficiency like energy harvesting shock
    absorbers.

28
Trend 7
  • A recurrent question how to avoid public
    overexpenditure in public charging stations, as
    private agents should take the initiative.
    However PPP are recommended to start the process.

29
Technology (18/68)
  • Recharging Prospective Are public charging
    points necessary ?
  • 3. The assessment of the MINI-E leasing
    experiment by BMW gives somes insights on the
    charging behavior of the leasees  (link)
  • " In its 14 month Mini-E test lease program,
    involving two groups of 40 drivers, two-thirds of
    participants only ever charged their two-seat
    all-electric mini at home. (...) While most of
    the participants in the trail had begun their
    short lease believing that public charge points
    were absolutely essential to the future success
    of electric cars most discovered that the 100
    mile range per charge offered by the Mini-E was
    more than enough for daily use.The participants
    did  acknowledge however, that some of their
    electric car charging behavior was formed by a
    lack of public charging infrastructure. ()
  • A lack of charging outside of the home didnt
    cause Mini-E leasees to leave their cars at home
    though drivers reported that despite having
    severe range anxiety at the start of the trail
    they soon discovered the Mini-E could provide
    enough charge for all but the most demanding of
    trips."

30
Trend 8
  • The offer of sophisticated services with
    charging points for EV drivers, charge point
    owners, grid managers, and a preoccupation to
    integrate all the different systems in the cloud
    charging of EVs.

31
Technology (19/68)
  • Recharging by wire Vehicle to grid
    communications
  • Car manufacturers partner to standardize the
    interfaces
  • 1. Mercedes-Benz is spearheading advanced new
    technology that allows electric cars to talk
    directly with the national grid to enable cheaper
    and more efficient charging of EVs. This
    technology is also using a smartphone or iPad
    app, to inform the grid when the vehicle will be
    used next.
  • Mercedes is now leading a research group that
    includes representatives from all major German
    and French manufacturers, Detroits Big Three and
    Toyota to make this vehicle to grid
    communications interface standard on all future
    EVs from these companies. (link)

32
Technology (20/68)
  • Recharging by wire where ?
  • 2. An IBV (IBM Institute for Business Value)
    study shows that
  • "Home charging is considered important to the
    success of EVs. "It is crucially important that
    we build an infrastructure that can charge
    vehicles where their owners park them for
    extended periods of time whether that is at
    home or at work, school, or the store." Where
    to put those charging stations?"When deciding
    where to put charging stations, retail hubs like
    malls and shopping centers are good locations.
    "t's easy to envision charging stations in these
    commercial locations coupled with an advertising
    and promotion-based business model for local
    stores which will help make the economics more
    feasible." Partnering with large employers in
    target regions to create charging infrastructure
    in the workplace also makes sense, Gyimesi
    added." (link)

33
Technology (21/68)
  • Recharging by wire new services
  • 3. Sophisticated services are seen as a must
    with the charging stations, an example with the
    Leviton director of business development (link).
  • Leviton enlisted Charge Point Network Support
    Services, a product of Coulomb Technologies of
    California.
  • Needs
  • to find charging stations easily
  • to reserve charging time at a station via
    computer or smartphone
  • to use Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
    cards to access the power station, which is
    locked until the charging provider allows access
  • or to dial an 800 number that is printed on the
    charging station to order a charging session
  • CPNSS offers a lots of other valuables services
    using the capabilities of the cellular
    organization and of RFID chips.

34
Technology (22/68)
  • Recharging by wire centralized management
    and charging services
  • 4. Bosch proposes an integrated e-mobility
    solution using ICT between the EV driver and its
    chargers to offer a great flexibility of choice
    for the driver and other actors.  (link) Siemens
    does the same (link)
  • The German Walther corporation presents its
    offer of charging solutions (file). Walther also
    offers a centralized payment system capable of
    ensuring its own control  for 3 to 20 prepaid
    recharge points.This new solution will be
    presented by Walther at the show EVER, from 31
    March to 3 April in Monaco." (link) 

35
Trend 9-1
  • Lot of so-called anxieties so far identified
    charge,

36
Technology (23/68)
  • Recharging by wire Charge anxiety
  • 5. Charge anxiety may lead to impatience about
    the availabilty of fast chargers. Some have
    already hacked their Leaf EVSE level 1 to charge
    faster in a Level 2 mode 240V 32 A. (link)

37
Technology (24/68)
  • Recharging by wire first CHADEMO
    certification in Europe
  • 6. The Dutch Epyon is the first manufacturer to
    receive the CHADEMO certification in Europe for
    its new multi-port EV fast chargers (link)

38
Trend 10
  • A growing interest for induction charging to
    ease the life of EV owners with a significative
    progresses both in charging efficiency and in
    induction for moving vehicles.

