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World War One and the 1920 s Chapters 30-32 1917- 1929 * *


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Title: World War One and the 1920 s Chapters 30-32 1917- 1929 * *

World War One and the 1920sChapters 30-32
  • 1917- 1929

The War to End War
  • Chapter 30

I. War by Act of Germany
  • Wilson won re-election in 1916 by keeping America
    out of the war
  • Three groups
  • Isolationists- Not intervene in European affairs
  • Internationalists- Work for peace, not enter war
  • Interventionists- Enter war on side of Allies,
    protect interests
  • Wilson supported internationalists
  • 1917 three events led U.S. to war
  • Unrestricted submarine warfare by Germans
  • Zimmerman note intercepted- German proposal to
    Mexico to be allies and after German victory
    territory lost in Mexican-American War (1848)
    would be returned
  • Russian Revolution toppled tsar, America could
    now focus on war for democracy not despotism
  • April 2, 1917 U.S. declares war on Germany

II. Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned
  • War shattered American tradition of isolationism
  • Wilson had to frame war as making world safe for
    democracy, more glorified aim
  • War not for territorial conquest or riches, but
    to shape international order
  • Modern world could not afford destructive wars
  • Presidents appeal fired up Americans to support
  • Wilson recognized as moral leader of war
  • Jan. 1918 Fourteen Points Address
  • Abolish secret treaties
  • Freedom of the seas
  • Removal of economic barriers
  • Reduction of Armaments
  • Get rid of colonialism
  • Organize a system of collective security
  • Idea was to delegitimize colonial powers, open
    world to political and economic freedom, not
    popular with many European powers

III. Gaining American Support and Enforcing
  • During war government assumed new powers
  • Changed relationship with federal government
  • War relied on voluntary compliance more than
    formal laws
  • Build military Congress passes Selective Service
    Act (1917) drafts men for war
  • 4.8 million serve in WWI
  • 1917- Committee for Public Information (CPI)-
    educate public on causes and nature of war
  • Advertising to sell America on war
  • Not all Americans supported war
  • Government took away individual liberties to
    quiet dissent
  • Resistance to the draft
  • Seen as illegal intrusion into private lives, did
    not cooperate with draft boards
  • Conscientious objectors- moral or religious
    reasons forbid fighting in wars

III. Gaining American Support and Enforcing
  • CPI stifled free expression
  • 1917- Espionage Act- penalties for obstructing
    war effort (print, mail, resisting draft)
  • 1918- Sedition Act- unlawful to speak out about
    government. Used against socialists, political
    radicals and pacifists
  • Supreme Court ruled acts constitutional (Schenck
    v. U.S. 1919) During wartime freedom of speech
    does not apply (if it presents a clear and
    present danger)
  • Germany seen as primary foe against U.S.
  • Harassment, violence against German Americans
  • Stopped teaching German in schools, playing
    German composers music

IV. The Nations Factories go to War
  • Wilson organized an effort to supply American in
    the war effort
  • Many Americans had fear of government control and
    balked at the government effort
  • Overall cooperation, not competition marked
    industrial effort
  • To combat this Wilson formed the War Industries
    Board (1918) to oversee industrial production
  • American workers threatened by work or fight to
    combat unemployment
  • Labor was given a boost by war, wages rose and
    work days standardized to eight hours, still no
    government guarantee to organize into unions
  • War effort supported by AF of L but not by more
    radical groups (IWW) who committed acts of
  • Wartime prices rose and this negated most wage
  • 1919 steel strike was met with resistance by
    factory owners who brought in scabs and setback
    the union movement

V. Changes for Women and African Americans
  • Women
  • Men left workforce , labor shortage filled by
  • Took jobs previously open to men
  • Women served Red Cross, Army Corps of Nurses in
    Europe during war
  • Many progressive era feminists were pacifists
  • Efforts and sacrifices during war led Wilson to
    support passage of 19th Amendment
  • Economic gains proved fleeting, many women gave
    up wartime jobs

