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Emerging approaches to phytosanitary risk management

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Emerging approaches to phytosanitary risk management decision challenges: PRATIQUE a European Project Jon Knight 22nd Technical Consultation among Regional Plant ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Emerging approaches to phytosanitary risk management


1
Emerging approaches to phytosanitary risk
management decision challenges PRATIQUE a
European Project
  • Jon Knight
  • 22nd Technical Consultation among Regional Plant
    Protection Organisations
  • PI Richard Baker (FERA, UK)
  • Imperial College London Team
  • John Mumford, Megan Quinlan, John Holt, Adrian
    Leach,

2
What is a Pratique?
Enhancements of Pest Risk Analysis Techniques
  • Organised around the existing PRA scheme
    developed by EPPO
  • European and Mediterranean Plant Protection
    Organisation (EPPO, 1997) working with revision
    from 2007
  • Three year project (March 2008 - 2011)
  • 4.13 million (510 person months)
  • Funded by the European Union under FP 7 Building
    the European research area of knowledge for
    growth
  • 15 Partners
  • 11 partners (NPPOs and universities) from 9
    European countries, plus subcontracts to Russian
    and Chinese institutions
  • Partners from Australia and New Zealand, plus
    active observers from Canada and the United
    States of America.
  • Two international organisations as partners (EPPO
    and CABI Switzerland Centre)

3
EU 7th Framework Call Text (i)
  • Development of more efficient risk analysis
    techniques for pests and pathogens of
    phytosanitary concern
  • This project will
  • develop the science and provision of pest risk
    analysis
  • explore the potential for new techniques
  • refine existing tools and management approaches
  • that can be applied to enhance existing PRA
    schemes.

4
EU 7th Framework Call Text (ii)
  • Key work will focus on risk assessment issues and
    will include
  • identifying and integrating key national and
    international datasets
  • exploring new techniques and refining existing
    tools
  • - especially validation of techniques that
    assess economic, environmental or social
    impacts/costs
  • developing system approaches for pest risk
    management to analyse and enhance the
    effectiveness of Plant Health policy
  • developing novel and sustainable pest management
    strategies with integrated technical support for
    policy development in the case of emergency
    situations/pest outbreaks, especially those pests
    that are difficult to control.

5
EU 7th Framework Call Text (iii)
  • Expected impact
  • The project will develop sustainable, integrated
    plant health risk analysis and management
    strategies.
  • Effective policy making and decision making by
    governments aimed at predicting and managing
    plant health risks, will be enhanced through the
    further development of more effective PRA based
    on new decision support systems.

6
PRATIQUE partners
7
PRATIQUE Principal project objectives Work
Packages
  • To assemble the datasets required to construct
    PRAs valid for the whole of the EU (WP1)
  • To conduct multi-disciplinary research to enhance
    the techniques used in PRA for
  • the assessment of economic, environmental and
    social impacts (WP2)
  • standardising and summarising risk (WP3)
  • pathway analysis and systems approaches (WP4)
  • guiding actions during pest outbreaks (WP5)
  • To ensure that the PRA scheme is fit for purpose
    and user-friendly (WP6)

8
PRATIQUE Work Packages
9
PRATIQUE Structure
WP1 Identifying and Integrating Datasets
WP2 Assessing Impacts
WP4 Pathway Analysis Systems Approaches
WP5 Action at Outbreaks
WP3 Standardising and Summarising Risk
Assessments
Pest risk management
Pest risk assessment
WP6 Web-based PRA scheme, Dissemination
Validation
10
PRATIQUE Work Packages Stages in the PRA Scheme
Stages in the PRA Scheme
PRATIQUE Work Package Coverage
Detailed pest risk assessment needed?
Entry
WP4
Establishment
WP3
Spread
WP6
WP1
Impacts
WP2
Pest/pathway risk assessment conclusions
Analysis of risk management options
WP4
WP5
Risk Communication
11
WP 2 Enhancing techniques for economic,
environmental and social impacts
  • To determine the extent to which the analysis of
    species traits can be used to identify those
    species that can cause significant impacts in
    cultivated and uncultivated habitats
  • To develop a novel scoring system to assess
    impacts and determine thresholds for
    phytosanitary action
  • To enhance existing techniques and develop new
    tools for assessing economic, environmental and
    social impacts
  • To develop a generic integrated model to assess
    pest spread and impacts

