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Basic Nursing: Foundations of Skills & Concepts Chapter 18

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Basic Nursing: Foundations of Skills & Concepts Chapter 18 BASIC NUTRITION Nutrition All of the processes involved in consuming and utilizing food for energy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Nursing: Foundations of Skills & Concepts Chapter 18


1
Basic Nursing Foundations of Skills Concepts
Chapter 18
  • BASIC NUTRITION

2
Nutrition
  • All of the processes involved in consuming and
    utilizing food for energy, maintenance, and
    growth.

3
Physiology of Nutrition
  • Five processes are involved in the bodys use of
    nutrients
  • Ingestion.
  • Digestion.
  • Absorption.
  • Metabolism.
  • Excretion.

4
Ingestion
  • The taking of food into the digestive tract,
    generally through the mouth.

5
Digestion
  • The mechanical and chemical processes that
    convert nutrients into a physically absorbable
    state. Digestion includes
  • Mastication (chewing).
  • Deglutition (swallowing).
  • Peristalsis (coordinated, rhythmic, serial
    contractions of the smooth muscles of the GI
    tract).

6
Absorption
  • The process by which the end products of
    digestion pass through the small and large
    intestines into the blood or lymph systems.

7
Metabolism
  • The bodys conversion of nutrients into energy.
  • Basal metabolism is the amount of energy needed
    to maintain essential physiologic functions when
    a person is at complete rest, both physically and
    mentally.

8
Excretion
  • The process of eliminating or removing waste
    products from the body.

9
The Six Essential Nutrients
  • Water
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Proteins
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals

10
Water
  • The Most Important Nutrient.
  • Daily requirements 1,000mL of water to process
    1,000kcal eaten.

11
Functions of Water
  • Solvent (dissolves substances to form
    solutions).
  • Transporter (carries nutrients, wastes, etc.
    throughout the body).
  • Regulator of body temperature.
  • Lubricant (aids in providing smooth movement for
    joints).
  • Component of all cells.
  • Hydrolysis (breaks apart substances, especially
    in metabolism).

12
Classification Sources of Water
  • Liquids consumed (water, coffee, juice, tea,
    milk, soft drinks).
  • Foods consumed (especially fruits and
    vegetables).
  • Metabolism (produces water when oxidization
    occurs).

13
Water Digestion, Absorption and Storage
  • Water is not digested. It is absorbed and used by
    the body as we drink it. It cannot be stored by
    the body. The body loses water in four ways
  • Urine.
  • Feces.
  • Perspiration.
  • Respiration.

14
Water Signs of Deficiency
  • Abnormal water losses include profuse sweating,
    vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhage, wound drainage
    (burns), fever, and edema.
  • A deficiency of water is called dehydration.
    Prolonged dehydration results in death.

15
Carbohydrates
  • The chief source of energy for the body. Made up
    of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are the
    major source of food for all people.
  • Daily requirements 50 to 60 of an individuals
    kcal intake per day.

16
Functions of Carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrates are...
  • The primary source of energy for the body.
  • Spares proteins from being used for energy, thus
    allowing them to perform their primary function
    of building and repairing body tissues.
  • Needed to oxidize fats completely and for
    synthesis of fatty acids and amino acids.

17
Carbohydrates Classification and Sources
  • Carbohydrates may be simple or complex.
  • Simple are single or double sugars.
  • Complex are composed of many single sugars joined
    together (starch, dietary fiber, glycogen).

18
Carbohydrates Digestion, Absorption and Storage
  • Digestion of cooked starches begins in the mouth.
  • Little digestion occurs in the stomach.
  • Carbohydrate digestion completed in the small
    intestine.
  • Carbohydrates are used completely, leaving no
    waste for the kidneys to excrete.

19
Carbohydrates Signs of Deficiency
  • Mild deficiency can result in weight loss and
    fatigue.
  • Serious deficiency can result in ketosis.

