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Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles

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Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles Diseases and habitats Signs and Symptoms of Disease Fish are behaving unusual/strange Fish are floating to surface, sinking to bottom ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles


1
Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles
  • Diseases and habitats

2
Signs and Symptoms of Disease
  • Fish are behaving unusual/strange
  • Fish are floating to surface, sinking to bottom,
    or leaning to the side of aquarium
  • Fishs fins are unusually laying flat against the
    body

3
http//www.greensandlean.com/RobertYoung/bro_fish_
sick.jpg
4
Disease Signs
  • Fish have rolled or closed caudal fins
  • A fish is off by itself and not swimming with the
    school
  • Fish appears to be in slow motion and not keeping
    up with other fish

5
http//www.dfg.ca.gov/coloring/fish.jpg
6
Disease Signs
  • Fishs breathing seem unusually faster and deeper
    than normal
  • Fish at the surface gasping for air
  • Fish are rubbing/scratching against objects in
    the aquarium
  • Not interested in eating

7
Disease Signs
  • Fish belly appears caved in or unusually thin
  • Fish belly appears bloated or swollen
  • Color of fish has changed or unusual
  • Fish fins appearance is frayed

8
http//www.fortworthgov.org/DEM/sickfish2.jpg
9
Disease Signs
  • The back and spinal column appear distorted
  • Eyes are not clear, appear something is cloudy
  • The fishs scales are not normally sticking out,
    they lay flat against body

10
http//sites.state.pa.us/PA_Exec/Fish_Boat/anglerb
oater/1999/julaug99/fishdoct.gif
11
Disease Signs
  • White spots are covering body
  • Protruding eyes
  • Anal discharge hanging from fish

12
Parasites
  • White spot (Ich)- organism Ichthyophthirius
    multifiliis and causes numerous white spots on
    the body and fins of stressed fish. Ich is one
    of the most common diseases found in aquarium
    fish
  • Slime disease- parasites attack skin of fish
    causing a large amount of mucus. May cause death
    if it attacks the gills.

13
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis
http//www.aquaculture.bz/pages/articles/articles_
pics/img0080.jpg
14
Slime disease
http//203.116.88.76/content/phase1/Customer_Svc/d
isease/images/17(bodySlime).jpg
15
Parasites
  • Hole-in-the-head- organism Hexsamita live under
    skin in muscle tissue make tissue break down and
    skin opens to make fish appear to have holes
  • Velvet disease- organism Oodinium penetrates skin
    cells and feed on fish

16
Velvet disease
http//203.116.88.76/content/phase1/Customer_Svc/d
isease/fishDoctor_Other.html
17
Parasites
  • White fungus growth- white growth around mouth,
    fins, eye, and gills. A secondary infection is
    usually present already
  • Flukes- worm-like parasite that attaches to the
    gills and body of fish

18
Fungus
http//203.116.88.76/content/phase1/Customer_Svc/d
isease/fishDoctor_Other.html
Fluke
19
Parasites
  • Anchor worms- adhere and burrow under scales to
    attack the muscles
  • Fish lice- attach to body of fish and pierce skin
    to discharge a poison

http//203.116.88.76/content/phase1/Customer_Svc/d
isease/fishDoctor_Other.html
20
Bacterial disease
  • Finrot- where the edges of the fishs fins start
    to appear frayed and ragged, lose their color and
    the tissue between the fins breaks down

http//203.116.88.76/content/phase1/Customer_Svc/d
isease/fishDoctor_Rots.html
21
Bacterial disease
  • Mouth fungus- caused by a bacteria which a white
    tuffy material appears around the mouth and white
    patches on the skin

http//203.116.88.76/content/phase1/Customer_Svc/d
isease/fishDoctor_Fungus.html
22
Bacterial disease
  • Neon disease- caused by a parasite Plistophora
    hyphessobryconis. This organism is found in the
    fishs body tissue where it causes the production
    of spores which are released when it dies

http//203.116.88.76/content/phase1/Customer_Svc/d
isease/fishDoctor_Other.html
23
Bacterial disease
  • Tuberculosis- caused by bacteria that invades the
    organs and tissues of the body
  • Pseudomonas and Aeromonas- secondary infections
    in fish that are already sick. Fish will have
    swollen bellies, lesions or ulcers