12
WP 3 Enhancing techniques for standardising
and summarising pest risk assessments
  • To enhance the consistency and standardisation of
    pest risk assessments by identifying and applying
    appropriate criteria
  • To develop and test new techniques for
    quantifying uncertainty in pest risk assessments
  • To enhance techniques for mapping endangered
    areas taking current and future climate, land use
    and economic impacts into account
  • To develop and test new techniques for
    summarising and communicating overall risk in
    pest risk assessment

13
WP 4 Enhancing techniques for pathway analysis
and systems approaches
  • Review of current approaches to pathway analysis
    in PRA
  • Review of the current application of systems
    approaches in PRA
  • Development of a pathway risk analysis module for
    the PRA scheme with a protocol for the
    application of neural networks and methods for
    enhancing consistency
  • Development of a systems approach module for the
    PRA scheme

14
WP 5 Developing a decision support system for
the eradication and containment of pest outbreaks
  • To carry out a meta-analysis of the successes and
    failures of pest eradication and containment
    programmes worldwide
  • To provide guidance for analysing the
    cost-effectiveness of pest eradication and
    containment measures
  • To develop a decision support scheme to support
    actions to be taken following pest outbreaks
  • To provide recommendations for the application of
    pest surveillance techniques in detecting pest
    incursions and managing outbreaks

15
WP 6 Project validation and dissemination with
the development of a web-based PRA scheme
  • To validate the outputs from work packages 1 to 5
    using independent experts and a wide range of
    pests and pathways
  • To create a web-enabled EPPO PRA scheme
    incorporating outputs from work packages 1 to 5
  • To consolidate and disseminate project outputs by
    providing a manual and examples of best practice
    with the web-enabled PRA scheme

16
Web-based PRA scheme
17
As a first step towards applying Systems
Approach, section 3 questions were re-ordered as
a time line, related to Critical Control Points
(CCP)
18
Significant probability of Entry
Significant probability of establishment
Is the pest under official control? Is produce
from pest free areas? Is place of production low
prevalence? Are there other targeted activities
that may be equivalent?
Existing management practices on pathway (1.7)
or existing management practices in Importing
country prevents entry or establishment of
organism (1.21)
Are existing measures sufficient and acceptable
to the importer?
Agreement on data requirements Monitoring
surveillance (3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28)
No
Yes
Commodity pathway 1.
Dunnage etc pathway 1.
Conveyances pathway 1.
Plants for planting pathway for potential weeds
1.
Natural Spread pathway 1.
Checklist of risk management policy
19
Commodity pathway (1, 2, 3 etc)
Identify any reasons for revision
What is the pest status at origin of the pathway?
(present, absent, confined under official
control, low prevalence)
On Farm
Low uncertainty (high confidence)
None found
Present
under official control, pest free areas or place
of production or low prevalence
Absent
List available choices (3.30)
3.20 Preventable by treatment of crop
Agreement on data requirements Monitoring
surveillance (3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28)
High uncertainty (Low confidence)
3.24 Preventable by production certification
scheme (Pest free planting material or specified
phytosanitary status)
Confirmatory surveys in exporting country
Pest found
3.21 Preventable by cultivars/Resistant cultivars
Seasonal or periodic inspection of growing area
Elimination of alternative hosts and/or creation
of buffer zones
Auditing (system review) Traceability
established 3.13, 3.14 Detectable by visual
inspection or tests 3.43 Issue of phytosanitary
certificate Safeguarding to prevent subsequent
infestation (clean storage and
conveyances) Maintenance of consignment integrity
3.22 Preventable by growing conditions Glasshouses
, sterilized soil , cultivation practices etc.
3.23 Preventable by choice of harvesting
times (maturity level, season, growth stage etc.)
Post harvest (preclearance)
3.18 Preventable by packing handling
methods Preventable by removal of non-required
parts (3.17) Chlorine wash, controlled
atmosphere, shrink wrap, etc
3.16 Controlled by treatments (chemical etc)
Post entry
3.15 Post entry quarantine (Detention at a
designated place pending measures)
3.13, 3.14 Detectable by visual inspection or
tests 3.29 Targeted surveillance measures in
importing countries Trapping, surveys, public
reporting systems etc.
3.19 Conditional import , Limited distribution,
Limited period of entry, Designated use e.g.
processing, Advance notification
Destruction or re-export
Go to risk managers checklist
3.7 Post-entry control possible, Effective
containment/eradication post entry (also 3.29)
20
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21
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22
Developing trade opportunities an integrated
systems approach for pest risk management
  • STDF Proposal Preparation Grant
  • Focus on S E Asia sub-region