39
Technology (25/68)
  • Recharging wireless induction charging
  • 1."Liberty Electric Cars  works by engineering
    electric propulsion into existing vehicle
    platforms, replacing the internal combustion
    engine with electrical power via four on-board
    motors (one per wheel). The new technology can
    also allow for wireless charging where the car is
    simply parked over an induction plate and charges
    automatically without the need for plugs or power
    leads." (link)
  • 2. "Rolls-Royce has revealed its all-electric
    102EX Phantom and if it makes
  • production, the firms demanding customers will
    be able to juice it up
  • wirelessly. Clever induction charging
    technology means drivers will simply
  • have to park their ?limo over a special pad.
    This revives the 71kWh battery
  • ?pack with no need for cables. A full charge
    will take eight hours, and give a range of 124
    miles." (link)

40
Technology (26/68)
  • Recharging wireless induction charging
  • 3. "Google latest project was announced Monday
    March 21st and Google says it has installed a
    wireless electric car charger, developed by a
    company called Evatran, to charge up plug-in cars
    on its Mountain View, Calif. campus. Currently
    the prototypes are getting just under 80 percent
    efficiency says Evatran, but the company says it
    will only bring a product to market with 90
    percent efficiency.(...). Evatran also told last
    year that the Plugless Power devices would cost
    around 3,800 and would go on sale April 2011 ."
    (link)
  • 4. Some forecasts "In a few years down the
    road, the plug-free electric vehicle charging
    industry could become substantial and wireless
    charging is already starting to become more
    mainstream for gadgets. Global shipments of
    gadgets capable of proximity charging are
    estimated to jump nearly 70 times by 2014 from
    the 3.5 million units expected to sell this year,
    according to research firm iSuppli.." (link)

41
Technology (27/68)
  • Recharging wireless induction charging for a
    moving EV
  • 5. Bombardier Introduces PrimoveCity E-Mobility
    System (link)
  • PrimoveCity utilizes the PRIMOVE technology
    capable of providing power transfer for all
    electric vehicles. Using inductive energy
    transfer, PRIMOVE equipment mounted under the
    vehicle generates power from cables creating a
    magnetic field placed under the ground's surface.
  • The system only energizes when it is fully
    covered by the vehicle. Vehicle and wayside
    components are designed to meet all applicable
    safety standards. Reliable performance is
    ensured, even under adverse weather and ground
    conditions such as snow, rain, ice, sand or
    water.
  • Bombardier will present its groundbreaking
    PrimoveCity program at the UITP 2011 59th World
    Congress and Mobility City Transport Exhibition
    taking place in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, next
    April, 11-14.

42
Trend 11
  • Battery swapping for cars and trucks is more
    than an idea.

43
Technology (28/68)
  • Wireless recharging Battery swapping (1/3)
  • 1. By implementing BES (battery exchange
    stations) the accommodation of renewables in the
    charging mix is considerably easier than by using
    FCS (fast charge stations).(link)
  • 2. Battery swapping and exchange seems to be
    added as an option with the purchase of an EV in
    order to amortize the cost of the batery over
    time and reduce the risk of the technological
    obsolescence of the battery. . (link)
  • 3. Renault limits battery swapping to Danemark
    and Israël for the time being. (link) Prices
    schemes "all inclusive" are known for the Danish
    buyers of the Fluence ZE, depending of the yearly
    anticipated distance driven.
  • 4. Betterplace inaugurate the first of the 40
    BSS that will be installed in Insraël this year.
    9 are already completed. (link)

44
Inaugurating first Israël BSS on March 24 2011
45
Technology (29/68)
  • Wireless recharging Battery swapping (2/3)
  • 5. An EU Cordis project of 2.4 millions called
    EASYBAT  (link)  has been awarded to a consortium
    of partners among them Betterplace Israël,
    Renault, Continental, two German Universities,
    etc.  " to address these integration challenges
    by defining new concepts for the smart insertion
    of batteries and by developing in particular
    generic interfaces for electric vehicles.
    integration system will be developed for fully
    electric vehicles. () EASYBAT will develop (i)
    generic interfaces to improve interoperability
    between the battery system modules and the
    vehicle on board-systems and (ii) new components
    for an easy safe location and quick integration
    of the battery in the vehicle. (iii) At each
    stage of the project, the EASYBAT partners will
    assess the feasibility of the overall battery
    swapping concept considering costs, logistics,
    and environmental aspects. Based on these
    parameters, the EASYBAT system performance will
    be compared to alternative solutions for EVs."
  • The project has a duration of 30 months starting
    on Jan 1st 2011 until June 30 2013.

