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The Protestant Reformation


The Protestant Reformation The Great Religious Upheval Martin Luther (1483-1546) Early Life Born in Saxony Wanted to be a lawyer, but had religious experience and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Protestant Reformation

Comunicación y Gerencia
  • The Protestant Reformation

The Great Religious Upheval
Causes of the Reformation
  • Corruption in the Catholic Church
  • simony (sale of church offices),
  • pluralism (official holding more than one
  • absenteeism (official not participating in
  • sale of indulgences,
  • nepotism (favoring family members e.g. Medicis),
  • moral decline of the papacy,
  • clerical ignorance

Causes of the Reformation
  • Renaissance Humanism de-emphasis on religion,
    secularism, individualism
  • Declining prestige of the papacy
  • Babylonian Captivity
  • Great Schism
  • Conciliar Movement

Causes of the Reformation
  • Critics of the Church emphasize a personal
    relationship with God as primary
  • John Wyclif (1329-1384), England, Lollards
  • Jan Hus (1369-1415), Czech
  • Savonarola (1452-1498) theocracy in Florence
  • Changing views of the common people.
  • Secularism
  • Poplular religion

Causes of the Reformation
  • Christian Humanism emphasis on early church
    writings for answers to improve society
  • Desiderius Erasmus
  • Thomas More

Martin Luther (1483-1546)
  • Early Life
  • Born in Saxony
  • Wanted to be a lawyer, but had religious
    experience and decided to become Augustinian monk
  • Taught theology at the University of Wittenberg.

Justification by Faith
  • Even though Luther had become a monk he
    questioned his ability to be saved.
  • He read the work of the early church fathers (St.
    Augustine, and St. Paul)
  • In Pauls epistle to the Romans (117) he found
    The just shall live by faith.
  • Luther felt that good works and sacraments were
    secondary to faith in Christ.

Johann Tetzel (1465?-1519)
  • Authorized by Pope Leo X to sell indulgences in
  • Came to Wittenburg in 1517 selling indulgences to
    pay for St. Peters in Rome
  • As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, the soul
    from purgatory springs.

95 Theses
  • Nailed by Luther to the door of the castle church
    in Wittenberg on October, 31st 1517
  • Criticized sale of indulgences.
  • This was inconsistent with his doctrine of
    justification by faith.

John Eck (1486-1543)
  • -German Catholic theologian
  • -Opposed the Reformation condemned Luther's
  • -Debated Luther at Leipzig in 1520 Luther denied
    both the authority of the pope and the
    infallibility of a general council,
  • - Luther was excommunicated by Pope Leo X in
    1520, Eck delivered the Papal Bull.

Diet of Worms (1521)
  • Tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire with power to
    outlaw and sentence execution through
  • Edict of Worms Luther outlawed by the HRE under
    Emperor Charles V
  • Luther goes into hiding at Wartburg Castle under
    the protection of Frederick the Elector. Here he
    translates the bible into German.

Confessions of Augsburg
  • Presented at the Diet of Augsburg
  • 1530 Written by Luthers friend Philip
  • Attempted compromise statement of religious faith
    to unite Lutheran and Catholic princes of the
    HRE rejected by Catholic princes
  • Became traditional statement of Lutheran beliefs
  • Salvation through faith alone
  • Bible is the sole authority
  • Church consists of entire Christian community

Peace of Augsburg
  • After the Diet of Augsburg, Lutheran princes for
    the Schmalkaldic League (1531) against Catholic
    Hapsburg rulers (Charles V)
  • Civil war erupted in Germany for the next 20
  • Charles V seeks to stop Protestantism and
    preserve hegemony of Catholicism

Peace of Augsburg
  • Habsburg-Valois Wars five wars between 1521 and
    1555 France tried to keep Germany divided
    (although France was Catholic) political impact
    of Lutheranism in Germany division lasts until
    late 19th century.
  • In 1555, a compromise was established based on
    the formula cuius regio, eius religio (whose
    region, his religion.)

Peasants War (1524-1525)
  • (also known as Swabian Peasant uprising)
  • Twelve Articles,1525 peasants demanded end of
    manorialism (feudalism)
  • Inspired by Luther Luther opposed to violence
    and peasant movement.
  • As many as 100,000 peasants killed.

Impact on Women
  • Lutheranism stressed marriage and the Christian
    home, marriage was a womans career.
  • Women should be educated schools for girls
    (Philip Melancthon)
  • Nunnery taken away as a way for a women to
    advance in society.

