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Systems and Models in Curriculum Development


Systems and Models in Curriculum Development In this lesson, we will focus on the systems approach to curriculum development. By the end of this lesson, you should be ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Systems and Models in Curriculum Development

Systems and Models in Curriculum Development
In this lesson, we will focus on the systems
approach to curriculum development. By the end
of this lesson, you should be able to select a
model that is most appropriate for the setting
for which you are designing or evaluating curricul
Curriculum development is often done in a
haphazard manner.
  • May have a hidden agenda due to factors such as
  • to keep or create jobs
  • sell materials and equipment
  • fulfill political or social agenda
  • fit a particular instructors preferences

A systematic-model approach to curriculum design
may be the key to avoiding these undesirable
  • Lets take a look at
  • Systems
  • And
  • Models

What is a system??
  • A system is a collection of elements,
    interacting with each other to achieve a common
  • Crunkilton and Finch (1999)

A system consists of five elements. These are??
  • Input-fuel, air, electrical charge
  • Output-movement, spark
  • Feedback-sounds, temperature
  • Environment-operating environment including
    ambient temperature, personnel
  • Process-internal combustion, cooling, movement

What about human resource systems??
Think about a human resource system at your
organizationlets say, staff development. What
would be some of the components of each of these
elements? For example, what input would be a
part of staff development? Go to the Discussion
Board and share your thoughts on these elements.
  • Input--?
  • Output--?
  • Feedback--?
  • Environment--?
  • Process--?

A Model is??
See page 29 in your text.
  • A simplified, yet communicable representation
    of a real-world setting or situation.
  • May be synonymous with design.

It is an organized way of accomplishing a goal or
Furthermore, a model should be...
  • Practical
  • Realistic
  • Efficient
  • Inclusive

Lets look at some systematic curriculum planning
The Systems Model for Performance Improvement
This model, formerly the Technology Training
System (TTS), is designed to separate training
problems from non-training problems. Highly
dependent upon front-end analysis, it is used to
decide Whether management actions, developmental
efforts, environmental forces, or some
combination of these will affect the change in
See page 30 in your text.
There are five phases to the Performance
Improvement Model...
  • Analyze
  • Design
  • Develop
  • Implement
  • Control

The Analysis phase focuses on two key components
  • Organizational performance diagnosis
  • What are the desired performances?
  • What are the actual performances?
  • What improvements need to be made?
  • Work expertise documentation
  • Gathering information
  • Recording expertise requirements needed
    to perform on the job.

The Analysis phase is heavily dependent on
front-end analysis.
  • Front-end analysis is a systematic means of
    seeking solutions to human performance problems
    while keeping in mind the problems definition
    and characteristics, as well as alternate courses
    of action.

Front-end analysis involves...
  • Needs assessments
  • Task analyses
  • ID of work or job requirements
  • Proposal development
  • Administrative buy-in

During the Design Phase...
  • Program and lessons are designed
  • Designs are based on results of the analysis
  • Needs are matched with restraints

During the Develop Phase...
  • New materials are developed
  • Existing materials are revised

During the Implement Phase
  • Management and training plans are enacted
  • Training actually takes place, when necessary

During the Control Phase
  • Training is evaluated
  • Results are reported
  • Training is revised
  • Trainees proficiency is monitored and maintained
    on the job (follow-up)

The Performance-Based Instructional Design System
  • Designed to provide a systematic means of
    developing instruction that would ensure the
    performance capabilities of the learner.
  • Crunkilton and Finch (1999)

See page 36 in your text.
Steps in the PBID include...
  • Program Description
  • intent and context
  • Content Analysis
  • ID of possible content
  • Content Selection
  • what will the content be
  • Content Sequencing
  • how will it be sequenced

Steps in the PBID include...
  • Lesson Structuring
  • considers principles of learning and possible
    thematic considerations (next slide)
  • Lesson Delivery Formatting
  • traditional, CBT, individualized
  • Development of Evaluation Procedure
  • includes quality assurance and feedback

A Thematic Curriculum Framework is...
  • A set of organized experiences such as
    programs, courses, and other school-sponsored
    activities that provide students with exposure to
    a broad, predominate theme.
  • Examples may include specific health settings,
    aerospace, maritime, etc.

See page 38 in your text.
The Tylerian Model
  • This model was developed by Ralph Tyler to
    simplify the curriculum development process.
  • Consists of four primary steps
  • Development of performance objectives
  • Development of activities
  • Organization of activities
  • Evaluation

The Tylerian Model was expanded by Doll (1986)to
  • Statement of need, based on assessment
  • Statement of objective
  • Content list and organizational plan
  • Description of learning experiences
  • Evaluation plan
  • Plan to solicit support for the curriculum

The final model that we will look at is the
Ten-Step Curriculum Planning Model.
  • This model first appeared in the NASSP
    Bulletin in 1984 in an article by Zenger and
    Zenger. It is an inclusive, organized approach
    that certainly meets the definition of
    systematic model. It is commonly used in the
    school setting.

The article is not available on the web as a full
text article, therefore, I will mail a copy to
Identify Curricular Need
Evaluate Curriculum
Implement New Curriculum
Ten-Step Curriculum Planning Process Model
Develop Goals and Objectives
Design New Curriculum
Identify Resources and Restraints
Select New Curriculum
Organize Curriculum Committees
Identify New Curriculum
Establish Roles of Personnel
When using the Ten-Step Model, the process...
  • may or may not include all steps.
  • may begin or end at any of the steps.
  • steps may be repeated as necessary
  • evaluation is a critical component of all steps

A quick wrap up...
  • Models are useful because they provide
    guidance and structure. Systems models bring
    various groups, individuals, information, and
    activities together to achieve the goal and to
    provide continuous feedback in order to improve
    the curriculum.

And thats it. Be sure to check the website for
assignments related to this lesson. Let me know
if you have any questions. Use the discussion
board to post comments and discuss these issues.