V. Changes for Women and African Americans
  • African Americans
  • Many served in military, in segregated units and
    mostly behind the lines
  • Many went north during the war for employment
  • Caused racial strife in some cities (Chicago
    riots 1917)
  • Movement from rural South to Chicago, Detroit,
    industrial Northeast
  • Escape racism, poverty of life in south, promise
    economic advancement
  • Called Great Migration (1.2 million moved

VI. Forging a War Economy
  • America had to feed themselves and allies, went
    into it haphazardly
  • Herbert Hoover was put n charge of food
    production effort, effort relied on voluntary
    cooperation rather than legal means
  • Used propaganda campaign to save food for export,
    promoted victory gardens
  • Spirit of self denial led to decline in
    consumption of alcohol and eventually the passage
    of the 19th Amendment
  • Food production and export rose during war
  • Other wartime administrations copied Hoovers
  • Treasury Department held liberty bond drives to
    raise money for the war effort
  • Involuntary increase in taxes raised the rest of
    the money to fund the war
  • Government exercised power of railroads and
    nationalized them during the war

VII. American Entry into the War
  • At the beginning of the war, most Americans
    thought America would contribute naval power and
    supplies to Allies
  • 1917- Central powers gained an edge on Western
  • March 1917 Czar of Russia overthrown in
  • November 1917 Vladimir Lenin and socialists take
    over Russian government, sign treaty with Germany
    and leave war
  • Spring 1918 Germans begin new offensive on
    Western Front
  • Early 1917 Allies ask for manpower and draft was
    instituted, believed the US could not raise
    enough men to fight in time
  • Draft was more effective with fewer loopholes
    than during Civil War draft
  • By early 1918 the first poorly trained American
    soldiers began to arrive in Europe

Technology, Trench Warfare and a Stalemate
  • War unlike others
  • Trench warfare- built trenches, attacked,
    counter- attacked each other across no-mans
  • High death toll- machine guns, artillery, tanks,
    poison gas produced massive causalities
  • Effective defensive weapons led to stalemate- no
    side could gain advantage

VII. American Entry into the War
  • Early 1918 American troops arrive in large
  • Commanded by John J. Pershing
  • German offensives became less effective, troops
    became exhausted
  • American troops gave Allies military advantage
  • Fall 1918 German troops were running out of food,
    many mutinied, deserted, refused to fight
  • Germans surrendered Nov. 11, 1918

VIII. End of the War
  • The main US contribution to the war was food,
    munitions, credit, oil and manpower
  • Prospect of endless US troops and material
    contributed to the end of the war
  • Wilson wanted the peace based on the Fourteen
    Points, he was seen at the end of the war as the
    moral leader of the world
  • By the time Wilson went to the peace conference
    he was a diminished leader in the US due to
    Republican victories in the Congressional
    elections of 1918
  • Going to Paris personally seemed to many like
    grandstanding and Wilson made a political mistake
    by not including a single Republican in the peace

VIII. End of the War
  • European leaders kept the new hero Wilson at arms
    length, they felt that he would disrupt the
    status quo
  • Big Four of Paris Peace Conference Wilson, David
    Lloyd George (Great Britain), Georges Clemenceau
    (France), Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
  • Russia stayed out, Lenin thought the war was an
    imperialist land grab
  • Wilsons main goal was to establish the League of
    Nations controlled by the great powers
  • Wilson did not want the victors to be vengeful to
    their former enemies, he wanted peace without
  • Promoted openness, independence
  • Move to end colonialism
  • National self- determination (right of people to
    choose their own form of government)
  • Disarmament
  • Asked for League of Nations to promote peaceful
    cooperation among nations, collective security
  • The European countries had different ideas

