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Title: Second International Conference on Innovative Natural Fibre Composites for Industrial Applications Rome - April 15 - 18, 2009 Promoting the cultivation and development of hemp in Italy Isidoro Peroni, Glenda Giampaoli, Cesare Quaglia Sapienza


1
Second International Conference onInnovative
Natural Fibre Compositesfor Industrial
ApplicationsRome - April 15 - 18, 2009
Promoting the cultivationand development of
hemp in ItalyIsidoro Peroni, Glenda Giampaoli,
Cesare QuagliaSapienza University of RomeMuseo
della Canapa of SantAnatoliaAssocanapa
2
Contents
1. Natural fibres characteristics 2. Natural
composites
3. The history of hemp 4. Re-introduction of
the hemp cultivation in Italy
5. Italian Organizations 6. Italian Museums
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy 8.
Peculiarities and uses of hemp 9. Research 10.
Optical Microscopic Enlargements of Hemp Plant
11. A particular application a prototype of a
rudder
12. Phyto-remediation with hemp 13.
Conclusions
3
1. Natural fibres characteristics

NATURAL FIBRES
  • ADVANTAGES
  • biodegradability
  • renewable rough materials
  • low density (even the half of the glass one)
  • low cost
  • low impact damage
  • thermo-acoustic insulation
  • non toxicity

4
1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.)
Eastern countries Bamboo, Sisal, Coir,
Jute, etc. Western countries
Hemp always of eastern origin but
with a long
western tradition
for fabrics and ropes ,
(some problems, now
solved, for the
resemblance
with the Indian hemp)
Kenaf ( without
doping substances), Flax,
Cotton, etc.
5
1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.)
NATURAL FIBRES PROPERTIES
6
1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.)
HEMP FIBRES
High Mechanical Properties
High UTS and Stiffness
Treated
Un-treated
sR 318 14 MPa
sR 591 67 MPa
7
1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.)
Es 7.0 Gpa UTSs 60.0 MPa Ef 84.0 Gpa UTSf
720.0 Mpa A 1.4
Test Machine INSTROM 1193 Range 25kN Laboratory
ICMMPM
Average diameter of stalks 5.7 mm Average
strength 2500 N E Young Modulus GPa UTS
Ultimate Strength MPa A Percent elongation
at breaking ( )s stalk ( )f fibre
Elongation-strength diagram
8
1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.)
The reported result are little higher than the
values of literature because the test are
performed on virgin stalks.
Strength parameters of various fibres (from
J.M.S. 21 1986 )
9
2. Natural composites
Polymeric matrix composites are very spread
PMC present higher specific properties if
compared to metals
Structural components
Usually rough materials (fibres and matrices) are
artificial
Glass, carbon, aramidic
Artificial fibres
But rough materials could also come from
renewable resources
Economic Light Eco-compatible Available
Natural fibres
10
2. Natural composites (cont.)
High performance materials
Sustainable development
Very good properties
Biodegradability Safety
Renewability Structural
modifications Environment
protection
Research aims to conjugate both (Es.
international meetings. SAMPE, SPIE, ASME, JSME)
11
3. The history of hemp
The original country of the hemp-plant is no
known, but it is generally believed to have been
the mountainous districts in the extreme north of
India, whence it spread westward through Europe,
and southward through the peninsula of India. Its
cultivation in each direction had in all
probability a different object for it is found
to produce under tropical culture an inferior
fibre, and a powerfully intoxicating drug, but in
cold and temperate climates it yields an
abundance of strong fibres in great perfection
for textile purposes, and loses its narcotic
qualities.
12
3. The history of hemp (cont.)
The similarity of its name in various languages
is a strong indication that it has taken the
course here indicated thus, it is called in the


Sanscrit goni, sana, or
shanapu
Persic
canna

Arabic kanneh or
kinnub
Greek
kannabis

Latin
cannabis Italian
canapa

French chanvre
or chanbre

Danish kamp or
kennep
Lettish
and Lithuanian kannapes

Slavonic konopi


Erse canaib

Scaninavian
hampr

Swedish hampa

German
hauf

Anglo-Saxon
haenep

English hemp.