46
Technology (30/68)
  • Wireless recharging Battery swapping (3/3)
  • 6.  Tesla has designed its second electric car,
    the Model S, to have a battery that can be
    quickly taken out and swapped with a new one,
    with the idea that if battery swapping becomes
    common for electric car drivers one day, the
    Model S will be prepared, explained Tesla CTO JB
    Straubel at a tour of Teslas Model S Alpha Build
    room.  
  • Making the battery swappable also makes it
    easier to install on the manufacturing line, he
    added. (link)

47
Technology (31/68)
  • Electricity production by the vehicle External
    energy harvesting
  • Piezoelectric energy harvesting roads generate
    power when strained in a particular way. The
    devices are small but over a large area can
    amount to significant power generation. In Italy
    and Israel trials are underway with piezoelectric
    energy harvesting roads - the vibrations due to
    vehicle motion are turned into electricity. In a
    trial by the Israeli government, 2,000 watt hours
    of electricity were generated on a 10 meter
    stretch of highway.
  • However, these technologies would be best placed
    where a vehicle is slowing down, otherwise the
    systems can lower the fuel efficiency of the
    vehicle. Approaches to crossings, ramps and
    parking lots would be ideal locations.  ()
  • Energy harvesters such as those described above
    meet unmet needs. For example, powering signage
    or lighting on roads or in pedestrian areas can
    be done by harvesting energy from the traffic or
    footfall near it - no expensive infrastructure is
    needed. (link)

48
Trend 12 types of vehicles
  • A multiplicity of actors, products, research
    agendas, opportunities, partnerships, policies.
  • A lot of world premières during those three last
    months and first experiences with real customers.
    (cf P0)

49
Technology (32/68)
  • Types of vehicles necessity of an EU regulation
  • "The Commission awarded a project to TRL to
    review the type-approval legislation for electric
    vehicles and the potential safety risks. The
    specific objectives of the project were
  • To provide recommendations on the completion of
    EC (and also UNECE) type-approval requirements
    for electric vehicles
  • To assess potential risks associated with
    electric propulsion that are not covered by
    legislation, including EC and UNECE regulations
  • To provide recommendations on appropriate
    legislative action if potential risks are
    identified.
  • The project focused on M and N category vehicles,
    from mild hybrids to purely-electric vehicles. "
    (file)

50
Technology (33/68)
  • Type of vehicles 2 wheels
  • Prices are down (link)

51
Technology (34/68)
  • Type of vehicles 3 wheelers do you need
    adrenaline ?
  • Nils Ferber EX electric drill-powered
    trike (link).

52
Technology (35/68)
  • Type of vehicles Light 4 wheelers
  • The prices, types and delivery date of the
    Renault Twizy are known. (link)
  • Twizy will be sold from 6,990 including VAT
    (excluding tax incentives)
  • Rent for the battery 45 including VAT /
    month  (36 months, 7500 km per year).

53
Technology (36/68)
  • Type of vehicles electric cars (1/5)
  • The expected pure electric range is increasing,
  • While 100 miles (160 kms) was a common norm in
    recent years, several new vehicles are presented
    with an expected range of 200 kms and more.
  • (examples Saab epower, Mazda Axela, Liberty
    Electric E-Range (retrofit of a Range Rover), VW
    Bulli (300km)   ) (link)

54
Technology (37/68)
  • Type of vehicles electric cars (2/5)
  • BMW creates a new "i" sub-brand for its electric
    vehicles, the i3 formerly called Megacity has
    been spied in tests and a more precise concept
    should be revealed at the Frankfurt motor show in
    September. 
  • Made largely from carbon fiber for lightness and
    strength, the i3 is expected to get a four-seat
    layout with a 134-horsepower electric motor drivin
    g the rear axle. A range-extended version could
    also be available after initial launch." (link)

55
Technology (38/68)
  • Type of vehicles electric cars (3/5)
  • B. World premieres
  • The iMiEV is on sale in UK since January 2011
    (link) as well as in France (file with
    specifications) as well as the Nissan Leaf.

56
Technology (39/68)
  • Type of vehicles electric cars (4/5)
  • C. The practicability of ecars is a continuous
    preoccupation,
  • some   unexpected  newcomers, the Kangoo
    combi and VW Bulli  (link).

57
Technology (40/68)
  • Type of vehicles electric cars (5/6)
  • D. Production announcements some examples (1/2)
  • Ford has announced a range of EVs for BEV to HEVs
    to available between end 2011 to 2013. Volvo
    presents its V60 Diesel PHEV (available 2012).
    Toyota announces an IQ electric retrofit.

58
Technology (41/68)
  • Type of vehicles electric cars (6/6)
  • D. Production announcements some examples (2/2)
  • Tata has started to assemble a batch of 1,500
    Indica Vista EV supermini models in Coventry UK
    on March 25.  The Vista EV is a 4 seater capable
    of covering 120 miles on a full charge with a
    potential top speed of 71 mph. It can also manage
    0-60 kph in less than 10 seconds.
  • The Coventry plant is essentially a location for
    assembly procedures part-built vehicles arrive
    from India and then the batteries, transmission
    and interior parts are added. The vehicles will
    go on sale to the general public at the beginning
    of 2012. (link)
  • .