Protestantism Spreads
  • Other Sects

Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
  • Humanist, catholic priest.
  • Desired reform in the church
  • 1519, broke with the church

Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
  • Lead people of Zurich against the Catholic Church
  • Believed in the supremacy of the Bible
  • Colloquy of Marburg (1529) Zwingli splits with
    Luther over issue of Eucharist

John Calvin (1509-1564)
  • French Catholic priest.
  • High educated.
  • Agreed with Luther on most points (faith, Bible,

John Calvin (1509-1564)
  • Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)
    major work of the Protestant Reformation
  • Calvinism predestination, the elect,
  • Puritan or Protestant work ethic.
  • Most militant and uncompromising of all
  • Calvin established a theocracy in Geneva

Spread of Calvinism
  • Far greater impact on future generations than
  • Presbyterianism in Scotland, John Knox
    (1505-1572) presbyters governed church
  • Huguenots French Calvinists brutally
    suppressed in France
  • Dutch Reformed United Provinces of the
  • Puritans and Pilgrims (a separatist minority) in
    England established colonies in America
  • Countries where Calvinism did not spread
    Ireland, Spain, Italy heavily Catholic

  • Anabaptists, John of Leyden (1509-1536)
    voluntary association of believers with no
    connection to any state
  • Munster became Anabaptist stronghold tragedy at
    MunsterProtestant and Catholic forces captured
    the city and executed Anabaptist leaders
  • Mennonites founded by Menno Simmons became
    descendants of Anabaptists (Amish)

Reformation in England
  • John Wycliffe (1329-1384) Lollards
  • Henry VIII 2nd of Tudor kingsconsidered a New
    Monarch initially strong ally of Pope Defense
    of Seven Sacraments Defender of the Faith
  • Cardinal Thomas Wolsey failed to get Henrys
    divorce from Catherine of Aragon (originally wife
    of older brother Arthur)
  • excommunication by Pope Paul III

Reformation in England
  • Thomas Cranmer, 42 Articles of Religion grants
    Henry his divorce
  • Church of England (Anglican Church)
  • Act of Supremacy (1534) King is now the head of
    the English Church
  • Dissolution of the Monasteries power play
  • Execution of Thomas More for his opposition
  • 1539, Statute of the Six Articles Henry attempts
    to maintain certain Catholic sacraments

Successors to Henry VIII
  • Edward VI (r. 1547-1553) (Son of Jane Seymour)
    England becomes more Protestant, weak ruler.
  • Mary Tudor (r. 1553-1558) (Daughter of Catherine
    of Aragontries to reimpose Catholicism Bloody
    Mary. Married Philip II of Spain.
  • Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) (Daughter of Anne
    Boleyn the Virgin Queen effectively oversaw
    the development of Protestantism in England

Elizabeth I
  • 1559, Parliament passes new Act of Supremacy and
    Act of Uniformity.
  • 1563, Thirty-Nine Articles defined creed of
    Anglican Church under Elizabeth I
  • Puritans and Pilgrims (Separatists) sought to
    reform the church Pilgrims left for Holland and
    then America

  • aka Catholic Reformation

Move to Reform
  • Pope Paul III (r. 1534-1549) Most important pope
    in reforming the Church and challenging
    Protestantism, appointed ethical clergy. Called
    Church Council.
  • Julius III (r. 1550-1555) worldly pope.
  • Papacy comes more committed to reform under Paul
    IV, (r. 1555-1559), Pius IV (r. 1559-1565, and
    Pius V (r. 1566-1572)

New Religious Orders
  • Ursuline order of nuns (1544) Sought to combat
    heresy through Christian education
  • Discalced Carmelite Nuns (1562) St. Teresa of
    Avila (1515-1582), poverty and simple life.
  • Capuchins (1528) reform of Franciscans
  • Oratorians (1575) St. Philip Neri
  • Theatines (1523) improve education of clergy

New Religious Orders
  • Jesuits (Society of Jesus) (1540) 3
    goalsreform church through education, preach
  • Gospel to pagan peoples, fight Protestantism
  • Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) founder organized
    in military fashion
  • Spiritual Exercises contained ideas used to
    train Jesuits

Spanish and Italian Inquisitions
  • Spain persecution of Mariscos (Christian Moors)
    Marranos (Christian Jews)
  • Succeeded in bringing southern German and eastern
    Europe back to Catholicism
  • Sacred Congregation of the Holy Order, 1542, in
    papal states Roman Inquisition
  • Index of Prohibited Books catalogue of forbidden
  • Ended heresy in Papal States rest of Italy not
    affected significantly

Council of Trent (3 sessions 1545-1563)
  • Established Catholic dogma four next 4 centuries
  • Equal validity of Scripture, Church traditions,
    and writings of Church fathers
  • Salvation by both good works and faith
  • 7 sacraments valid transubstantiation reaffirmed
  • Monasticism, celibacy of clergy, and purgatory
  • approved Index of Forbidden Books

Council of Trent
  • Church reforms abuses in sale of indulgences
    curtailed, sale of church offices curtailed,
    ended nepotism
  • Bishops given greater control over clergy,
    seminaries established to train priests.

Results of Reformation
  • The unity of Western Christianity was shattered
    Northern Europe (Scandinavia, England, much of
    Germany, parts of France, Switzerland, Scotland)
    adopted Protestantism.
  • Religious enthusiasm was rekindled similar
    enthusiasm not seen since far back into the
    Middle Ages.
  • Abuses remedied simony, pluralism, immoral or
    badly educated clergy were considerably remedied
    by the 17th century.
  • Religious wars broke out in Europe for well over
    a century.