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Title: English Teacher s Network Workshop Vocabulary & Grammar in


1

English Teachers Network Workshop
Vocabulary Grammar in Context

David Quartermain David Sansom March 2012
2
What problems do your students have learning,
remembering and using vocabulary and grammar in
English?
Heres what you said on the Englishonline blog
Its difficult to make vocabulary teaching vivid
and interesting
Students can memorise words but they still cant
use them
Most students think vocabulary and grammar are
very boring
How can I make boring words look interesting?
British Council questionnaires to teachers in
China about grammar and vocabulary in context
  • Help students remember
  • Help students understand
  • Increase student motivation
  • Create meaningful context
  • Provide methods activities

3
Memorising words is not the same as remembering
words!
Short-term memory
Long-term memory
  • No connection with
  • existing knowledge
  • New words connected
  • to existing knowledge
  • Little opportunity to
  • use new words
  • New words are put to work
  • New words regularly
  • recycled
  • Easily forgotten

4
  • context k?n tekst
  • noun
  • the parts of a written or spoken statement that
    precede or follow a specific word or passage,
    usually influencing its meaning or effect
  • The Language Context
  • the set of circumstances or facts that surround a
    particular event, situation, etc.
  • The Situation Context

http//dictionary.reference.com/
5
Meaning depends on context
1) book
Do you have a book about England?
I want to book a hotel room in Beijing.
2) bank
Im going to the bank to borrow money.
Lets go to the river bank for our picnic.
3) present
Thank you for the birthday present.
David will present todays workshop.
6
Context lives inside the head of the student
A teacher asks a student, If I give you 2
rabbits, then give you 2 more rabbits, how many
rabbits do you have? The students answers,
Five. The teacher asks again Listen. I give
you 2 rabbits. Then 2 rabbits. How many rabbits
do you have? Five, replies the student. How
can 2 rabbits plus 2 rabbits equal 5?! shouts
the teacher. Because, says the student, Ive
already got one rabbit at home.
7
Meaningful
  • A meaningful context is relevant to
  • the place you are using language in
  • what you are using the language for
  • the person who is using the language

8
Vocabulary Context
The more common vocabulary is, the greater the
need for context to help students find out
meanings and uses e.g. apple, fire, can This
means the need is greatest at Primary and Junior
levels
So how do we bring context into teaching?
9
1. ?
Words go together
??? Collocations
FLTRP Junior High Module 2
10
2. ?
??? Collocations
a taxi
someones temperature
the ice
the rules
a chance
a promise
a wish
a look
a seat
a list
money
a suggestion
a complaint
notes
an exam
a rest
a leg
a holiday
someones heart
the law
a habit
progress
certain
the news to somebody
the bed
11
Take
2. ?
a taxi
someones temperature
the ice
the rules
a chance
a promise
a wish
a look
a seat
a list
money
a suggestion
a complaint
notes
an exam
a rest
a leg
a holiday
someones heart
the law
a habit
progress
certain
the news to somebody
the bed
12
Make
2. ?
a taxi
someones temperature
the ice
the rules
a chance
a promise
a wish
a look
a seat
a list
money
a suggestion
a complaint
notes
an exam
a rest
a leg
a holiday
someones heart
the law
a habit
progress
certain
the news to somebody
the bed
13
Break
2. ?
a taxi
someones temperature
the ice
the rules
a chance
a promise
a wish
a look
a seat
a list
money
a suggestion
a complaint
notes
an exam
a rest
a leg
a holiday
someones heart
the law
a habit
progress
certain
the news to somebody
the bed
14
How often do you?
??? Collocations
Break the law
Break a promise
Make a complaint
Make a list
Take a chance
Take a holiday
15
3. ?
Provide a personal context
Find Someone Who
1) Has been to Macau .
2) Has ridden a camel .
3) Has seen a ghost .
4) Has kissed an Englishman
16
  • Months
  • Seasons
  • Weather

Summer
  • Something you do
  • Something you see
  • Something you eat or drink
  • An adjective

Autumn
Spring
Winter
Relevant things that are related to your
situation and your students
PEP Primary G5B Unit 3
17
  • Play tennis
  • Olympic Games
  • Beer
  • Wet
  • Carry an umbrella
  • Rain
  • Easter egg
  • Wet


Summer
In London
Spring
Autumn
  • Play football
  • Fallen leaves
  • Beer
  • Damp (wet cold)

Winter
  • Catch a cold
  • Rain and snow
  • Christmas cake
  • Freezing (wet and very cold!)