13
3. The history of hemp (cont.)
Hemp can be monoecious or dioecious plant, that
means it can have female and male flowers on the
same or in different plant. The ancient variety
are dioecious. The plant was already cultivated
in China before 2000 B.C. . In 500 B.C. it was
already spread in Asia, Europe and Africa. The
Italian production has been the first for quality
(variety Carmagnola) and the second for
quantity (after Russian). Until the 1940s the
hemp cultivation was widespread in every region
of Italy for the production of ropes and fabrics.
In the mountainous area, where the land is less
fertile, there was, all the same, a production of
cloth sheets and brides trousseau. In the 1940
craftsmen and especially craftswomen were very
busy in the cultivation and manufacturing of
hemp.
14
3. The history of hemp (cont.)
Subsequently, the fight against drugs and the
promulgation of famous 1937 US law, that forbade
also the production of industrial hemp, all
together with the coming of the new synthetic
fibres, such as Nylon patented by Du Pont (one of
the more powerful chemical industry in the
world), resulted in a significant drop down of
the hemp cultivation. At that time these new
fibres seemed to be cheaper, healtier and more
attractive. For example every young woman in
Italy, wished to wear a pair of nylon stockings.
15
3. The history of hemp (cont.)
In the last ten years the hemp cultivation has
been making a comeback in Italy and the rest of
Europe. There has been a rediscovery of the
potential of hemp that has led to the
establishment of many enterprises in the field of
hemp and its applications. In Italy Assocanapa
and other organisations, like Fibranova and
Consorzio Canapa Italia, are now sponsoring the
spreading of hemp. This new interest is due to
peculiarities of hemp and to the present
requirement of ecocompatibility and sustainable
development. In Italy and in Europe (CEE
Economic European Community ) it is now legal to
cultivate hemp for industrial purpose. The
varieties allowed are only those with a content
in THC (that is the substance with narcotic
effect ) lower then 0.2 .
16
3. The history of hemp (cont.)
Italian hemp is of very good quality for fabrics
and it is exported worldwide. Before the last
world war there were more than 100,000 hectares
in cultivation, whereas in the last few years
there are only a few hundred of hectares. Now a
few farmers, industrialists, researchers and
ecologists are trying to launch it again, but
there are many difficulties to close the line
of production (filiera). First experiences
have been carried out in Piedmont, in Emilia
Romagna and in Umbria. Also Campania is
interested in reintroduction of hemp that used to
be one of the main cultivations in the region.
17
4. Re-introduction of the hemp cultivation in
Italy
The opportunity to re-introduce the cultivation
of hemp in Italy was born, mainly from both
agronomic and economic needs. Of course, to
reproduce the culture in Italy has been necessary
a phase of agronomic and technological
experimentation, to ensure its viability after an
eclipse lasting about half a century. In
parallel to the cultivation was due to assess the
economic viability for both the agriculture and
for industry. This phase of the testing period,
of not less than five years, has required much
work and effort but it has certainly produced
good results.It was in this general view that
regions Emilia- Romagna and Tuscany have accepted
the requests from the manufacturing sector and
farmers to facilitate the reintegration of this
plant into the regional regulations.
18
4 .Re-introducion of the hemp cultivation in
Italy (cont.)
A cornerstone in the revitalization of the crop
was checking on the feasibility of building a
"chain of hemp" to do so we needed to assess
whether the conditions existed to encourage the
creation of facilities for the initial processing
of the product and solve some problems related to
regulatory issues concerning the lawfulness of
the cultivation of hemp fibre. Characteristic
features of this project, which has allowed the
progress and development, was the cooperation
between agriculture, industry and public
administration and in 2001 in Italy the filiera
of the hemp started. The industrial sectors of
textiles and paper were the first to leave,
giving clear signals of economic development and
employment, today are taking place all other
sectors to arrive at the total use of all
products derived from the processing plant, from
cosmetics to power and bio-construction.
Combining research and nature, tradition and
innovation, was the common thread that brought
the companies listed below to undertake a
"journey called hemp"
19
5. Italian organizations
In the following are reported the main Italian
organizations that deal with hemp. A.PRO.CAL Soc
a.r.l. is a producer of hemp and flax
established in Emilia Romagna in June 2002 with
the aim to encourage all initiatives to promote
the economic value of production of cannabis on
the national and international markets. ISCI
(Experimental Institute for Industrial Crops), of
the Ministry of Agriculture has granted to
Assocanapa the right to reproduce the Italian
varieties of hemp, such as Carmagnola and CS
(Carmagnola selected), controlled by E.N.S.E.
Ente Nazionale Sementi Elette. C.R.A. is a new
Center for the Experimentation in Agriculture .
In collaboration with the Region of Tuscany
ARSIA Assocanapa is taking forward the pilot
action for the development of chain of hemp for
textile use. Canapaitalia consortium was formed
in July 1999 in Ferrara by the will of some
companies, agricultural, industrial, involved in
the reintroduction of hemp cultivation and have
accepted the challenge of verifying the technical
and economic feasibility of the reintroduction of
hemp cultivation itself .One of the major
strengths of the Consortium Canapaitalia is to
include not only farmers but the whole chain,
from seed to processors, users mainly textile and
paper industry (paper Fedrigoni).
20
5. Italian organizations (cont.)
Ecocanapa Soc a.r.l. is a company founded in 2001
with the aim of managing the supply chain of
agro-industrial hemp fibre. Located in Comacchio
(Ferrara) has been officially opened in December
2003 from the Assessorato Agriculture of the
Province of Ferrara as "the first processing
industry." Its establishment, undertaken in
collaboration with Consorzio Canapaitalia houses
a facility designed exclusively for the
production of hemp fibre quality, technologically
innovative and low environmental impact and for
creating the missing link to sanction the
reintroduction of cultivating and processing hemp
in Italy. The system includes a line of
scutching, the process of separating the fibre
from shives and a line of combing for working
long fibre hemp scutched before being inserted in
the subsequent processing of the textile supply
chain. By the process to obtain other raw
materials, such shives and dust, which can be
used for the production of felts, for green
building products and furnishings, and more.
The system required a substantial investment
was made in about a year and after only 5 years
after the experimental agricultural hemp in
Italy.
21
5. Italian organizations (cont.)
Assocanapa. National Coordination for
canapicoltura has its headquarters in Carmagnola
TO). Assocanapa, was established in Turin by
deed dated 30/1/1998. with the main objective to
promote, preserve and spread the cultivation of
hemp in Italy and its use in various productive
sectors. The current number of members is 82.
Assocanapa is independent, non-profit pursues
and achieves its aims by drawing on the following
principles subsidiarity between members and
between the structures at different levels,
local, regional, national, under which any
decision is taken at the lowest possible level.
The Association has the following specific
purposes To promote, protect and spread the
cultivation of hemp and its use in various
productive sectors. To stimulate and develop
research to promote and assist such cultivation
and use of its products, paying special attention
to develop and enhance those features that make
the cultivation of hemp particular interest in
the preservation of the environment and living
conditions and of work. Representing the needs
of those who cultivate cannabis and / or work and
use the products to institutions, regional,
national and supranational regulatory enforcement
and the agricultural and industrial production
and use of products derived from them.
22
5. Italian organizations (cont.)
In order to achieve its purposes, Assocanapa
developed the following activities - Coordinate
and / or initiatives to promote legal,
legislative and membership for the development of
canapicoltura and protection of its members -
Contribute to Agencies and organizations that
have similar purposes and that in any activities
that are of interest for the development of
canapicoltura and related activities. -
Creates and manages brands that enhance the
production of its members by providing
appropriate specifications that define the
quality characteristics necessary for use of the
marks themselves. - Producing, in collaboration
with other organizations and public or private,
information activities and training for farmers,
business operators, technicians and users. -
Stimulates and / or coordinates and / or supports
the presentation in the field of experimental
designs and / or innovative financed by EU funds,
and / or national and regional and promotes the
establishment and consolidation for the
development of these projects, partnerships with
other business associations and European -
Manages the cooperation with other agencies and
organizations, publishing activities, including
regular, for the dissemination of information
regarding its activities and of specific interest
to the industry .
23
5. Italian organizations (cont.)
Group Fibranova s.r.l. born in 2000 at the
initiative of some businessmen, scientists and
financial advisers who, as of 1996 had a major
role in the reintroduction of hemp cultivation
Linificio e Canapificio Nazionale SpA is the
world leader in the spinning liniera care and
hemp is one of the oldest companies in Europe,
founded on 14 January 1873 Società Produttori
Sementi (Seed Producers Company) SpA Bologna is
one of the founding members of the Consortium
Canapaitalia and the only seed company in this
consortium. In collaboration with A.PRO.CAL is
taking forward a project to experiment with new
varieties of hemp made available by genetic
improvement. The tests also aim to find new uses
for hemp, parallel to those in the textile
industry, including the production of seed oil
for cosmetic use food.
24
6. Italian museums specialized on hemp history
Besides strictly cultivation, experimental and
commercial, hemp revolve around the cultural
institutions and museums, which tend to re-assess
and to make known this fibre textiles used in
Italy until the'50s. We pass by the Museum
Atelier Experimental Aracne created in
collaboration with the Consortium Canapaitalia,
the Ecomuseum culture and processing of hemp, the
Museum of hemp in Pisoniano, near Tivoli RM,
the Ecomuseum of Cordari (Rope-makers) in
Carmagnola, to San Marino di Bentivoglio just to
name a few. In Umbria, in particular, on 12
July 2008 was inaugurated the Museum of the hemp
at Sant'Anatolia di Narco, a small medieval
village near Spoleto. The Museum is the first
antenna of dell'Ecomuseo Valnerina that came into
being and it is placed inside the Town Hall in
the center of the country. Located on two floors
is divided into three main sections 1)
Processing and Weaving Hemp 2) Textile section
3) Workshop
25
.
Hemp Museum of Sant'Anatolia di
Narco. Particular of the exhibition The sheaves
of hemp
26
6. Italian museums specialized on hemp history
(cont.)
  • In the first section, dedicated to working with
    hemp and weaving, the objects interact with the
    visitors to make them become an integral part of
    the reality represented, the panels will explain
    all stages of processing of hemp, by sowing the
    crop at harvest, fibre processing and then close
    the cycle with the last stage of processing,
    spinning and weaving.
  • In the second section, devoted to fabrics, you
    can view the finished objects, ie those tissues
    that can be placed in a home / daily (blankets,
    towels for the bread, baby bands) and the textile
    collection "Gentili including findings coming
    from the territorial Valnerina and cover the
    period running from mid-1700 to mid 1900.
  • The last section, finally, will be dedicated to
    the workshop to ensure that the Museum, from the
    mere place of heritage conservation to become an
    educational tool, a "laboratory study", a school
    for the residents, to tourists and those who is
    interested in learning this craft and a tourist
    attraction that encourages cultural exchanges and
    economic growth. The various types of frames in
    the same laboratory of the museum you can learn
    different textile techniques to better understand
    how it has gone from a tangle of wires in a
    tissue and as a vertical loom weights has led to
    a horizontal frame heddles still used.