59
Technology (42/68)
  • Type of vehicles e-taxis
  • 1. ZAP in joint-venture with Jonway has
    presented its E-taxi (link) already distributed
    in South Korea.

60
Technology (43/68)
  • Type of vehicles e-taxis (2/3)
  • 2.  Eco City Vehicles PLC (ECV), developer and
    distributor of eco-friendly commercial vehicles
    in Europe, has announced the launch of an
    all-electric prototype of its London-licensed
    Mercedes Vito taxi).

61
Technology (44/68)
  • Type of vehicles e-taxis (3/3)
  • 3. In January 2011, Mitsubish has announced that
    an electric taxi based on the i-MiEV pure
    electric car would be available commercially in
    the second half of 2011 for a low cost of around
    24,450. Toshiba is to supply lithium ion
    batteries.. (link)

62
Technology (45/68)
  • Type of vehicles all terrain and/or 4x4 (1/2)
  • With the entry of  Avenport Investment in its
    capital , whose investment policy is geared
    towards young SMEs with high potential, Electric
    Car is  acquiring a new partner to support its
    growth and development of its VOLTEIS first 4X4
    electric available on the market since February
    2010. (link) 

63
Technology (46/68)
  • Type of vehicles all terrain and/or 4x4 (2/2)
  • Liberty electric cars retrofits Range Rovers.
    (link)  And on the Volvo V60 PHEV pushing the AWD
    button in the centre stack activates electric
    four-wheel drive. Instead of the mechanical power
    transmission of the conventional AWD system, the
    central control unit manages torque distribution
    to the diesel-driven front wheels and the
    electrically powered rear axle. (link) 

64
Trend 13
  • A significative accent on practicability and
    security of electric cars, vans, taxis, ...

65
Technology (47/68)
  • Type of vehicles e-vans (1/2)
  • Ford announces the Ford Transit Connect full
    electric in collaboration with Azure Dynamics to
    be available in 2011. For the specs, see file and
    the test drive. (link) and Renault offers two
    versions of the Kangoo (ZE et Maxi ZE).

66
Technology (48/68)
  • Type of vehicles e-vans (2/2)
  • 2. Think proposes two types of e-vans
  • The first, the THINK City N1 type approved for
    European van homologation, carries goods up to a
    maximum 237 kilograms and 700-litres in volume,
    and offers significant tax advantages in many
    markets.
  • The THINK Compact van follows later this year.
    With an increased capacity of 900-litres and
    designed as part of a large tender for fleet
    sales to the French Governments UGAP program.
    (link)
  • 3. Mitsubishi Motors Corp and Yamato Transport
    Co Ltd will start a field test of an electric
    pickup and delivery vehicle prototyped by
    Mitsubishi Motors. () The electric vehicle (EV)
    to be tested is based on Mitsubishi Motors'
    "Minicab Van" gasoline-driven commercial light
    van. The company used the motor and the
    lithium-ion rechargeable battery of its "i-MiEV"
    EV for the prototyped EV. Mitsubishi Motors aims
    at an early commercialization of the commercial
    electric light van. (link)

67
Technology (49/68)
  • Type of vehicles e-vans (3/3)
  • 4. Goupil presents the coooling version of its
    electric van. Offering up to 70 km range, this
    version of the G3 cooling van proves to be a good
    alternative to refrigerated heavy vehicles for
    urban deliveries. Its compact size, 1.1 m wide,
    and its 3 m turning radius allow it to slip
    easily into the narrow streets. It primarily
    targets professionals in urban logistics delivery
    (for individuals, meal trays, communities ...).
  • Goupil G3 refrigeration is sold from 27,900
    excl.taxes ... (link)

68
Technology (50/68)
  • Type of vehicles light trucks
  • In France, the Renault Maxity Electric truck will
    soon be available in leasing this year. Renault
    Trucks has partnered with its subsidiary Clovis
    rental to offer contracts with a duration of 48
    months rental full service (maintenance - tires -
    insurance - replacement vehicles. ...). Aimed at
    downtowns, the electric version of Maxity offers
    a payload up to 1.5 tons and may be driven with a
    simple license B. The Maxity reaches a 70 km/h
    maximum speed and its lithium-ion batteries
    loaded in 8 hours allow a 100 km range.  (link)

69
Technology (51/68)
  • Type of vehicles e-bus (1/4)
  • AEV develops a E-Shuttle Bus With Range Of 83
    Miles. Early reports indicate that the 21-foot
    E-Shuttle will run on an 88.5 kWh lithium iron
    phosphate battery pack which will give the
    vehicle a range of about 133 km (84 miles)
    without the use of air conditioning, a top speed
    of 80 km/h (50 mph) and consumption of 665 Wh/km.
  • Note AEV is also working on a solution for the
    exchange of battery packs to be unveiled in late
    2011. (link)