18
Provide a Meaningful context
Polar Bear Story
www.teachingenglish.org.uk/language-assistant/prim
ary-tips/polar-bear-story
19
Have I got?
A baby polar bear asks his mother, Mummy have I
got polar bear ears? His mother says, Yes, of
course. He then asks, Have I got polar bear
paws? and Have I got polar bear fur?, and both
times his mother says Yes, of course. He then
asks his father, Have I got polar bear ears?
Of course. Have I got polar bear paws? Of
course. Have I got polar bear fur? Of
course, says his father for the third
time. Then why do I feel so cold?! says the
baby polar bear!
The objective is for students to ask as many
Have I got? questions as they can. The story
is providing a learning context for practising
this structure.
www.teachingenglish.org.uk/language-assistant/prim
ary-tips/polar-bear-story
20
True for you?
No for me Cross your arms
Yes for me Raise both your hands
I dont know Put both your hands on your head
Ive got a beautiful smile
Ive got lots of marking to do!
Ive got a headache
Ive got an i-phone
Ive got a daughter
Ive got green eyes
Ive got a husband
21

One Word Story
Each student adds one word to create a group
story. Despite the simplicity, it can be really
challenging...

three
saw
students
I
who
Yesterday
were


http//www.englishonline.org.cn/en/teachers/games/
one-word-stories
22
Look for context clues
Context clues are bits of information from the
text that allow you to decide the meaning of
unknown words in the article you are reading.
?????????????????,???????????????????? ?????
23
Definition Context clues The baboon, like other
apes, is a very social animal.
Synonym Context clues After seeing the picture of
the hungry children, we felt compassion or pity
for their suffering.
Antonym Context clues Da Wei was reluctant to
accept the job. However, Xiao Wei was very happy
to be given the role.
24
Context Clues
1. ?
FLTRP Junior High Module 2
25

Text in Context
How good is your Portuguese?
  • How many of these animals escaped?
  • Which country is the story in?
  • What is the name of the hurricane (typhoon) that
    led to the animals escaping?
  • What is the name of the Governor in the State
    where this happened?
  • When did this happen?


26
4. ?
Atualizado em  21 de setembro, 2010

Cerca de 280 crocodilos escaparam de um viveiro
na cidade mexicana de La Antigua (Estado de
Veracruz), devido a uma inundação causada pela
passagem do furacão Karl, no último fim de
semana. A informação inicial era que 400
crocodilos teriam escapado, mas o número foi
retificado nessa segunda-feira pelo governador do
Estado, Fidel Herrera Beltrán. Estou avaliando a
situação com a Marinha, mas espero que não haja
maiores danos porque a água está baixando
consideravelmente, afirmou.

27
How did you know the answers?
  • Your knowledge of the world.
  • Your analysis of the questions.
  • Your knowledge of capital letters and names.
  • The text surrounding the answer.
  • Your knowledge of English.
  • Your ability to see similarities.
  • Your confidence in guessing.

28


Context helps students predict new vocabulary

FLTRP Junior High Grade 2B Module 2
29
  • When I was learning French at school
  • Students read text.
  • Students did exercises on vocabulary.
  • Teacher corrected mistakes.
  • Students didnt understand.
  • Students tried (and failed) to remember
    vocabulary.

30
  • An alternative method
  • Teacher introduces context of text.
  • Students think about context for themselves.
  • Teacher guides students to key vocabulary.
  • Students develop understanding of text.
  • Students are better able to do exercises.