27
.
Hemp Museum of Sant'Anatolia di Narco The loom
28
Hemp Museum of Sant'Anatolia di Narco. De
Agostini Almanac 1953
29
6. Italian museums specialized on hemp history
(cont.)
  • Activity in the laboratory of the
    SantAnatolia museum.
  • Assimilation and invention, knowledge and
    planning, memory and imagination are the moments
    based on which we will be working and then graft
    the creative experience. We start, therefore,
    from items by weaving then creative thinking and
    action which then allow the exploration of new
    realities. In doing so we can fix the "memory"
    and "tradition" that you see on display but that
    also revive and display again through acts of
    fantastic reworking and invention You create and
    build new meanings through the active storage and
    imaginative design.
  • Activating an eye on things, the laboratory
    intends to cause a meeting between the public and
    the museum that can be effective on the creative
    and cognitive level through the game, doing and
    doing to prove how many and in what ways you can
    combine and manipulate ideas and concepts as well
    as tools, materials, colours, techniques.
  • The proposed laboratory activities, related
    mainly to the processing of hemp and to the
    texture, will also learn about and deepen the
    complex and divided world of textile fibres and
    autarkic ones in particular.
  • In addition to laboratory work projects ,
    the activity of the museum is closely connected
    with the agricultural practice. Through an
    agreement with the Institute of Agriculture of
    Sant'Anatolia and the Comunità Montana of
    Valnerina we are pursuing a project to put back
    into cultivation of hemp lands located along the
    Nera river, known as, Le Canapine.