24
Bacterial disease
  • Environmental control- problems in the tank
  • Lack of oxygen and over abundance of carbon
    dioxide can be readily observed when almost all
    the fish are swimming near the surface gulping
    for air
  • Incorrect water pH-causes respiratory problems
    and excess mucus production

25
Bacterial disease
  • Environmental control- problems in the tank
  • Chemical filtration ability reduced and ammonia
    builds up can be observed by cloudy, murky water
  • Gravel filtration system pollution buildup of
    iron sulphite can be observed by the black color
    on the gravel

26
Amphibians and Reptiles
  • Salmonella is a bacterial disease that can be
    transmitted to humans. It affects the digestive
    tract and causes watery, green, foul-smelling
    diarrhea

http//science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2003/images/yea
st/salmonella_sm.jpg
27
Amphibians and Reptiles
  • Mouth Rot is a fungal disease associated with
    sores or open wounds in the mouth.
  • Mites and ticks are external parasites that
    attack amphibians and reptiles. Mites usually go
    undetected until there is a heavy infestation.
    Symptoms include anemia, anorexia, depression,
    stress, listlessness, lack of appetite, and
    possible death.

28
A severe case of mouth rot in a female Chamaeleo
quadricornis.
http//www.adcham.com/images/images-glossary/MOUTH
ROT.JPG
29
Treatment
  • Includes the use of chemicals in the water with
    the aquarium being thoroughly cleaned before fish
    are returned. Some fish need to be placed in a
    hospital tank and treated before returning to
    normal tank. Most of the diseases and ailments
    treatments can be found at the local pet store

30
Considerations when purchasing aquaria
  • Type- either glass or plastic. Plastic is
    cheaper, but all glass is easier to clean.
    Framed tanks are more expensive than all glass
    and offer more support to the glass.

31
http//www.edkins.com/juwel-aquariums/rekord.20aq
uarium.jpg
32
Purchasing considerations
  • Size- ranges from a simple Beta or Goldfish bowl
    1 gal capacity of water (can be smaller or
    larger) to 10, 30, 50, or 100 gallon plus. The
    thickness of glass ranges from ¼ inch for small
    aquariums to 3/8 for larger aquariums

33
Purchasing considerations
  • Size depends on the amount you want to invest and
    the type (species) of fish
  • Shape depends on personal preference and species
    of fish you are interested in raising. The most
    common shape is rectangular, but square,
    spherical, etc are also common

34
Purchasing considerations
  • Species- type of fish purchasing, freshwater
    versus tropical

http//www.tropicalisland.de/CPT20Cape20Town20W
aterfront20Two20Oceans20Aquarium201.jpg
35
Equipment needed
  • Tank size
  • As a general rule for stocking rate for an
    aquarium is as follows
  • 1 inch of fish requires a minimum surface area
    of
  • Tropical fish 10 square inches
  • Cold water 30 square inches
  • Marine aquarium 48 square inches

36
Equipment needed
  • Example of size An aquarium that is 24 inches
    long by 10 inches high has 240 inches of surface
    area. Therefore, the tank would hold 24 inches
    of tropical fish, 8 inches of cold water fish, or
    5 inches of marine fish. One could have eight 3
    inch swordtails, two 4 inch Goldfish in a
    coldwater aquarium, or two Brasslets 2 ½ inch
    long in a marine aquarium.

37
Equipment needed
  • Power filter with an electric motor
  • Filtration systems remove uneaten food materials,
    dissolved materials, solid waste and neutralize
    harmful substances
  • Mechanical- removal of waste by various kinds of
    filtration devices. Modern systems use an
    external filter box

http//www.petco.com/assets/product_images/1/15561
10610B.jpg
38
Equipment needed
  • Filtration systems
  • Chemical- removal of dissolved material by using
    chemical process. The use of activated charcoal
    to soak up dissolved minerals and chemicals is
    the most common chemical removal process.
    Activated charcoal is often part of the filter
    system and must be changed at regular intervals

http//www.marinedepot.com/IMD/fl_as_ml3000.jpg
39
Equipment needed
  • Filtration systems
  • Biological filtration use bacteria to feed on
    toxic substances such as the ammonia excreted
    from fish during respiration or as a result of
    decaying waste and food material. The waste in
    the tank is changed from a harmful substance
    (ammonia) to a harmless substance of nitrogen.
    In addition the dissolved oxygen in the water is
    replenished