31
Introducing the context of the text
The teacher asks the students Do you remember
your first day at this school? How did you feel
happy, lonely? Did you speak to anyone? How did
you make new friends?
32
Cough Dictation When I cough, tell your partner
what you think the missing word (or words) could
be. (The teacher reads the first part of the
text, coughing on certain words. Students have
their books closed, and guess together what the
missing word(s) were)
33
5. ?
When I was 13 years old, a boy gave me an
important gift. It was a (1) It was early
autumn of my first year at a (2) school, and
my old school was far away. As a result, (3)
knew who I was. I was very (4)., and afraid
to make (5). with anyone. Every time I heard
the other students talking and (6) ., I
felt my heart (7) . I couldnt talk to
anyone about my problem, and I didnt want my
parents to (8) about me.
When I was 13 years old, a boy gave me an
important gift. It was a (1)smile It was early
autumn of my first year at a (2) school, and
my old school was far away. As a result, (3)
knew who I was. I was very (4)., and afraid
to make (5). with anyone. Every time I heard
the other students talking and (6) ., I
felt my heart (7) . I couldnt talk to
anyone about my problem, and I didnt want my
parents to (8) about me.
When I was 13 years old, a boy gave me an
important gift. It was a (1)smile It was early
autumn of my first year at a (2) Junior High
school, and my old school was far away. As a
result, (3) knew who I was. I was very
(4)., and afraid to make (5). with
anyone. Every time I heard the other students
talking and (6) ., I felt my heart
(7) . I couldnt talk to anyone about my
problem, and I didnt want my parents to
(8) about me.
When I was 13 years old, a boy gave me an
important gift. It was a (1)smile It was early
autumn of my first year at a (2) Junior High
school, and my old school was far away. As a
result, (3) ..nobody.. knew who I was. I was
very (4)., and afraid to make (5). with
anyone. Every time I heard the other students
talking and (6) ., I felt my heart
(7) . I couldnt talk to anyone about my
problem, and I didnt want my parents to
(8) about me.
When I was 13 years old, a boy gave me an
important gift. It was a (1)smile It was early
autumn of my first year at a (2) Junior High
school, and my old school was far away. As a
result, (3) ..nobody.. knew who I was. I was
very (4)lonely.., and afraid to make (5).
with anyone. Every time I heard the other
students talking and (6) ., I felt my heart
(7) . I couldnt talk to anyone about my
problem, and I didnt want my parents to
(8) about me.
When I was 13 years old, a boy gave me an
important gift. It was a (1)smile It was early
autumn of my first year at a (2) Junior High
school, and my old school was far away. As a
result, (3) ..nobody.. knew who I was. I was
very (4)lonely.., and afraid to make
(5)..friends with anyone. Every time I heard the
other students talking and (6) ., I felt my
heart (7) . I couldnt talk to anyone
about my problem, and I didnt want my parents to
(8) about me.
When I was 13 years old, a boy gave me an
important gift. It was a (1)smile It was early
autumn of my first year at a (2) Junior High
school, and my old school was far away. As a
result, (3) ..nobody.. knew who I was. I was
very (4)lonely.., and afraid to make
(5)..friends with anyone. Every time I heard the
other students talking and (6) ...laughing, I
felt my heart (7) . I couldnt talk to
anyone about my problem, and I didnt want my
parents to (8) about me.
When I was 13 years old, a boy gave me an
important gift. It was a (1)smile It was early
autumn of my first year at a (2) Junior High
school, and my old school was far away. As a
result, (3) ..nobody.. knew who I was. I was
very (4)lonely.., and afraid to make
(5)..friends with anyone. Every time I heard the
other students talking and (6) ...laughing, I
felt my heart (7)..break . I couldnt talk
to anyone about my problem, and I didnt want my
parents to (8) about me.
When I was 13 years old, a boy gave me an
important gift. It was a (1)smile It was early
autumn of my first year at a (2) Junior High
school, and my old school was far away. As a
result, (3) ..nobody.. knew who I was. I was
very (4)lonely.., and afraid to make
(5)..friends with anyone. Every time I heard the
other students talking and (6) ...laughing, I
felt my heart (7)..break . I couldnt talk
to anyone about my problem, and I didnt want my
parents to (8)..worry about me.


FLTRP Junior High Grade 2B Module 2
34
The teacher continues reading the text, and this
time the students predict the final words of this
passage.

Then one day, my classmates talked happily with
their friends, but I sat at my desk unhappily as
usual. At that moment, a boy entered the
classroom. I didnt know who he was. He passed
me and then turned back. He looked at me and,
without a word, smiled. Suddenly, I felt the
touch of something bright and friendly. It made
me feel (happy, lively and warm.)

FLTRP Junior High Grade 2B Module 2
35
Now the students can start using some the new
vocabulary from the text.
my life
That smile changed .. I started to talk with
Day by day, I became closer to .. The boy
with the lucky smile became my... One day, I
asked him why he smiled, . Now I believe
that the world is . If you think you are
lonely, ... So smile at the world and
.
That smile changed my life I started to talk
with the other students Day by day, I became
closer to everyone The boy with the lucky smile
became my best friend One day, I asked him why he
smiled, but he couldnt remember smiling at me!
the other students
everyone
best friend
Now I believe that the world is .
what you think it is
If you think you are lonely, ...
youll always be alone
So smile at the world and
and it will smile back
FLTRP Junior High Grade 2B Module 2
36

And the students can start making their own
personal, relevant sentences with the key
vocabulary and grammar structures.
  • When I was ..
  • . gave me a gift
  • It was .
  • That .. changed my life
  • I started to
  • I became ..
  • So ..

