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Ergonomics = Human Factors A world beyond manual handling


Ergonomics = Human Factors A world beyond manual handling Jon Anslow HM Inspector of Health and Safety (Human Factors) Corporate Specialist Division – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ergonomics = Human Factors A world beyond manual handling

Ergonomics Human Factors A world beyond
manual handling
  • Jon Anslow
  • HM Inspector of Health and Safety (Human Factors)
  • Corporate Specialist Division
  • Nottingham

(No Transcript)
Ergonomics Human Factors
  • How humans interact physically
  • and psychologically within the
  • work environment.

Unpacking Human Factors
  • Physical
  • Manual handling, Thermal environment,
    Anthropometrics, Visibility, Noise.
  • Organisational
  • Safety Culture, Behavioural safety, Competence,
    Procedures, Managing change
  • Psychological
  • Human reliability, Fatigue, Human Machine
    Interaction, Vigilance / Attention .

Human Factors at work
  • Individual (Who is doing the work)
  • Competence, skills, personality, motivation,
    risk perception, attitudes, fatigue, strength,
    vision, hearing
  • Job (What are people being asked to do)
  • Task, workload, procedures, tools, environment,
    complexity, P.P.E
  • Organisation (Where are they working)
  • Management commitment, supervision,
    communication, safety culture

Humans are key in getting safety right or getting
safety wrong
Accident ?
Are Human Factors really Important ?
  • HSE recognises the importance that human factors
    can play in helping avoid accidents and
    ill-health at work. Up to 80 of accidents are
    often attributed to human error.
  • (HSE website)

Can accident rates keep falling?
Engineering approach to safety
Incident rates
Systems approach
Human Factors ?
1970 1990
HSE human factors
  • Human factors is well established in major
  • Oil and gas industries (on and off shore)
  • Chemical industry
  • Nuclear Industry
  • Railways and aviation (non-HSE enforced)
  • Established Human Factors inspection history
  • Investigations regularly include Human Factors
    Specialist Inspector input
  • Human Factors is an integral part of a safety
    case, safety report or in the granting of

HSE human factors
  • Human Factors outside of major hazard
  • Factories, hospitals, construction sites
  • HSE is taking human factors seriously
  • Human Factors support in HSE accident
  • Growing number of proactive Human Factors

Examples of applicable Regulations
  • Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 Section 2
  • Training (Competence)
  • Safe systems of work (Procedures)
  • Working environment (Lighting, temperature..)
  • Supply of Machinery (safety) Regulations 1992
    Regulation 12
  • taking ergonomic principles into account.
  • e.g. Anthropometrics in guarding, lighting,
    noise, fatigue, psychological stress and design
    of control systems.

My recent human factors work
  • Safety culture intervention at a steel works
  • Advisory visit on behavioural safety
  • Assessment of MSD risk in a garden centre
  • Evidential review of competence and routine
    violations in a food factory
  • Getting the right patient the right exposure in a
    radiology department.
  • Management of WRULD in a call centre
  • Assessment of control room operations and
    procedures at a major hazard site.

HSE Human Factors web pages
  • http//

Human Factors briefing notes
  • Human Factors briefing notes (Free to download)
  • Introduction to human factors
  • Competency assurance
  • Humans and risk
  • Procedures
  • Emergency response
  • Maintenance error
  • http//

7. Safety culture 8. Communications 9. Alarm
handling 10. Fatigue 11. Organisational change
12. Human factors in the Major Accident
Prevention Policy
Briefing note 10 - Fatigue
  • Briefing on the effects of fatigue on human
  • What can cause fatigue?
  • What are the main effects of fatigue?
  • How can we avoid or reduce fatigue?
  • Case study

What can cause fatigue?
  • The main factors are
  • Acute lack of sleep
  • Cumulative lack of sleep
  • Poor quality sleep lots of interruptions
  • Having to work at a low point in the day
  • Long working hours, particularly if these are as
    long as 14 to 16 hours
  • Poorly-designed shift work
  • Inadequate breaks during the working day

The main effects of fatigue at work?
  • Compared with their normal state, a fatigued
    person will
  • Find it hard to concentrate
  • Find it difficult to make clear decisions
  • Find it hard to take in and act on information
  • Have more frequent lapses of attention or memory
  • React more slowly (for example, to hazards
    arising in the workplace)
  • Make more errors
  • Occasionally fall asleep at work momentarily or
    for several minutes
  • May suffer increased ill health and absenteeism

How can we avoid or reduce fatigue?
  • Make sure employees have the opportunity to sleep
    for at least 8 hours between shifts
  • Encourage employees to develop good sleeping
  • Restrict night shifts to 4 in a row or to 2 in a
    row if they are 12 hour shifts
  • Allow at least 2 days off after nights
  • Make sure shifts rotate forwards - mornings,
    followed by afternoons followed by nights
  • Avoid long shifts and manage overtime

Fatigue and Risk Index
  • http//

Managing Shift work
Health and Safety Guidance (HSG 256)
  • The guidance aims to
  • make employers aware of their duty under law,
  • improve understanding of the risks of shift work,
  • provide advice on risk assessment and key risk
  • offer practical measures to help reduce the
  • reduce fatigue, errors and accidents.

Inspectors Human Factors Tool Kit
  • A more detailed Inspectors guide to Human
  • Each topic includes a method of inspection
  • 1. Introduction to the inspectors human factors
  • 2. Competence assurance
  • 3. HF in accident investigations
  • 4. Identifying human failures
  • 5. Procedures
  • 6. Emergency response
  • http//

7. Maintenance error 8. Safety critical 9.
communications 10. Safety culture 11. Alarm
handling 12. Organisational change
Example inspection method
Question set Reliability and usability of
Example inspection method
Question set Reliability and usability of
Barriers to integration of human Factors
  • Lack of awareness understanding of what human
    factors really are
  • Seeing ergonomics only as manual handling and DSE
  • Human factors is often seen as nothing more than
    Behavioural safety programmes
  • Focusing on engineering and systems approaches to
    safety without equal rigour for Human Factors
  • Increased rate of organisational change
    corporate memory decline and complacency

Further information
  • HSG48 Reducing error and
    influencing behaviour
  • Available from
  • http//

Key messages Human Factors Ergonomics
  • Human Factors is a way of thinking about health
    and safety centred on the human.
  • Human Factors is more than manual handling, more
    than DSE and more than behavioural safety.
  • Human Factors is not just for the major hazard

  • Accidents do not exist in the world but only in
    our heads. There is no world without causation,
    and the idea of accident reflects the limits of
    human perception, our inability to know all
    connections and so pursue total causality
  • Franz Kafka
  • (Letter to a