70
Technology (52/68)
  • Type of vehicles e-bus (2/4)
  • 2. The French company SOCIÉTÉ GRUAU MICROBUS is a
    partnership between the Groupe Bolloré and
     Groupe Gruau (link) has developed an electric
    urban bus using LMP batteries and supercapacitors
    (link)
  • 3. The first electric bus in service in France
    was officially inaugurated on the network CoulBus
    Coulommiers (77) The electric bus is a Oreos 4X,
    developed by PVI based in Seine-et-Marne. It is
    equipped with a 170 kwh lithium-ion battery.
    allowing an approximate range of 120 km (at
    70km/h) and can accommodate 47 passengers. "
    (link)
  •  

71
Technology (53/68)
  • Type of vehicles e-bus (3/4)
  • 4. Proterra Inc., a Greenville, S.C. company is
    producing battery-powered, fast-charging transit
    buses. The buses are fueled by Altairnano's
    lithium-titanate battery systems and fuel cell
    that continouous recharge the batteries. (...) 
    Altairnano's fast-charge capability is what makes
    the Proterra bus such an innovative green
    solution. The bus can run a 2 ½ hour bus route
    after a single 5- to 10-minute rapid charge, and
    the batteries have an expected lifespan of 12 to
    15 years in any climate. These batteries are the
    only commercial technology that can currently
    provide these capabilities. (link)
  •  

72
Technology (54/68)
  • Type of vehicles e-bus (4/4)
  • 5. This idea has some success (link)
    a mega-sized U-shaped ultracapacitor could
    provide a low cost low tech decade of
    pollution-free transit services with a double
    decker bus.

73
Technology (55/68)
Type of vehicles Heavy and special vehicles
  • In California, combinations of Fuel Cells and
    batteries are used to power Class 8 heavy trucks
    and tractors in order to provide clean operations
  • Vision Motor Corporation will deliver the
    zero-emission hydrogen fuel-cell hybrid-electric
    powered big-rig and terminal tractor, which they
    produced.
  • Each truck has battery packs that are
    continually recharged by on-board hydrogen
    fuel-cells. The vehicles will undergo real-world
    testing for the full 18 months, encountering
    typical circumstances that any comparative
    diesel-fuelled vehicle would. (link)

74
Technology (56/68)
  • E-Vehicle conception Global engineering (1/3)
  • 1. A Mc Kinsey study confirms that . Driving
    missionsmuch more than the size of
    vehiclesdetermine energy storage requirements."
    (link) and that should motivate car manufacturer
    to better know their customer needs.
  • This confirms the engineering choice made by Mia
    (formerly Heuliez Friendly ). The Mia comes with
    a standard 8 kWh battery pack but more packs may
    be added to increase the range. (link) 

75
Technology (57/68)
  • E-Vehicle conception Global engineering (2/3)
  • 2. Volvo and Opel both present new driving mode
    choices for their PHEV or EREV's the V60 diesel
    PHEV and the Opel Ampera EREV.

To be mentionned the possibility to choose a
 pure  electric mode along with several other
possibilites. (link)
76
Technology (58/68)
  • E-Vehicle conception Global engineering (3/3)
  • Your electric car can go six miles further on its
    battery if you use LED headlights. (link)
  • "Jonathan Dunlap, the automotive lighting
    engineer and product marketing manager with OSRAM
    SYLVANIA, says that LED (light emitting diode)
    lighting can have a significant impact on an
    electric vehicle's range. Over only that last 2-3
    years, the efficiency of LEDs has increased to
    the point where LEDs use less than 25 the energy
    of halogen bulbs (and this will only get better
    in the coming years). So, how much extra range
    can an EV get by using today's LED headlights?
    According to Dunlap
  • An efficient LED headlamp system can extend
    vehicle range by nearly six miles (9.5 km).
  • LEDs have additional benefits such as extremely
    long life (50,000 hours is not uncommon) and
    vibration tolerance, meaning they can last the
    life of the car. The main hurdle at this point is
    getting upfront costs down." (link)

77
Technology (59/68)
  • E-Vehicle conception new materials
  • New materials are developed to increase the
    efficiency of EVs. (link)
  • The move towards adoption of carbon fiber
    reinforced plastic (CFRP) is expected to soon
    gain momentum as a solution for significantly
    reducing the automobile body weight. This
    weight-saving initiative by Toray and Daimler
    would partially offset any increase in weight
    caused by additional safety and comfort features
    or new technologies used in alternative drive
    systems.
  • Furthermore CFRP parts contribute to an
    increased stiffness of the vehicle body, thereby
    further increasing the crash integrity of the
    passenger cell as well as the comfort. (link)

