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Non-vertebrate Chordates, Fishes, and Amphibians

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Non-vertebrate Chordates, Fishes, and Amphibians Chapter 30 Phylum Chordata Contains three sub-phyla: Vertebrata Urochordata Cephalochordata All chordates at some ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Non-vertebrate Chordates, Fishes, and Amphibians


1
Non-vertebrate Chordates, Fishes, and Amphibians
  • Chapter 30

2
Phylum Chordata
  • Contains three sub-phyla
  • Vertebrata
  • Urochordata
  • Cephalochordata
  • All chordates at some point in their life span
    must possess four characteristics

3
  • A hollow, dorsal nerve cord
  • A notochord (supporting rod)
  • Pharyngeal gill slits
  • A tail that extends beyond the anus

4
Urochordates
  • Also known as the tunicates or sea squirts
  • Basically a sack with two siphons.

5
Cephalochordates
  • Examples amphioxus and lancelets

6
Vertebrates
  • Most numerous chordates
  • Anterior, large brain
  • Jointed internal skeleton
  • Usually two pairs of appendages and some type of
    tail
  • Closed circulatory system
  • Gills or lungs and a chambered heart

7
7 major classes of vertebrates
  • Jawless fishes, cartilaginous fishes, bony
    fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
  • Ectotherms cold-blooded body temp changes
    with the environment.
  • Endotherms warm blooded body tem remains
    fairly constant

8
FISH or FISHES
  • Both words can be used for the plural of a fish.
  • Fishes is often used when talking about
    taxonomy or classification.

9
1. Class Agnatha
  • jawless fishes
  • Most primitive vertebrates
  • No scales nor fins
  • Cartilage skeleton
  • No jaws
  • Both fresh and salt water varieties.
  • examples lampreys and hagfish

10
LAMPREY
  • Both fresh and salt water. (parasitic)
  • Possess a tongue with teeth that gnaw a hole in
    its victim then sucks out the blood.
  • Can be harmful to fish populations.

11
HAGFISH
  • Only found in salt water. scavengers
  • Also known as slime eels
  • Produce great amounts of slime for defense. Can
    tie themselves in a knot

12
2. Class Chondricthyes
  • Chondros (Gr. Cartilage)
  • Ichthys (Gr. Fish)
  • Mostly marine
  • 2 chambered heart
  • Movable upper and lower jaws
  • ex. Sharks, skates, and rays

13
Skates and rays
  • Flattened body (countershading)
  • Eat worms, mollusks, and other invertebrates
  • Can be specialized for defense
  • Stingers
  • Electric rays

14
SHARKS
  • Internal fertilization.
  • Viviparous live birth
  • Need to be constantly swimming to keep water
    moving over the gills
  • Very highly developed sense of smell.
  • Covered with sandpaper-like scales called placoid
    scales.

15
Medicinal uses
  • Currently shark cartilage is being tested as a
    possible cure for cancer.

16
3. Class Osteicthyes
  • Osteo- Gr. Meaning bone
  • Known as the bony fishes
  • Largest class of vertebrates.
  • Vary in size, shape, and structure.
  • Complex nervous system (lateral lines)
  • Very specialized.
  • Electric eel, pufferfish, angler fish, butterfly
    fish

17
Wide Variety
18
Structure of a bony fish
  • Usually four pairs of gills covered by a bony
    flap (operculum)
  • 2 chambered heart
  • Many have scales and fins
  • Swim bladder gas-filled sac which is used for
    buoyancy (maintain depth)

19
Reproduction
  • External.
  • A female will lay upto 500,000 eggs.
  • The male usually swims over the eggs depositing
    milt (sperm containing fluid)

20
The Coelacanth
  • A special fleshy-lobed finned fish thought to be
    extinct.
  • 1938 one was caught off the southern coast of
    Africa.

21
4. Class Amphibia
  • from water to land
  • Reproduction and development must take place in
    or near water.
  • Thin moist skin
  • Two pairs of limbs, one pair of nostrils
  • 3 chambered heart
  • Young show a distinct larval form.

22
Examples
axolotl
mudpuppy
Frogs
salamanders
23
Frog anatomy and function
  • Large powerful hind legs for jumping.
  • 2 large movable eyes
  • Tympanic membrane
  • 3 eyelids
  • Upper
  • Lower
  • Nictitating membrane (transparent used for
    underwater sight.

24
digestion
  • Large mouth.
  • Long sticky spade-shaped tongue
  • Teeth along upper jaw.
  • A pair of vomerine teeth used to hold prey in
    mouth
  • Esophagus...stomach...small intestine(site of
    absorption)..large intestine...cloacaanal
    opening.

25
Circulatory system
  • Oxygenated blood enters left atrium from lungs.
    Deoxygenated blood enters right atrium from rest
    of body.
  • Both empty into ventricle where a mixture of
    oxygen and non-oxygen blood is pumped out

26
Respiratory system
  • Tadpoles use gills to breathe.
  • Adult frog uses three structures for respiration.

skin
Lungs
Lining of the mouth
27
Nervous system
  • Possess both a cranial and peripheral nervous
    system
  • Multi-lobed brain
  • Olfactory(smell)
  • Optic(sight)
  • Cerebrum(voluntary muscles)
  • Cerebellum(coordination)
  • Medulla(involuntary muscle action)

28
Excretory system
  • CO2 excreted through the skin, other wastes
    filtered through the kidneys.
  • Urine is stored in urinary bladder then passed
    into cloaca and out of the body.

29
Reproduction
  • External fertilization
  • amplexus male grasps female, eggs are released
    then quickly fertilized by the male.

30
Order Urodela
  • Salamanders and newts
  • Long bodies and tails
  • Live in dark, moist places.

31
Orders Anura Apoda
  • ANURA
  • Frogs and toads
  • APODA
  • Caecilians
  • Legless amphibians

32
Assignment
  • Pages 793-794
  • 1-10, 14, 17, 18, 20, 23, 24, 28
  • Page 795 1-10
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