VIII. End of the War
  • European allies blamed Germany for starting war,
    wanted them punished
  • Suffered more than Americans
  • Germany had to pay reparations (payment for war
  • Rejected ideas to end colonialism, disarm Europe,
    free trade
  • Allied powers were torn by conflicting aims and
    the peace was a fractured one
  • French claims in the Ruhr region caused tension
    with Germany
  • France signed a pact with Great Britain and US
    to provide for aid in case of another German
  • New nations emerged in Europe, liberated millions
  • Austrian, German people found themselves as part
    of new countries
  • Breakup of Ottoman Empire clustered different
    ethnic groups together
  • Middle East broken up by European powers, not
    allowed to practice self- determination
  • Wilson did get League of Nations in a compromise
    with the European leaders

IX. Selling the Treaty to the US
  • Many Americans thought US was entering into
    tangling alliances of European affairs, the
    League of Nations was also seen as a super
    state and was opposed by the isolationists
  • Some thought treaty was not harsh enough
  • German and Italian Americans thought treaty was
    too harsh
  • Some thought treaty gave British too much
  • Republicans and isolationists in Senate (led by
    Henry Cabot Lodge) used delay tactics to keep
    treaty from being passed
  • Eventually apathy and confusion crept in to the
    treaty debate
  • Wilson tried the direct appeal method to get
    support for the treaty, during his tour he had a
    stroke and could not actively campaign for the
    Treaty of Versailles
  • Lodge took control of the proceedings and would
    not pass the treaty if it included the League of
  • Wilson urged Democrats to reject the treaty Lodge
    proposed, it was defeated
  • The Treaty of Versailles was also defeated by
    traditions of isolationism, disillusionment with
    the war and partisanship

X. A Return to Normalcy
  • Public desire for change from the progressive
    politics and high minded ideals of Wilson
  • Elected Republican Warren G. Harding of Ohio as
  • Opposite of Wilson, back slapper and dull minded
  • With the election of Harding the idea of the
    League of Nations was dead
  • America emerged from the war a changed country
    nationally and internationally
  • 1920 America world economic giant, largest
    creditor nation
  • Compared to Europe, U.S. came out of war strong
    and prosperous

American Life in the Roaring Twenties 1919-1929
  • Chapter 31

I. Seeing Red
  • After war Americans turned inward
  • Shunning diplomatic commitments, denounced
    radical foreign ideas and un-American
  • Shut out immigration (passed literacy requirement
    for immigrants) and sealed off economy from the
    outside world
  • New technologies, forms of entertainment and
    leisure first appeared in the US, but there were
    fears that America was losing their traditional

I. Seeing Red
  • Flu Epidemic (1918-1919) September 1918 virus
    first appears, Spring 1919 disappears
  • Killed millions around the world (22m, 500,000
  • Men and women in 20s, 30s hit hardest
  • Combined with effects of war, gave people a sense
    of doom
  • Red Scare- fear of communists and radicals,
    plotting against the United States
  • Labor unrest seen as work of communists, radicals
  • Communist Soviet Union called for international
    workers revolution and end of capitalism
  • April 1919 40 bombs intercepted in mail, one sent
    to Attorney General (Mitchell Palmer)
  • Government response- Palmer Raids
  • Arrested thousands of Southern, Eastern Europeans
    (not all were radicals), many deported, or held
    in jail without ever being charged with crime
  • American Civil Liberties Union formed 1920 to
    protect rights and liberties
  • Conservative business leaders used this as an
    excuse to break the back of labor unions

I. Seeing Red
  • Anti- foreignism reflected in Sacco and Vanzetti
  • Italian immigrants and known anarchists
  • Accused of killing two men at a shoe factory
  • ACLU provided defense counsel
  • Found guilty, little hard evidence
  • Bias against immigrants, political climate worked
    against them
  • 1927 put to death in electric chair
  • Gave the radicals two martyrs for their class

II. Hooded Hoodlums of the KKK
  • Membership in the organization spiked in the 20s
  • Manifestation of intolerance and prejudice from
    anxiety of changing times
  • Resembled nativist movement of 1850s
  • Anti- anything except Anglo, native American
  • Uprising against forces of modernism and forces
    of diversity shaping American culture
  • Movement concentrated in Midwest and South
  • At its peak had about 5 million members
  • Collapsed in late 20s after political corruption
    was exposed