http//www.petsforum.com/personal/trevor-jones/bio
filtercomplete.jpg
40
Equipment needed
  • Air pumps used for aeration
  • The water is circulated from the bottom of the
    tank to the surface where aeration can take place
  • Compressed air (oxygen) is pumped through
    airstones (fused, porous glass) to break the
    airflow into minute bubbles

http//www.fishandfins.co.uk/images/Tetratec-Whisp
er-Air-Pump.jpg
41
Equipment needed
  • Air pumps
  • As the compressed air goes into the water, it
    disperses carbon dioxide (aeration)
  • Air bubbles rising from the bottom of the
    aquarium aid in equalizing the aquarium water
    temperature throughout and circulating the water
    to the top where aeration can take place

42
Equipment needed
  • Hydrometer- for measuring salt content, GFCI
    electrical outlet preferred
  • Heater/thermostat is needed to maintain water
    temperature for tropical aquariums. The heater
    must be the right size approximately 10 watts of
    power for each 1 ½ gallons of water

http//www.aquacon.com/images/seatesthydrometer.jp
g
http//petcessory.com/acatalog/heater.jpg
43
Equipment needed
  • Thermometer- liquid crystal thermometers that are
    adhesive strips that stick to the outside of the
    aquarium are popular
  • Water containers- aquarium water-holding
    container
  • Other materials include gravel and/or sand,
    plants, decorative stones, hood with starter for
    fluorescent lights, dip nets, decorative materials

44
Maintenance
  • Remove temporary hardness of water by boiling and
    allowing to sit prior to its use in the aquarium
  • Eliminate chlorine by aerating it for 12-24 hours
    prior to use or allowing it to sit for 48 hours
    so the chlorine will evaporate

45
Maintenance schedule
  • Daily
  • Check heater, temperature, aeration and
    filtration
  • Remove dead fish
  • Observe for any unusual behavior

46
Maintenance schedule
  • Weekly
  • Check water level and pH
  • Add water and chemicals as appropriate

47
Maintenance schedule
  • Monthly
  • ¼ to 1/5 of the water needs to be changed every
    3-4 weeks to provide fish a stress free
    environment and prolong the life of the filters
  • Siphon off any dead material from bottom of
    aquarium
  • Tend to plants in aquarium
  • Remove algae

48
Other factors
  • Factors that contribute to increased ammonia and
    nitrates in the tank
  • Increase in waste material and uneaten food on
    the bottom (dont overfeed)
  • Dirty filters and failure to change water monthly
  • Overpopulation of fish

49
Feeding fish
  • Vary feed to prevent boredom-fish really like
    live food, but freeze dried and frozen food is a
    good alternative
  • Feed fish 2 to 3 times per day
  • Feed only enough feed for the fish to eat in 3-5
    minutes (Many people overfeed fish and cause
    unsanitary aquarium conditions)

50
Feeding fish
  • Commercially prepared flake foods are ideal for
    small fish up to 4-5 long. Vitamins and
    nutrients are provided in amounts needed by the
    fish
  • Commercially prepared pellets work well for
    larger fish. The type depends on the eating
    habit of the fish being kept
  • Live foods like brine shrimp, earthworms, wood
    lice, and worms are treats to fish

51
Amphibians and Reptiles
  • Vast difference in species, but the goal should
    always be to duplicate the natural environment of
    the pet
  • Aquariums usually make the best containers

52
Amphibians and Reptiles
  • Semi-aquatic aquariums may be made by using
    plexi-glass to petition the aquarium in half
  • Vivariums should be designed to give the reptile
    an environment close to its actual habitat
  • Reptiles are ectotherms. They do not generate
    body heat and must rely completely on the
    temperature of their environment

53
http//www.fishesnpets.net/gallery/vivarium/vivari
um1.jpg
54
Amphibians and Reptiles
  • Reptiles need ultraviolet (UV) rays for calcium
    metabolism, formation of pigment, and vitamin D
    synthesis
  • Reptiles need sunlight
  • Fluorescent lights will provide UV rays as long
    as there is not glass between the light and the
    reptile. Glass filters the UV rays out

55
THE END
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