78
Technology (60/68)
  • E-Vehicle conception Motors
  • 1. Toyota moves away rare earths for its motors
    (link)) by attempting to replace its magnet-type
    motor by a lighter and more efficient induction
    motor. This move has been prepared by by the
    government-backed New Energy and Industrial
    Technology Development Organization (NEDO) and
    Hokkaido University. (link)
  • 2. Note that "as a pioneer in the development of
    electric drive systems, AC Propulsion (...) has
    been making EV motors (i.e. for the Mini E, the
    Tesla roadster) without using rare earth metals
    for nearly 20 years. (link)
  • 3. Yaskawa has developped a motor with good
    performance for slow and stop and go driving.
    (link)
  • 4. The Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and
    Industry has announced its plans to implement by
    2012 energy efficiency standards for electric
    motors . (link)

79
Trend 14
  • The renewed interest in retrofitting.

80
Technology (61/68)
  • E-Vehicle conception Retrofitting (1/3)
  • 1. Japan Post "is currently electrifying 25 of a
    22,000 vehicle fleet with the intention of
    converting 100 of the fleet to pure EVs By
    retrofitting the vehicle with the ENERDEL/THINK
    drivetrain, the postal service is able to retain
    its existing vehicle fleet" (link).

81
Technology (62/68)
  • E-Vehicle conception Retrofitting (2/3)
  • 2. "The Japanese automotive supplier Yasukawa
    Electronics (...) has started marketing the YMEV,
    an electrified drive train that can be fitted
    into conventional cars for turning them into EVs.
    The internal permanent magnet (IPM) motor and the
    control systems of the YMEV make it particularly
    efficient in low speeds with frequent
    stop-and-go, such as in parcel delivery. Zero
    Sports, a company very active in the conversion
    of cars in Japan, is using the YMEV for the 1,000
    units strong EV fleet the Japan Post has ordered
    in 2010. " (link)

82
Technology (63/68)
  • E-Vehicle conception Retrofitting (3/3)
  • 3. Numerous actors work in the retrofit sector.
    Interested people may consult
  • http//www.calcars.org/ice-conversions.html

83
Trend 15
  • The integration of IC technologies in EVs to
    provide useful services inside and with the
    vehicle.

84
Technology (64/68)
  • E-Vehicle conception Interactivities (1/2)
  • 1. The charging network must be offered with ICT
    service to facilitate the life of EV drivers AND
    charging point owners. An example is given in the
    Leviton director of business development
    interview. (link)
  • 2. A common language in the cloud charging of
    EVs is necessary in order to allow EV drivers
    inscribed at one network, will also be able to
    charge at stations provided and serviced by
    another one. It might come at a higher charging
    rate, but technical access will be possible.
    (link)

85
Trend 9-2
  • Lot of so-called anxieties so far identified
    charge, signal,

86
Technology (65/68)
  • E-Vehicle conception Interactivities (2/2)
  • A new source of anxiety ? And a talent quest
    war.
  • 3. Ford has just announced that it has chosen
    telecoms giant ATT to provide wireless
    connectivity to its new range of electric and
    plug-in cars, enabling drivers of its 2012 Ford
    Focus electric car to remotely interact with
    their car via an Internet portal or their smart
    phone.
  • This will enable users to check on their cars
    state of charge, pre-air condition the car and
    even schedule charging. In addition, the cars
    permanent Internet connection means drivers get
    real-time traffic information, eventually
    integrating with charging networks to show which
    charging points are available near the car or its
    destination. " (link)
  • But will range anxiety be accompanied by signal
    anxiety, the quality of telecomunications being
    far from  excellent everywhere ?
  • Moreover a talent quest for tech talents
    recently made Detroit the fasted growing area for
    such diplomas competing with Silicon Valley
    (link)

87
Technology (66/68)
  • E-Vehicle conception Security (1/3)
  • 1. Given the side pole impact test that caused
    the 2011 Mitsubishi i-Miev so much grief in the
    NCAP Euro tests earlier this month (feb 2011)
    (link)

88
Technology (67/68)
  • E-Vehicle conception Security (2/3)
  • Volvo decided to put its electric C30 in this
    same situation which is one of the most severe of
    all crash tests. (link), as well as Gordon Murray
    with the smaller T.27

89
Technology (68/68)
  • E-Vehicle conception Security (3/3)
  • 3. The European Commission, DG Enterprise and
    Industry commissioned a report  from TRL to
    review the type-approval legislation for electric
    vehicles and the potential safety risks.
  • The specific objectives of the project were
  • To provide recommendations on the completion of
    EC (and also UNECE) type-approval requirements
    for electric vehicles
  • To assess potential risks associated with
    electric propulsion that are not covered by
    legislation, including EC and UNECE regulations
  • To provide recommendations on appropriate
    legislative action if potential risks are
    identified. (file and link)

90
Economic Challenges (1/6)
  • A conclusion R. Minsks MIT symposium
  •  Transportation electrification offers the most
    promising pathway to a more secure energy future,
    but there should be no mistaking the magnitude of
    this undertaking. The existing oil infrastructure
    spans the globe, was created over the course of a
    century, and is worth trillions of dollars.
    Replacing it with an alternate infrastructure
    that delivers similar functionality will take
    decades, which should not be surprising given
    that new cars routinely last for fifteen years
    and new power plants are built to operate for
    fifty years or more.
  • Without committing to electrify at least parts
    of our transportation system, the burdens of oil
    dependence on our economy and our national
    security are only likely to grow. (file)