20
Fats
  • The most concentrated source of energy in the
    diet. An essential nutrient, but too much can be
    a health hazard.
  • Daily requirements should not exceed 25 to 30
    of an individuals caloric intake per day.

21
Functions of Fats
  • Provides concentrated source of energy.
  • Assists in absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
  • Is a major component of cell membranes and
    myellin sheaths.
  • Improves flavor of foods and delays stomachs
    emptying time.
  • Protects and hold organs in place.
  • Insulates body, thus assisting in temperature
    maintenance.

22
Classification of Fats
  • Triglycerides (true fats).
  • Phospholipids (lipoids, composed of glycerol,
    fatty acids, and phosphorus).
  • Cholesterol.

23
Sources of Fats
  • Animal (lard, butter, milk, cream, egg yolks, and
    fat in meat, poultry, and fish).
  • Plant (oils from corn, safflower, peanut, palm,
    etc., as well as nuts and avocado).

24
Digestion, Absorption and Storage of Fats
  • No chemical breakdown of fats occurs in the mouth
    and very little in the stomach.
  • Digestion occurs in small intestine.
  • Fats not immediately needed by the body are
    stored as adipose tissue.

25
Fats Signs of Deficiency and Excess
  • Deficiency occurs when fats provide less than 10
    of daily kcal requirement.
  • Gross deficiency may result in eczema, retarded
    growth, and weight loss.
  • Excess fat consumption can lead to overweight and
    heart disease.

26
Proteins
  • The only nutrient that can build, repair, and
    maintain body tissues.
  • Daily requirements determined by size, age,
    gender, and physical and emotional conditions.
  • Daily protein requirement for average adults is
    0.8g for each kilogram of weight.

27
Functions of Proteins
  • To provide amino acids necessary for synthesis of
    body proteins, used to build, repair, and
    maintain body tissues.
  • To assist in regulating fluid balance.
  • Used to build antibodies.
  • Plasma proteins help control water balance
    between the circulatory system and surrounding
    tissues.
  • In event of insufficient stores of carbohydrates
    and fats, protein can be converted into glucose
    and used for energy.

28
Classification Sources of Proteins
  • Complete proteins contain all 9 essential amino
    acids. (All animal fats, except for gelatin, are
    complete. Only plant fat that is complete is
    soybeans).
  • Incomplete proteins have one or more essential
    amino acids missing (plant proteins).

29
Digestion, Absorption and Storage of Protein
  • Digestion begins in the stomach.
  • Most digestion takes place in the small
    intestine.
  • Amino acids not used to build proteins are
    converted to glucose, glycogen, or fat and are
    stored.

30
Signs of Deficiency and Excess of Protein
  • Muscle wasting.
  • Edema (swelling).
  • Lethargy and depression.
  • Excess can result in heart disease, colon cancer,
    osteoporosis.

31
Vitamins
  • Essential organic compounds that regulate body
    processes and are required for metabolism of
    fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
  • Needed in very small amounts.

32
Foundations of Vitamins
  • Unique to each individual vitamin.

33
Classification and Sources of Vitamins
  • Grouped according to solubility (fat-soluble or
    water-soluble).
  • Sources are foods and vitamin supplements.

34
Digestion, Absorption and Storage of Vitamins
  • Do not require digestion.
  • Fat-soluble vitamins absorbed into lymphatic
    system water-soluble vitamins absorbed into
    circulatory system.
  • Excess fat-soluble vitamins stored in the liver
    and adipose tissue.
  • Excess water-soluble vitamins are excreted
    through urine.

35
Signs of Deficiency and Excess of Vitamins
  • Vitamin deficiencies commonly afflict alcoholics,
    the poor, incapacitated elders, clients with
    serious disease that affect appetite, mentally
    retarded persons, and neglected children.
  • Vitamins consumed in excess can be toxic.

36
Minerals
  • Inorganic compounds that help regulate Body
    processes and/or serve as structural components
    of the body.
  • Daily requirements Amounts greater than 100
    mg/day. Trace minerals less than 100 mg/day.