30
7. Experiences of hemp cultivationin Italy
31
Ruscio. Monteleone di Spoleto (Umbria)
Harvesting hemp with children of primary school
32
The Source of Pia. Sant'Anatolia di Narco
Putting the bundles of hemp in water for the
retting
33
.
Traditional hemp processing drying and scutcing
34
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy
(cont.)
A field of hemp
35
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy
(cont.)
Hay baler suitable for hemp
36
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy
(cont.)
A bale of hemp tender core
37
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy
(cont.)
Polled field of Hemp
(Assocanapa)
38
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy
(cont.)
Modification of the cutting bar
Implementation of spikes with catchment area
properly built by blacksmith craftsman on our
project, sized for collection of seed hemp
breeding, that can be divided and disconnected
quickly in order to permit the transport of the
bar on the roads. The system was designed and
built so that it can be disassembled quickly and
that we can act separately on each part.
Application of the spikes on the cutting bar
through a steel frame handcrafted custom-built,
with bars welded and bolted, as applied to the
base of the bottom floor of the bar at the top
and on each spike.
(Assocanapa)
39
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy
(cont.)
Assocanapa s.r.l.
40
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy
(cont.)
Assocanapa s.r.l.
41
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy
(cont.)
1
2
3
4
Assocanapa s.r.l.
42
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy
(cont.)
The modification that have been carried out have
helped to convey the enormous vegetable mass, and
to gather and store the seeds. Further field
trials were  technical comparison between crop
sowing broadcast or in file,   a different
investment from 10 to 25 kg / ha  the
harvesting period of the seed (scalar ripening)
  improvement of mechanical harvesting  
polling cimatura in the vegetative
stage. Experiments in progress aimed at the
quality of seed in terms of germination and
purity.
(Assocanapa)
43
8. Pecularities and Products of hemp
There are more than 25000 of products derived
from the hemp and the plant has about 50000
different uses. In north of Italy they say that
hemp is the vegetable pig because nothing of it
is thrown away. Fabrics and ropes - Its fibre can
become as fine as cotton and it is also stronger
and long lasting. Paper - We can have first
quality paper (for example for banknotes) both
from fibre and pulp.
44