III. Stemming the Foreign Flood
  • Country had little use for immigration in the
  • Immigration Act of 1924- end of open immigration
  • Government created a quota system to restrict
  • Geared to keep out southern and eastern
    Europeans, Japanese immigrants
  • Employers used racial/ ethnic differences to
    undermine class and political solidarity

IV. Prohibition and the Rise of Gangsterisim
  • Last spasm of the progressive movement was
    prohibition of alcohol, legalized with the
    passage of the 18th Amendment and implemented
    with the Volstead Act in 1919
  • Prohibited sale, distribution and manufacture of
  • More popular in South and West
  • South seen as a way to keep blacks in their
  • West seen as attack on vice associated with the
  • Opposition in the east where there were large
    groups of immigrants and Old World styles of
  • Conditions that hampered enforcement ignored
    tradition of weak control by central government
    over private lives, disillusionment in aftermath
    of war and wisdom of further self denial,
    understaffed federal agents to enforce law
  • Corner saloon replaced by speakeasies, alcohol
    still available
  • Did have some positive effect- bank savings
    increased, absenteeism at work decreased

IV. Prohibition and the Rise of Gangsterisim
  • Prohibition spawned criminal activity
  • Profits of selling booze led to rivalries between
    gangs in big cities
  • Arrests were few, convictions fewer and the
    bribery of federal agents was rampant
  • Organized crime developed around sale of liquor
    and reached into other areas- prostitution,
    drugs, gambling
  • Organized crime became one of the most lucrative
    businesses in the country

V. Changes in Society
  • Split in rural and urban values, Changes in
    standard of living, religious values
  • 1920 Census first time more American lived in
    urban areas than rural areas
  • Urban- enjoyed new consumer products,
  • Open to social change, science, secular values
  • Formal education more important
  • Rural- more traditional view of science,
    religion, culture
  • Most new consumer products unavailable
  • Many people, especially in rural areas, felt
    threatened by the changing values of
    society--formed ways to react to these changes
  • Religious fundamentalism grew during the 1920s
  • World changing in ways people don't understand
    and can't control
  • Children reject the values that the parents have
    lived with all their life
  • One way this fundamentalism manifested itself
    came in the laws of a few southern states which
    mandated creationism, not evolution, be taught in

(No Transcript)
VI. Monkey Business in Tennessee
  • Scopes Monkey Trial
  • Scopes Trial a battle between two sets of
    values--the older, rural values and the modern,
    urban values
  • 1925, at the urging of local community leaders,
    John T. Scopes, a high-school biology teacher in
    Dayton, Tenn. challenged his state's
    antievolution law
  • He did so with promise of assistance from the
  • ACLU hired team of lawyers headed by Clarence
    Darrow to defend Scopes
  • Prosecution assisted by William Jennings
    Bryan--who argued for inerrancy of Bible, but
    sometimes found himself not knowing what the
    Bible said
  • Scopes convicted by local jury--but received
    short sentence and small fine
  • Fundamentalism (and the South) ridiculed by
    national press-influence of fundamentalism
    diminished in mainstream churches after the
    trial, it still retained a large following

VII. The Mass Consumption Economy
  • Cultural issues divided Americans but..
  • Decade after war America experienced growth
  • Changed the way Americans lived
  • Created modern consumer economy
  • Rising wages, shorter work weeks
  • More free time more disposable income
  • Technology, leisure activities broke down
    barriers and helped form a common American
  • Consumer Revolution- advertising, buying on
    credit, electricity made new products available
    to people
  • Availability of electric power washing
    machines, vacuum cleaners made housekeeping
  • Advertisers- used new methods to sell more
    products (focused on desires and fears of
  • Buying on credit allowed people to buy products
    they would have needed to save years for
  • Economy became increasingly venerable to
    disruptions of the credit structure