91
Trend 16
  • A political will and business moves to avoid a
    dependency to Energy Critical Elements.

92
Economic Challenges (2/6)
  • Macroeconomic strategies
  • China monopoly on rare earths exports (gt 90 of
    world exports) used in the EV industry poses a
    strategic problem of natural resources dependency
    since China has decided to reduce its export
    quota of rare earths. See this topic under
    (Socio-politicals aspects gt Strategic views gt
    Public views infra)

93
Economic Challenges (3/6)
  • Financial risks and opportunities for consumers
    the rent distribution problem of  used 
    batteries
  •  Enabling consumers to capture the residual
    value of automotive battery purchases could
    significantly offset the higher upfront cost of
    purchasing a grid-enabled vehicle. As the first
    generation of GEV batteries enters the secondary
    use market, a value will surely be derived. If
    nothing else, the recycling of battery raw
    materials alone will generate a notional return
    on investment for consumers. More likely, battery
    values will be well in excess of the recycling
    value given their potential use in the electric
    power sector. In the meantime, however, markets
    are likely to undervalue lithium-ion batteries
    due to their inability to assess the risk of an
    unknown technology.
  • Therefore, governments should authorize programs
    to guarantee residual value for large format
    automotive batteries. Compared to the uncertainty
    of battery research and development, establishing
    a minimum residual value would effectively buy
    down the cost of batteries immediately. 
     (adapted from link)

94
Trend 17 is it a trend or a recurrent fate ?
  • Not better market penetration forecasts for EVs.
    However the observation that fleet begin their
    electrification (even by retrofitting) given the
    relatives advantages provided by their
    electrification

95
Economic Challenges (4/6)
  • Market penetration forecasts (most interesting)
    (1/3)
  • After the range, charge and signal anxiety, the
    delivery anxiety appeared in the Nissan Laef
    customer minds due to long delays and more
    recently to the earhquake in Japan . (link)
  • According to a recent study by McKinsey, the
    electric drive vehicles (100 electric and
    hybrid) could dominate the global automotive
    market in 2030 through the gradual evolution of
    standards for CO2 emissions. (link)The firm
    relies on different assumptions on the evolution
    of legislation to carry out various market
    analysis.

96
Economic Challenges (5/6)
  • Market penetration forecasts (most interesting)
    (2/3)
  • Moderate reduction - 95 g / km CO2 by 2050  In
    this case, the ICE vehicle maintains its
    supremacy heat until about 2035 before giving way
    to hybrid vehicles. The plug-in hybrid could
    emerge in the 2040s while the electric car would
    have a moderate with only 10 market share in
    2050. The fuel cell vehicles could never develop
    for lack of available infrastructure ...
  • Strong reduction - 40 g / km CO2 by 2050
    Probably the most likely hypothesis. In this
    case, the ICE vehicle will be predominant until
    2030. After that date, electric cars and plug-in
    hybrids take rapidly a large market share at the
    expense of conventional vehicles. The fuel cell
    would be favored on large vehicles for longer
    trips ...
  • Strict reduction - 10 g / km CO2 by 2050 Here,
    the thermal vehicle loses its grip in 2025 to
    provide market share in the electric-powered
    vehicles.  In the long term, the technology
    becomes dominant pure electric for short trips
    and the fuel cell for longer distances.  Hybrid
    cars and plug-in hybrid technology serve only
    temporary and quickly yield place to the two
    previously mentioned technology.

97
Economic Challenges (6/6)
  • Market penetration forecasts (most interesting)
    (3/3)
  • A summary of US EV penetration forecasts. (link)