8. Peculiarities and Products of hemp (cont.)
Oil from the seed it is possible to make oils
that are very rich in proteins and essential
fats. They are very useful in alimentation,
cosmetics, detergents and paints . Building
industries There are several patents,
especially French (insulating materials, plywood,
etc.). Beds for animals The pulp of hemp is
antibacterial and very absorbent. Plastic
materials From cellulose we can produce
biodegradable plastic, to obtain complete
biological composite. Fuel From the biomasses
it is possible to obtain methanol and ethanol
that could replace mineral oils.
45
8. Peculiarities and Products of hemp (cont.)
Hemp is the more productive plant in the
vegetable mass of the whole temperate zone. It
produce, for the same cultivate surface, in three
months, about four times the amount of biomass
of a wood in a year. Besides, if it is employed
in paper production it requires less acids and
bleachers then wood. The hemp fibre can be used
as reinforcement in construction materials and in
composite plastic. Hemp fibres can make a
stronger and lighter composite plastic than
fibreglass. Moreover, when hemp fibres break, the
composite does not shatter like fibreglass,
making a safer product, for example, for the
interior of a car, because it is less likely to
cause an injury. Hemp fibre also has been shown
to improve home building materials
46
8. Peculiarities and Products of hemp (cont.)
Some characteristics make the hemp extremely
interesting from the point of view of the
environment protection It does not need
pesticides, unlike cotton, because it is targeted
by very few parasites. It does not need
herbicides because of its easy cultivation and
very fast growth, so it chokes all the other
plants surrounding it, cleaning up the
field. It is suitable for any kind of soil and
allows the recovery of the uncultivated lands.
47
8. Peculiarities and Products of hemp (cont.)
Some Impact Results (glass-hemp)
Absorbed energy / Reduction UTS
Results show an improvement of impact response
thanks to the insertion of natural fibres. Also
impact energy restitution improves. Damage
threshold is higher.
Typology of specimen
5 Joule
10 Joule
15 Joule
2.8
12.8
17.7
Mat Glass
5
25
15
1.3
6.6
14.9
Mat Glass Hemp
5
10
20
1.0
12.7
22.5
Fabric Glass
5
25
30
0.6
9.9
16.2
Fabric Glass Hemp
0
15
20
48