VII. The Mass Consumption Economy
  • Radio and Phonograph- result of technological
    advances, business enterprise
  • Americans listened to same music, learned same
    dances- contributed to mass popular culture
  • Radio- 1920 first commercial radio station (KDKA
    Pittsburg, PA)- within three years over 600
  • Brought events into millions of homes- sporting
    events, news
  • Politicians had to learn the art of media to
    reach millions at once that heard promises and
  • Advertising and commercials made radio a vehicle
    for selling American free enterprise
  • Phonograph- people could listen to music whenever
    they wanted
  • Regional music styles were made national

VIII. Sports and the Rise of the Airplane
  • Sports created nationally famous athletes
  • Increased newspaper readers, radio audience
    boosted popularity
  • Sportswriters captured excitement of events
  • Sports became big business
  • Sports feats showed people capable of great
    feats, idealized self
  • 1903 first successful airplane flight
  • During WWI used in combat
  • After war first passenger lines operated, mostly
    used for mail service, stunt fliers traveled
    across country
  • 1927 Charles Lindberg flies solo across Atlantic
    Ocean, became American hero
  • Feat popularized flying more than any other
    event, increased idea of it being a commercially
    viable industry
  • Removed some of the isolation of the American

IX. Movies
  • Movie industry began to grow in early 1900s and
    it blossomed in the 1920s
  • Hollywood was the movie capital of the world
  • Used during the war to promote anti-German
  • Local theaters became cultural classroom for
  • Americas democratic art, most popular form of
  • First movie stars
  • 1927 first talkie Jazz Singer
  • Movies represent fantasies, desires, of Americans
  • Help create a common American culture

X. Advent of the Automobile Age
  • Caused biggest change to lifestyles during the
    1920s and beyond
  • Scientific management techniques- reduce time,
    effort, cost to produce cars (Taylorisim sought
    to eliminate wasted motion)
  • Cars put on assembly line- inspired by
    meatpacking industry
  • Best known carmaker Henry Ford, had a one track
    devotion to standardization that he used to
    produce cars
  • Idea of mass production used for automobiles
  • Model T- only car Ford sold ( 260 by mid-1920s)
  • Ford also doubled wages of workers, weekends off,
    8 hr workday

X. Advent of the Automobile Age
  • Steel, glass, rubber, asphalt, gasoline,
    insurance, road construction industries all
  • Oil discoveries in Southwest US
  • 1926 national highway system first appeared
  • Service stations, motels
  • Created new jobs, helped national prosperity
  • Made commerce speedier
  • Gave people more freedom, car became a necessity
  • Go where they wanted, not tied to tracks or train
    schedule, hurt railroads
  • Altered residential patterns
  • Suburbs grew, people could live farther from jobs
  • Communities linked by highways to cities
  • Improved mass transportation, car led to
    development of suburbs
  • Suburbs drain resources from cities

XI. Science, Social Thought and Modernism
  • Rational, mechanical ideas of how world worked
  • Einsteins Theory of Relativity, Heisenberg's
    Theory of Uncertainty showed absolute values of
    how things worked were not true
  • Freud explored subconscious, subconscious regions
    seen as more potent than reason
  • Also demonstrated that repression was responsible
    for a variety of social ills
  • Fundamentalist lost ground to the modernists

XI. New Roles for Women
  • New Woman of 1920s more liberated, Victorian
    morality rejected
  • Dresses shorter, wore makeup, danced, drank
  • Flapper symbolized new , modern woman
  • Wanted same political, social, economic rights as
  • Alice Paul and the National Womens party began a
    campaign for an Equal Rights Amendment to the
  • Lived longer, had fewer children, freed time to
    peruse other interests
  • Many entered professional workforce, although
    they went into low paying jobs (womens work)
  • Elected as governors (TX, WY)
  • Differences in material culture made life for
    urban and rural women distinct

XIII. The Jazz Age
  • Emerged in South (New Orleans) where different
    traditions and cultures came together
  • Based on improvisation, blues and European
  • Spread north with Great Migration, became theme
    music of 1920s
  • Radio, phonograph spread influence
  • Bridged races, inspired white songwriters and
    musicians (who stole style and made a huge