18
my brother
a book
book
read more
interested in studying

I went to university
37

Taking the language off the page
And the students can use the key vocabulary and
grammar from the text in a communicative
activity.

smile? feel lonely? give someone a
gift? feel your heart break? worry about your
classmates? make new friends?
How often do you

FLTRP Junior High Grade 2B Module 2
38
  • Students have thought about the context
  • Students have guessed vocabulary in context
  • Students have a clear idea of general meaning
  • Students have seen vocabulary used in context
  • Students have used key vocabulary in context



39
Stories provide a context
Money Story
http//www.teachingenglish.org.uk/lesson-plans/voc
abulary-lesson-money
Tip Find some good pictures to help your
students understand any new vocabulary, e.g. to
steal, ATM, to withdraw money, broke, save money,
etc.
40
Money Story
Using the pictures to stimulate students
imagination, and to help explain the meaning of
new words, the teacher reads the following story
Money Vocabulary Story Da Wei works in a factory
and earns 1,000 RMB a month. His brother Xiao Wei
is a business man in Beijing and makes 1,000 RMB
a day! Da Wei saves nearly all of his wages and
only spends a little on food. Sometimes, he
invests money in shares. Xiao Wei wastes all his
money on gambling. Last week, Xiao Wei lost all
his money playing cards. Now hes totally
broke! He often borrows money from Da Wei, but
never pays him back so now he owes him a fortune.
Da Wei is really lucky and he found 10,000 RMB
next to a cashpoint machine last week, when he
was withdrawing some money. He invited Xiao Wei
to his house to celebrate, but when he was there,
Da Wei saw him stealing money from his wallet.
Da Wei decided never to lend Xiao Wei money
again.
41
Money Verbs
  • Earn
  • Lend
  • Save
  • Make
  • Spend
  • Owe
  • Invest
  • Find
  • Waste
  • Withdraw
  • Lose
  • Steal
  • Borrow

42
Money Verbs
Matching Exercise
  • Withdraw money
  • Earn money
  • Waste money
  • Lose money
  • To get money by working
  • The opposite of win or find
  • To take money out of a bank account
  • To spend money on things you dont need

43
Money Verbs
Which company would you like to invest money in?
Now the students can use some of this vocabulary
to ask and answer real, relevant, personal
questions
How much money would you like to earn each month?
What did you last waste money on?
44
Creating a Story
  • Wake up
  • Get dressed

Any text or story in the course book can be used
like this. The students listen to the story, make
their own stories using the key vocabulary, and
then ask and answer real questions.
  • Have a cold
  • Sore throat
  • Loud sneeze
  • Take medicine
  • Feel better

Vocabulary from Success with English Unit 4 5
45
Stories provide context so do dialogues!
He feels tired
What should we do??
Lets
Taken from Go for it Unit 2 Success with
English Unit 4
46
Stories provide context so do dialogues!
He feels .. (adjective)
Use the vocabulary already in the book, e.g.
adjectives (cold, hot, tired, worried), and the
students can create their own dialogues, using
the key vocabulary and structure, and helping
each other to provide a learning context and
remember the meaning and use of the words.
What should we do??
Lets (suggestion)
Taken from Go for it Unit 2 Success with
English Unit 4
47
Grammar Context
Grammar can also be taught in context
Make it into a task
PEP Primary G5-B (Unit 3 p.33)
48
Grammar Context
Students work in pairs to ask and answer
questions about their real lives
Key vocabulary birthday computer card like have s
end
  • When is your birthday?
  • Do you like to use a computer?
  • Do you like to send cards?
  • Who do you send cards to ?
  • Do you have a computer?
  • Do you send e-cards?

PEP Primary G5-B (Unit 3 p.33)
49
Grammar Context
Class survey
In this class, how many people.. send
e-cards? use a computer every day? have a
birthday this month? like to receive e-cards?
have a computer at home? make cards?
Heres another activity to get students using,
thinking about, and learning the key vocabulary
and grammar completing a simple survey of their
classmates in groups.
PEP Primary G5-B (Unit 3 p.33)
50

6. ?
Text and grammar

Go for it! Junior High G2B Unit 3 p.20
51

6. ?
Text and grammar
Target language Past continuous with when and
while
I had a very unusual experience yesterday
evening. I was at home ... (what
were you doing?) When suddenly .. .
(what happened)
watching TV
I heard a loud noise

Go for it! Junior High G2B Unit 3 p.20
52

Text and grammar
Target language Past continuous with when and
while
What were you doing ..?
at 10 oclock yesterday evening?
at 9am last Monday?

Go for it! Junior High G2B Unit 3 p.20
53

The major difference between the new textbook
and past teaching materials is to leave room for
imagination for the students

Teachers no longer teach textbooks but
teach with textbooks
They should use the textbooks in a more flexible
and creative way according to the actual needs of
the students and classroom
Liu Daoyi ??? ???????????????? Liu, Daoyi
(2005). On evaluation criteria of English teacher
materials. FLC Journal, 2(6), Nov 2005, pp14-17,
23
54
What have we learnt?
  • Students have problems memorising and using
    vocabulary
  • Without context, vocabulary can be meaningless
  • Words go together
  • We must consider both a language context
  • As well as a personal context
  • Provide a meaningful context
  • Grammar can also be taught in context
  • Building a context helps students predict new
    vocabulary
  • Look for context clues
  • Stories provide a context
  • So do dialogues
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