9. Research Modernization of
the production cycle of hemp Selection
of the variety Control of the THC
Control of the cellulose fibres quality
Harvest in the field in suitable length to
make easy the successive operations
of separation of the cellulose fibres from the
lignin and hemi-cellulose.
Separation by the Steam explosion (ENEA
Rotondello Calabria) Enzymatic separation
Return back to the traditional methods
reviewed, like mechanical and
maceration systems Wile it easy to
produce technical fibres for insulating panels
in building, researchers and developers
are trying to obtain high quality
fibres for fabrics ed especially for composites
reinforcement.
49
9. Research (cont.)
Research must now focus on those aspect that
limit the expansion of the natural fibres. Main
items are like of genotypes adapted to different
cultivation environments. seed availability mechan
isation of harvesting guaranteed supply of
homogenous high quality fibre for the
industries. identification of new commercial
applications for hemp fibre and its
products. development of biological resin of good
quality and suitable for reinforced
composites. generation of a complete and
sustainable production chain.
50
9. Research
(cont.) Research on eco-composites in Italian
universities and research centres Università di
Roma Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale
Facoltà di Ingegneria
Dipartimento
Ing. CMMPM
Dipartimento Ing. Aerospaz. e Astronaut.
Dipartimento Meccanica
e Aeronautica Università di Trento Università di
Palermo (tecnologie produttive) Politecnico di
Milano (ecocompositi termoplastici) Università
di Napoli Federico II (kenaf) Università di
Bologna (fibre-matrix interface) Università di
Perugia (Ecofina) C.R.Fiat. Torino C.I.R.A.
Napoli Consorzio Venezia Ricerche (wood
flour) CNR (eco-composites) CNR- ISMAC Biella
The Institute of Macromolecolar Studies
and many
others!
51
10. Optical Microscopic Enlargements of Hemp
Plant
52
Longitudinal section of a hemp stalk
(X10)
53
Particular of external fibres
(X80)
54
Particular of interior part
(X80)
55
Transversal section of a hemp stalk (X10)
56
Transversal section of a hemp stalk X10
57
Particular of internal part
(X80)
58
Perspective of two orthogonal sections of a
stalk (X8)
59
Seeds and stalk of hemp in comparision with an
old italian coin
60
Two seeds of hemp X8
61
A split seed of hemp X12.5
62
Roots of a plant of hemp X1
63
Particular of roots of a plant of hemp X8
64
Hemp fibres after Traction test X8
Particular of fibre (200 micron) X80
65
Micrographies with SEM of Hemp fibre
Yarn of hemp Canapificio Linificio
Italiano X30, X300