XIV. The Harlem Renaissance
  • African American migration continued 1920s
  • Many found a better life, jobs, political voice
  • Did not escape oppression, had worst jobs,
  • Period of cultural expression in music and
  • Development of new black consciousness
  • Center was Harlem, NY, blend of cultures, ideas
  • Spawned charismatic political leader Marcus
  • Jamaican immigrant, promoted idea of black
    nationalism, Back to Africa Movement
  • Called for black separatism- businesses,
  • Founded Universal Negro Improvement Assn.
    promoted black pride
  • Put in prison 1925 for mail fraud, deported
  • Inspired Nation of Islam, Black Panther Movement
    later in century

XIV. The Harlem Renaissance
  • African American literature developed from the
    Harlem Renaissance
  • Explored pains and joys of being African
    American, some called for equality with whites
  • Langston Hughes- literary voice of HR, captured
    diversity of AA life
  • Jean Toomer- Cane looked at rural life in the
    south and sophisticated urban life in Washington,
  • Claude McKay- militant writer, wrote about
    struggle for dignity
  • Zora Neale Hurston- collected folktales of rural
    Florida, called for womens independence

XV. Modernism in Art and Literature
  • Literature, arts were changed by WWI
  • War killed millions, left many homeless
  • Seen as action of irrational people
  • Began to question ideas of progress, left people
  • Writers and artists expressed lack of faith in a
    traditional worldview
  • Painters moved away from traditional
  • Experimented with abstract styles, represented
    inner mood
  • Saw artistic honesty in abstract paintings

XV. Modernism in Art and Literature
  • Postwar literature represented the exuberance of
    youth and the resentment of ideals betrayed
  • Called Lost Generation
  • Searched for new truths, new ways to express
  • Most were expatriates living in Paris and London
  • Wrestled with meaning of war and life
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemmingway, T.S.
    Elliot, Sinclair Lewis, Gertrude Stein
  • Greatest generation for American writers

XV. Modernism in Art and Literature
  • Earnest Hemmingway- novels feature search for
    real life
  • Hard living, athletic, masculine lifestyle
  • About doomed life after the war
  • Wrote in a concrete, stripped down style
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald- first novel This Side of
    Paradise, age 24
  • Wrote about excess of Jazz Age, bible for youth
    of the 20s
  • Great Gatsby about American dream and tragedy
  • William Faulkner- stories set in Mississippi,
    reflected southern world
  • Literature- dying way of life vs. modern way of
  • Leader of Southern Renaissance

Boom and Bust
  • 1919-1921

I. Wall Streets Big Bull Market
  • Right after the war scarcity of supplies,
    increased demand caused inflation
  • Agriculture- prices fell, farmers could not pay
  • U.S. had a postwar recession
  • Industrial workers wages could not buy as much
    after war (inflation)
  • Many workers went on strike to demand better
    conditions (1919- 4m), racial unrest across the
    country in the summer of 1919
  • Decade after war America experienced growth
  • Changed the way Americans live, created modern
    consumer economy
  • 1920s period of rising stock prices (bull
  • Investors take risks, buy on margin (pay small
    amount up front, pay rest back over time)
  • Stock was collateral for loan
  • Thinking boom and bust economy would end, there
    would always be prosperity
  • Signals in bank failures and real estate

I. Wall Streets Big Bull Market
  • More conservative policies to promote growth of
  • Presidents wanted to serve the public good
    through less government
  • Sec. of Treasury Andrew Mellon, a
    multimillionaire, favored low taxes on
    individuals and corporations
  • Tax burden shifted to the middle class
  • Herbert Hoover- Commerce Sec. wanted to use
    business and labor leaders to manage industry,
    not legislation

II. Republicans in Power
  • Harding used government to guide business to
  • Used courts to back up policies, appointed 4
    justices to Supreme Court (would have an effect
    for years)
  • Stripped away gains for labor, women in the
    workplace, anti trust laws ignored
  • Dismantled progressive and wartime controls over
    the economy
  • Close circle of advisers called Ohio Gang
  • Saw government service as a way to get rich at
    expense of others
  • Teapot Dome Scandal- (1921) Sec. of Interior
    arranged sale of government oil reserves in Wyo.
    to private investors for loans
  • Harding signed deal, senate investigated
  • 1924- Sec. of Interior sentenced to prison
  • 1923- Harding died before he could finish his
    term or answer for his role in this and other

