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The Phoenicians and the Lydians

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Chapter 2 Section 5 Phoenicians Loose union of city-states Sea was vital for trade Little fertile land Surrounding mountains made travel difficult Very skilled ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Phoenicians and the Lydians


1
The Phoenicians and the Lydians
  • Chapter 2
  • Section 5

2
Phoenicians
  • Loose union of city-states
  • Sea was vital for trade
  • Little fertile land
  • Surrounding mountains made travel difficult
  • Very skilled sailors
  • One of the greatest traders in the ancient world
  • Lumber
  • Metals
  • Gold and silver
  • Murex- shellfish used to make a purple dye

3
Phoenicians
  • Peaked around 1000 B.C.
  • Culture
  • Very similar to Babylonians and Egyptians
  • Religion
  • Very focused on winning the favor of the gods
  • In some cases, children were sacrificed
  • Usually following natural disasters
  • Writing
  • Phoencian Alphabet- became the model for Western
    alphabets

4
Phoenicians
  • Never established a major empire, but the
    Phoenician alphabet was a major contribution
  • Greeks and Romans adopted the alphabet
  • Conquered by the Assyrians

5
Lydians
  • Peaked around 600 B.C.
  • Makes up what is today the Asia Minor
    (present-day Turkey)
  • Major contribution coined money
  • Why was this so important?
  • No longer had to rely on bartering for trade
  • Their development of a money economy spread
    across the ancient world

6
The Origins of Judaism
  • Chapter 2
  • Section 6

7
Hebrews
  • Ancestors of the modern Jews
  • Inhabited Canaan
  • Small strip of land south of Phoenicia
  • See map on p. 41
  • Abraham
  • Founder of the Hebrew people
  • Jacob
  • Grandson of Abraham
  • Had 12 sons
  • Each established a tribe
  • Twelve Tribes of Israel

8
Exodus
  • Due to droughts, the Hebrews left Canaan and
    traveled to Egypt
  • Lived peacefully in Egypt for some time
  • Eventually fell out of favor of the Egyptians
  • Why?
  • Most scholars believe that the Hebrews may have
    come to Egypt with the Hyksos
  • When the Egyptians expelled the Hyksos in 1200
    B.C., they held the Hebrews as slaves

9
Exodus
  • Hebrews held as slaves for over 400 years
  • Moses
  • Led the Hebrews from slavery (Exodus)
  • Led the Hebrews into the desserts of the Sinai
    Peninsula
  • The Ten Commandments
  • Moses climbed to the top of Mt. Sinai and
    returned with tablets containing the commandments
  • Inspired, Moses set out to claim Canaan

10
Activity
  • Read the Ten Commandments on p. 45
  • Write a response to each commandment explaining
    why the rule would help to preserve the Hebrew
    community
  • Use complete sentences
  • 10 pts.
  • Hint Covet desiring goods belonging to others

11
Founding of Israel
  • Resistance in Canaan
  • Canaanites in the north
  • Conquered by the Hebrews
  • Philistines in the south
  • Driven out by the Hebrews, but never fully
    conquered
  • During the fighting, the 12 Tribes united under a
    single kingdom- Israel
  • Saul ? 1st king
  • David ? succeeded Saul and made Jerusalem a
    religious center
  • Solomon? brought Israel to its height in wealth
    in power

12
Divided Kingdom
  • After Solomons death in the late 900s B.C., the
    kingdom divided due to struggles for political
    power
  • Northern tribes formed the kingdom of Israel
  • Southern tribes formed the kingdom of Judah
  • Lacking unity and strength, the two kingdoms were
    conquered
  • 722 B.C.? Assyrians conquered Israel
  • 587 B.C. ? Chaldeans conquered Judah

13
Freedom
  • When Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered the
    Chaldeans, he allowed the Hebrews to return to
    their homeland
  • The Hebrews rebuilt Jerusalem
  • Torah- The first 5 books of the Old Testament
  • Includes the Hebrew code of Laws

14
Judaism
  • Yahweh ? Hebrew God
  • Spiritual force, not a glorified human or nature
  • Political rulers had no claims to divinity
  • According to the Ten Commandments, only Yahweh is
    divine
  • Monotheistic
  • Ethical monotheism
  • Emphasizes ethics, or proper conduct
  • Carried over to the founding of Christianity
  • Judeo-Christian ethics ? similar values
  • One of the most important contributions to
    Western civilization

15
Dead Sea Scrolls
  • Ancient manuscripts
  • Date back to the 100s B.C.
  • Detailing the history and principles of Judaism

16
Activity/HW
  • Section 6 Review
  • P. 47
  • 3
  • 4 c and d only
  • Ch. 2 Review
  • P. 48
  • Writing About History
  • ONLY COMPLETE THE CHART
  • DO NOT WRITE A REPORT
  • Unless you want to )
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