Filo di canapa (yarn) Canapificio Linificio
Italiano X30
66
Micrographies with SEM of Hemp fibre
Yarn of hemp Canapificio Linificio Italiano
X1000, X5000
67
Mat thermoacoustic insulator of hemp X30
, X300
68
Mat thermoacoustic insulator of hemp X1000,
X5000
69
Comparison to SEM of glass fibre
Mat of glassfibre Sistema Compositi X300
, X1000 , X5000
70
Fabric of glass fibre Sistema Compositi
X30, X300
71
Fabric of glass fibre Sistema Compositi
X1000, X5000
72
11. Prototypic Production of an Aeronautical
Rudder
LOOM
Types of Fabric
73
11. Prototypic Production of an Aeronautical
Rudder (cont.)
RTM
74
11. Prototypic Production of an Aeronautical
Rudder (cont.)
RUDDER
PROTOTYPE (HEMP AND GLASS)
Ultra-light plane Storm 280 SI SG
Aviation Sabaudia (IT)
75
11. Prototypic Production of an Aeronautical
Rudder (cont.)
The first step to obtain composites of good
quality with natural reinforcement and
traditional plastic matrix (like epoxy or
polyester resin) is nearly achieved . Such
partially natural composite could substitute
classical GRP (glass reinforced plastic) in many
applications. The second step to have reliable
wholly bio-degradable composite with both matrix
and reinforcement derived from natural products
(not from mineral oil ) is under investigation in
all the world in universities and
industries. Some problems, to be solved, are
reliability, compatibility, strength to water and
strength to ageing.
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12.
Phyto-remediation Among the possible uses of
hemp (Cannabis sativa), you can use the
cultivation of hemp for the remediation of soils
through phyto-remediation, exploiting its
capacity to absorb, degrade or stabilize
pollutants by improving soil and / or avoiding
pollution of the water-bearing strata. Hemp is
suitable for use in the reclamation of land, as
is easily cultivable, adapts well to many types
of soils and produces a high biomass used in the
no-food industry. That is why in recent years
have been carried out numerous experiments to
test its real capacity of remediation of the
soil. Currently there are only experimental
data that encourage the use of hemp for the
remediation of soils contaminated with heavy
metals. It would be necessary to extend the
trial to obtain definitive data on its possible
practical use in the recovery of contaminated
soils with organic pollutants. Given the
various industrial applications, the testing of
its environmental potentialities could make
fruitful at least a portion of land that are now
unused.
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12. Phyto-remediation (cont.)
Accumulation of metals in to the biomass
Phytovolatilization
Phytodegradation
Phytoextraction
Phytostabilization
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12. Phyto-remediation (cont.)
Scientific experiments have been conducted
byProf. Giovanardi University of Udine,Prof.sa
Citterio Bicocca Un. of Milan, Dr. Di Candilo
CRA-ISCI of Bologna.
Hemp shows resistance to high concentrations
of pollutants,capacity to absorb and accumulate
pollutants, fast growth and high biomass
production, deep-rooting.
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12. Phyto-remediation (cont.)
The varieties of hemp are tolerant to high
concentrations of Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn The
varieties of hemp are able to extract the metals
from the soil (mainly accumulate in the root but
also in the shoot) The soil type factors and
pH affect both the growth of plants and the
extraction of metals In the current state of
research, are required several years to recover
land from the environmental pollution.
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12. Phyto-remediation (cont.)
The best results with phyto-extraction are obtain
in the absence of marked effects phyto-toxic
borne plant. The crop manifests its
phyto-extraction very similar to the accumulative
species. The limited content of heavy metals
inside the stalk allows an industrial use of
itself. The high production of biomass would
allow high production of energy through
combustion.
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13. Conclusions
We have shown the main activities for the
re-introduction and promotion of hemp in Italy,
focusing on the unique properties of this natural
product in the seed and stalks. We have drawn an
outline of ancient history (this is from an old
edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1856)
and modern chronicle of hemp in Italy. We
passed through the industrial and academic
organizations working in the field of hemp,
agricultural cultivation, primary processing and
utilization of the many products available from
this versatile plant and research.
Non-negligible importance in promoting have the
specialized museums, in particular that of
Valnerina, in addition to the oldest one of
Carmagnola and Pisoniano and others. After
viewing some beautiful images of the structure of
hemp, at last we have shown a promising
application of natural composites in aerospace
and something that can become highly topical use
of the hemp plant as recovery of polluted soils.
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References
Web sites www.assocasanapa.it www.ecocanapa.it w
ww.casanapaitalia.com www.gruppofibranova.it www.c
omunesantanatolia.it.
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