III. Silent Cal Coolidge
  • Replaced by VP Calvin Coolidge
  • Silent Cal quiet, honest, frugal, fumigated
    some of the stench of Harding
  • Pro- business, creation of wealth was good for
    all America
  • Followed same economic policies as Harding
  • American economy grew, general prosperity for all
    Americans over next six years

IV. Hiking the Tariff Higher
  • True to idea of American isolationism, business
    tried to keep out foreign investment in the
  • Put up high tariff walls to keep out a flood of
    cheap foreign goods from recovering Europe
  • Tariffs were raised throughout the decade,
    Republican presidents were far more friendly to
    tariff increases than the progressives of past
  • Set off chain reaction that kept Europe from
    being able to pay war debts, spurred Europe to
    pass tariffs to keep out American goods

V. Frustrated Farmers
  • Farmers caught in boom-bust cycle more than
  • Peace brought an end to guaranteed prices by
    government and overseas purchases
  • Wartime boom encouraged them to cultivate new
  • Farmers produced surpluses that led to price
    dampening depression
  • In 1920s 25 of all farms were sold to repay
  • Congress tried to help farmers but conservative
    financial policies allowed farmers problems to
    not be heard

VI. American Foreign Policy
  • Isolationism was the rule in the 20s, even
    though America sent observers to the League of
    Nations meetings in Geneva, Switzerland
  • America was active in the Middle East where they
    secured drilling rights to reap the benefits oil
  • 1921-1922- Washington Disarmament Conference-
    limit construction of navies, reduce arms race
  • 1928- Kellogg- Briand Pact- treaty to outlaw war
    as an instrument of national policy world
    leaders knew this was useless
  • Defensive wars were still permitted with pact,
    America had been lulled into a false sense of
  • 1920s U.S. thought best policy was to keep rest
    of world at arms length, by outlawing war U.S.
    hoped to never be involved in another world war

VI. American Foreign Policy
  • US did still participate in the affairs of Latin
    American and Caribbean nations to protect their
  • Overshadowing all other foreign policy issues was
    international debt, US after war was the creditor
    nation of the world
  • US wanted to be repaid the 10 billion it loaned
    Europe during the war
  • US wanted Britain, France to pay back money
    borrowed for war
  • They needed Germany to pay reparations
  • Financial issue threatened world economy
  • 1924 Dawes Plan arranged US loans to Germany to
    pay Britain and France
  • Damaged US reputation- Europe saw US as heartless
    demanding payment after human costs of war
  • US never did get money and it led to continued
    neutrality and isolationism as thing grew worse
    in Europe in the 1930s

VII. Presidential Elections 1924, 1928
  • 1924 Coolidge reelected over a hopelessly split
    Democratic party and the reform minded
  • Times were too good to change the course
  • 1928 Coolidge decides not to run, Herbert Hoover
    (Sec. of Commerce) was chosen as successor
  • Hoover was a self mad millionaire, the ideal
    businessperson's candidate
  • Democrats nominated Alfred Smith of NY
  • Many saw Smith as too Catholic, urban, too much
    of a drinker
  • Dry, fundamentalists help Hoover carry the South
  • First time for a Republican to carry former
    Confederate states
  • First election where radio played a role

IX. Hoovers First Years
  • Many did well in 1920s two groups that did not
    farmers and wage earners
  • Hoovers government philosophy- voluntary
    cooperation between labor and management
  • Economy needed sense of competition, little
    government interference
  • Decentralized government, low taxes
  • Passed Agricultural Marketing Act and established
    the Farm Board, agencies set up to help farmers
    to help themselves through lending and farmers
  • 1930 Farm Board agrees to buy surplus production,
    causes glut of agricultural products and leads to
    a decline in prices