37
Functions of Minerals
  • Unique to each individual mineral.

38
Classification Sources of Minerals
  • Classified as major minerals or trace minerals.
  • Found in water and in natural foods, as well as
    supplemental minerals.

39
Digestion, Absorption Storage of Minerals
  • Influenced by Three Factors
  • Type of food (minerals from animal foods more
    readily absorbed than those from plant foods).
  • Need of body (a deficiency will result in more
    absorption).
  • Health of absorbing tissue.

40
Signs of Deficiency and Excess of Minerals
  • Too much mineral intake can be toxic.
  • Excessive amounts of minerals can result in hair
    loss and changes in the blood, muscles, bones,
    hormones, blood vessels, and nearly all tissues.

41
Four Food Groups (Historical)
  • For many years, a plan to help people construct a
    well-balanced diet, with food choices from milk,
    meat, fruit/vegetable, and bread/cereal groups.

42
Food Guide Pyramid
Fats, oils sweets Use sparingly
Milk, Yogurt Cheese Meat, poultry, fish, dry
beans, eggs nuts 2-3 servings
Vegetables Fruits (2-5 servings)
Bread, cereal, rice pasta (6-11 servings)
43
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Eat a variety of foods.
  • Maintain healthy weight.
  • Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and
    cholesterol.
  • Choose a diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits,
    and grain products.
  • Use sugars, salts, and sodium only in moderation.
  • Drink alcoholic beverages only in moderation.

44
Factors Influencing Nutrition
  • Culture.
  • Religion.
  • Socioeconomics.
  • Fads.
  • Superstitions.

45
Nutritional Needs During the Life Cycle
  • Affected by
  • Nutritional status
  • Height and weight
  • Meal and snack pattern
  • Adequacy of intake based on food guide pyramid
  • Food allergies
  • Physical activity
  • Cultural, ethnic, and family influences
  • Use of vitamin/mineral supplements

46
Nutritional Diseases
  • Primary Nutritional Disease occurs when
    nutrition is cause of the disease (scurvy,
    rickets, beri-beri, anemia).
  • Secondary Nutritional Disease complication of
    another disease or condition.

47
Weight Management
  • Maintaining weight at a desired level can be very
    difficult for some people.
  • Overweight 11 to 19 above desired weight.
    Obesity is 20 or more.
  • Underweight 10 to 15 below desired weight.

48
Safety of Food
  • Depends upon
  • Proper Storage.
  • Proper Sanitation.
  • Proper Cooking.

49
Food Allergies
  • Occurs when the immune system reacts to a food
    substance, usually a protein.
  • When such a reaction occurs, antibodies form and
    cause allergic symptoms.

50
The Nursing Process Assessment
  • Two types of data
  • Subjective.
  • Objective.

51
Subjective Data
  • 24-Hour Recall.
  • Food-Frequency Questionnaire.
  • Food Record.
  • Diet History.

52
Objective Data
  • Body Mass Index.
  • Skinfold Measurement.
  • Other Measurements (e.g. Abdominal-Girth,
    Mid-Upper-Arm).
  • Laboratory Tests.

53
Diet Therapy
  • The treatment of a disease or disorder with a
    special diet. Dietary prescriptions include
  • Nothing by Mouth.
  • Standard Diets (general, or regular soft
    clear-liquid full-liquid edentulous pureed).
  • Special Diets (low-residue, high-fiber, liberal
    bland, fat-controlled, sodium-restricted).

54
Assistance with Meals
  • Preparing the client.
  • Preparing the environment.
  • Serving the tray.
  • Assisting with eating.

55
Nutritional Support
  • Two delivery Routes for adults
  • Enteral nutrition The ingestion of food orally
    and the delivery of nutrients through a GI tube.
  • Parental nutrition Nutrients bypassing the GI
    system and entering the blood directly.
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