23
Beyond Compliance
  • Problems (Benefits)
  • Failure of single/rigid measures can be
    disruptive to trade (less risk in multiple
    measure/adaptive systems, more flexibility from
    Systems Approach (SA), reduced interceptions in
    export markets) limitations of current measures
    (improved performance, availability, cost,
    quality impacts, practicality)
  • Rigid measures may be applied without regard to
    risk from real pest challenge, control options
    and without benefit of local knowledge and
    decision making skills (broader stakeholder
    involvement, cost and responsibility sharing,
    more ownership of risk management, more
    stakeholder control over process)
  • Asymmetric relations in trade lack of confidence
    in negotiations especially for the more complex
    SA examples (SA defined and understood, SA
    implemented or planned, market access started/in
    discussion, better opportunities for less active
    exporter countries in the Region by Regional SA)
    reactive relations with trading partners (more
    control over system in negotiation)

24
Rationale
  • Pest risk management imposed by importing country
    NPPOs will be more transparent, consistent and
    justified as proportional to the estimated risk.
  • Measures combined in the new approach will be
    more widely applied without unnecessary
    redundancy.
  • National goals to reduce use of chemical-based
    end point treatments will be advanced.
  • Exporting countries with fewer resources will
    have the capacity to more confidently negotiate
    equivalence agreements to use measures better
    suited to their own conditions.

25
Anticipated Outputs
  • A description of pest risk management evaluation
    and design in the region
  • Case studies of priority trade opportunities
    using Systems Approach for pest risk management.
    (7 cases identified)
  • Demonstration and evaluation of quantification
    and analytical tools (specifically control points
    and Bayesian Nets) to support use of Systems
    Approach
  • Establishment of a competency base with the
    methodology in the SE Asian subregion
  • A plan for a harmonised framework (possibly
    leading to an RSPM)

26
Beyond Compliance - activities
  • Output Demonstration and evaluation of
    quantification and analytical tools
  • (Control Points and BBN)
  • Development of the tool
  • Demonstration of the tool
  • Validation of the tool
  • for each of the case studies.

27
  • Thank you
  • Any questions?
  • www.pratiqueproject.eu

28
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29
Beyond Compliance case studies
  • Import of fresh produce (not rubber plants) as a
    pathway of SALB from countries not free of SALB
    to the region Malaysia leads, e.g. Brazil
  • Import of oil palm tissue culture, seedlings from
    outside subregion Thailand leads, from CR
  • Vietnam Dragon fruit to S Korea and Taiwan
  • Philippines mangosteen and avocado to USA
  • Indonesia mangosteen to Australia
  • Malaysia jackfruit to China and Australia
  • Thailand orchid cut flowers to Europe
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