IX. Hoovers First Years
  • 1930 Hawley Smoot Tariff designed to help farmers
  • Created the highest tariff in peacetime history
    (avg. duty 60)
  • Hawley-Smoot Tariff raised prices on foreign
  • Added to farm, manufacturing problems, could not
    sell glut of goods
  • European countries retaliate and pass protective
    tariffs, seen as an act of economic war
  • Destroyed international trade
  • Countries could not repay loans to U.S.,
    business bank collapses in Europe

X. Great Crash End the Twenties
  • When Hoover took office the speculative bubble
    and good times on the stock exchange were coming
    to an end
  • In mid-1929 British raised interest rates to
    bring investment back to the country, foreign
    investors dumped money in US market for British
  • Sept- Oct 1929 stock market begins to drop
  • October 29- Black Tuesday bottom fell out of
    stock market, billions of dollars lost
  • Investors lost confidence in market, many lost
    all of their money, jobs, homes
  • Hoover tells Americans economy healthy

XI. Causes of the Great Depression
  • Industrial production increased and corporate
    profits rose
  • Wealthiest 1 made same amt. as bottom 42
  • Problem- overproduction, under consumption, over
    expansion of credit
  • Problems caused by Hawley-Smoot Tariff caused
    chain reaction across Europe
  • Farms sold at auction and many became tenant
    farmers across the South and Midwest

XII. Chain Reaction
  • Stock market crash caused chain reaction of
  • Banks Collapse
  • Depositors tried to withdraw money (run on
    banks), many banks failed (over 2,000 from 29-32)
  • Misguided Monetary Policy
  • Federal Reserve tightened money supply to
    discourage lending
  • Too little money in circulation, not enough for
  • Business Closes, Unemployment Rises
  • Reduced spending, production cutbacks
  • Led to job layoffs, by 1933 25 of Americans out
    of work

XIII. Rugged Times for Rugged Individualists
  • Many Americans did not understand the reasons the
    Depression happened
  • Attacked most American families, many men lost
    initiative and self respect
  • Men felt that they betrayed family, birthrates
    dropped, families broke up, children dropped out
    of school
  • Unemployment at 25, those that had jobs had
    wages, hours cut
  • Many went hungry, waited in bread lines for
    food, many lost their homes
  • Grouped together in Hoovervilles, makeshift
    shacks, tents built on public land
  • Feeling of loss of American Dream, zapped
    American spirit and uniqueness
  • Most popular song 1933 Brother Can You Spare a

XIII. Rugged Times for Rugged Individualists
  • Hoover struggled to respond to Americas problems
  • Tried hands off policy, downturn part of natural
    business cycle
  • Business should voluntarily combat depression,
    act in best interest of the community
  • Asked business, industry to keep employment,
    wages, prices at current levels, wanted more
    money in hands of businesses
  • Local relief agencies were overwhelmed, did not
    have funds to battle economic downturn
  • Hoover begins to realize that government needed
    to help, efforts probably prevented further
    collapse of the economy

XIV. Hoover Battles the Great Depression
  • Hoover finally began to use federal resources to
    battle economy
  • 1932- Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
  • Loaned billions for business, railroads, state
    and local governments
  • Money for banks, to provide loans, stimulate
    business (trickle down economics), no money to
  • Succeeded with construction project on Colorado
    River (Boulder/Hoover Dam), brought irrigation,
    employment to Southwest
  • Benefits to labor through the Norris-La Guardia
    Act (1932) outlawed using court injunctions to
    restrain labor
  • Policies by Hoover paved the way for the
    expansion of the federal government under the New

XV. Routing the Bonus Army in Washington
  • 1932- Group of WWI veterans went to D.C. to
    demand payment for service that was to be paid in
  • Called Bonus Army
  • Government did not have the money
  • Set up camps and occupied government buildings
  • Hoover used federal troops to remove them
  • Army used excessive force, Gen MacArthur called
    them revolutionaries
  • Photographs of army action shocked Americans
  • Election of 1932 was time for change