98
Management Issues (1/14)
Marketing Leasing 1. Swapping and leasing
batteries seems to be a new business model
allowing buyers of EVs to amortize over time the
cost and the technological obsolescence risk of
batteries. "In the future, proposes Charles
Gassenheimer, chairman and CEO of battery
manufacturer Ener1, electric-vehicle battery
leasing should be added to the options. We can
come up with a creative lease finance model that
more appropriately allocates the cost of
battery use, he said. Currently, the battery
represents up to 45 percent of the cost of an
electric vehicle. Getting that cost down will be
crucial to widespread consumer acceptance of
plug-in vehicles, according to virtually all
reports. (...) Gassenheimer suggested that
consumers could buy a service agreement under
which they pay 100 to 150 a month to use the
battery. Every three to five years, the battery
could be swapped out. It wouldnt go to that
great battery farm in the sky, however. It could
still be used for storage . (link) 
99
Management Issues (2/14)
Marketing EV car rental The Hertz Corporation
announced last year (Dec. 6 2010)  that New York
will be the first city to receive electric
vehicles (EV) as part company's Hertz Global EV
initiative.  "Daily rental firm Hertz has
also signed a two-year 500-unit electric vehicle
supply deal with Renault. The four Renault EVs
launched in the next 18 months the Kangoo van,
lower medium Fluence, Supermini Zoe and Twizy
scooter/city car are all included in the
deal. Hertz said there will be an allocation for
corporates as theyre seen as early adopters,
although couldnt say how many cars would be
devoted here. Our partnership with Hertz will
allow the public to experience our innovative
driving technology first-hand, as well as
developing their understanding of the
environmental benefits of our Renault ZE Range,
said Uwe Hochgeschurtz, senior VP of Renaults
corporate sales division." (link1) For the
original press release, see link2.
100
Management Issues (3/14)
Mobility Services EV car sharing 1. Nice (see
Panorama 0) opens its first car sharing station
(link) and video
101
Management Issues (4/14)
  • Mobility Services Electricity for EVs Markets
  • One-Stop integrated solutions for EVs and
    certification of renewable energy sources
  • The partnership of the Renault-Nissan Alliance
    and The Mobility House (Austria) intends to 
    give our EV customers in Austria and Switzerland
    a competitive one-stop solution at our
    dealerships for all their e-mobility needs,
    including domestic charging, installation by a
    certified technician, and electricity. The
    Mobility House will provide seamless access to
    energy and energy-related services to all Renault
    and Nissan EV customers anywhere anytime, said
    Thomas Raffeiner, Founder and CEO of The Mobility
    House.
  • In Austria, TMH will also provide customers with
    certification that the electricity from their
    charging unit is derived from renewable energy
    sources, making them eligible for electricity
    subsidies in that market. (link) (From the press
    release)

102
Trend 18
  • Numerous new partnerships between energy
    producers, car manufacturers, telecommunication
    operators, research teams, . (Cf P0)

103
Management Issues (5/14)
  • New partnerships (1/4)
  • Mercedes is now leading a research group that
    includes representatives from all major German
    and French manufacturers, Detroits Big Three and
    Toyota to make their vehicle to grid
    communications interface standard on all future
    EVs from these companies. See also Technology gt
    Recharging gt Recharging by wire gt Panorama 1
    (link)
  • Bolloré and Gruau have partenered to conceive and
    produce the microbus Gruau electicty using LMP
    batteries and supercapacitors. (link) See also
    Technology gt Type of vehicles gt ebus gt Panorama1
    (link)
  • Daimler (Mercedes) and Torray have partenered to
    mass produce CFRP auto parts to be used in all
    Mercedes models starting in 2012 by using a new
    production method called Short Cycle Resin
    Transfer Molding (SCRTM).(link) See also
    Technology gt EV conception gtMaterialsgt Panorama
    1 (link)
  • A new research consortium has been founded around
    the MIT, called the MIT Energy Initiative
    (MITei). Its numerous members are big energy
    corporations togheter with electronic firms,
    electricity distribution societies, academic
    institutions, etc. (link).

104
Management Issues (6/14)
  • New partnerships (2/4)
  • ZAP and Jonway have partenered  in a JV owned for
    51 by ZAP
  • Jonway Automobiles revenues from selling its
    gasoline vehicles will help build the foundation
    for ZAP Jonways growth in the electric vehicle
    market, allowing ZAP to focus on further
    strengthening its EV technology, reinforced by
    Jonways manufacturing production expertise and
    ready market access to China, said Dr. Priscilla
    Lu, founder and general partner of Cathaya
    Capital, a Cross Border Fund focused on China.
    (link)
  • The Saab ePower is the first electric vehicle
    from Saab and is a result of a private public
    partnership between Saab Automobile, Boston Power
    (batteries), Electroengine in Sweden AB (battery
    management system), Innovatum (project
    management), Power Circle (Swedens electric
    power industry trade organization) and the
    Swedish Energy Agency (partial financing). (link)
  • ENERDEL has developed numerous partnerships to
    develop its activities (p.34 in link)

105
Management Issues (7/14)
  • New partnerships (3/4)
  • EDTA,  Electric Drive Transportation
    Association, is "the preeminent US industry
    association dedicated to the promotion of
    electric drive as the best means to achieve the
    highly efficient and clean use of secure energy
    in the transportation sector." (link) It groups
    the main US carmakers, energy companies,
    batteries and battery components manufacturers,
    component suppliers, infrastructure developers,
     industry trade associations, defense
    contractors, governemental agencies and other
    interest associations.
  • After a similar experience I North America, Tesla
    launches a battery recycling program throughout
    Europe through a partnership with Umicore. It
    intents to do the same in Asia. (link)
  • BMW Peugeot Citroën Electrification is the name
    of the new BMW PSA partnership. "BMW Peugeot
    Citroen Electrification will focus on the
    development and manufacture of components for
    hybrid vehicles (battery packs, electrical
    machinery, genera
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