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Islamic Architecture

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Islamic Architecture Comparative Civilizations 12 K.J. Benoy Mosques The Most notable type of building is the mosque. Originally this was only a large open area where ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Islamic Architecture


1
Islamic Architecture
  • Comparative Civilizations 12
  • K.J. Benoy

2
Mosques
  • The Most notable type of building is the mosque.
  • Originally this was only a large open area where
    the faithful would gather.
  • The original mosque was probably the courtyard of
    Mohammads house in Medina.

3
Mosques
  • The courtyard descendant of the basilicas
    atrium and the Egyptian temple court, remains a
    feature of most mosques today

4
Mosques
  • Within the courtyard is usually an ablution
    fountain where the worshipper symbolically
    washes before prayer.

5
Mosques
  • Certain characteristics are present in most
    mosques.
  • The Mihrab, or niche, indicates the Qibla, the
    direction of Mecca, which the faithful must face
    when praying.

6
Mosques
  • There is also a minbar, or pulpit, from which
    sermons are delivered.

7
Mosques
  • And a minaret, or tower, from which the Muezzin
    call the faithful to prayer.
  • Originally this call was made from the main roof
    of the mosque.
  • Minarets developed from Christian bell towers.
    Later they influenced Christian designs.

8
Mosques
  • The social obligations within the religion later
    led to the addition of madrassa (schools,
    colleges or universities) attached.
  • Occasionally there were and are also hospitals.

9
Mosques
  • Moslems borrowed extensively from neighbouring
    civilization because there was no native
    architectural style in Mohammads homeland.

10
The Blue Mosque - Istanbul
  • Istanbuls Blue Mosque is clearly based on the
    Hagia Sophia.
  • Mehmet Agas 17th century structure rises 77 feet
    to the top of its central dome.

11
The Blue Mosque - Istanbul
  • It is actually built facing Justinians Church,
    on the site of the old Imperial Palace.

12
The Blue Mosque - Istanbul
13
The Blue Mosque - Istanbul
14
The Blue Mosque - Istanbul
  • The Blue Mosque is more properly known as the
    Sultan Ahmed Mosque.
  • Its more common western name comes from the wide
    use of blue Iznik tiles.

15
The Blue Mosque - Istanbul
  • This mosque is particularly notable for its six
    minarets.

16
The Blue Mosque - Istanbul
17
The Blue Mosque - Istanbul
  • Stained glass creates a magical lighting effect.
  • However, unlike European stained glass, there are
    no images of people, due to Mohammads
    prohibition against them.

18
The Blue Mosque - Istanbul
  • It is the magnificent dome and adjoining
    half-domes that impress most.
  • Built a thousand years after the Hagia Sophia,
    the Blue Mosque displays more grace than its
    predecessor.

19
The Great Mosque at Samarra, Iraq
  • Regional variations in Islamic architecture
    reflect local traditions, where they exist.
  • The Great Mosque at Samarra has a minaret in the
    style of a Babylonian Ziggurat.

20
The Grand Mosque - Mecca
  • Meccas Grand Mosque houses Islams most holy
    site the Kaaba, which all moslems face to pray.
  • It features the Kaaba in its massive courtyard.

21
The Grand Mosque - Mecca
22
The Dome of the Rock - Jerusalem
  • This is one of Islams earliest mosques.
  • It is built on a site holy to Jews, Christians
    and Moslems.
  • Note the Byzantine inspired Central Plan.

23
The Dome of the Rock - Jerusalem
24
The Blue Mosque - Isfahan
  • Iranian mosques frequently used the same blue
    tiles as was popular in Ottoman Turkey.
  • However, their Iwan (great Hall) form and
    characteristic monumental entrances are purely
    Persian in design.

25
Mosque of Sheik Lotfallah- Isfahan
  • Note the ornate and characteristically Persian
    dome.
  • Note also the tendence toward horror vacui.

26
Mogul Architecture
  • The Moslem conquerors of India developed an
    architecture of particular grace and grandeur.
  • Persian domes and great gates appeared throughout
    northern India.

27
Mogul Architecture
  • Sometimes Islamic and Hindu features were fused
    as in Akbars palace complex at Fatehpur Sikri.
  • In the pavilion to the right one sees the
    traditional trabeated Hindu features, merged with
    Persian domes.

28
The Taj Mahal
  • The most famous Mogul building of all is neither
    a palace or a mosque.
  • Rather, it is a mausoleum to house the favourite
    wife of a mogul emperor.

29
The Taj Mahal
30
The Taj Mahal
  • Modelled on a mosque, the building is sited in a
    garden.
  • The glistening white marble appears almost
    weightless, despite the volume of masonry.

31
The Taj Mahal
  • Unlike its Persian predecessors, there is no
    sense of horror vacui.
  • Rather, the inlaid stone work has a restrained
    feel of balance and harmony. Floral decoration,
    and, especially passages from the Koran in
    magnificent calligraphy, decorate its marble
    surfaces.

32
The Mesquita -- Cordoba
  • In Spain, some of the most exuberant Moslem
    architecture evolved.
  • A prime example of this Moorish architecture is
    theMesquite (mosque) in Cordoba.

33
The Mesquita - Cordoba
  • The horseshoe-shaped double arch atop its forest
    of columns is easily identified.
  • The double arch helped to increase the vertical
    height of the ceiling.

34
The Mesquita - Cordoba
35
The Mesquita - Cordoba
  • Close examination of the pillar capitals reveal
    that they are recycled from earlier buildings
    both Roman and Germanic.

36
The Mesquita - Cordoba
  • Another prominent feature is the incredibly
    intricate arching found in the Mihrab here
    called the Capilla de Villaviciosa.

37
The Mesquita - Cordoba
  • The vaulting is also wondrously complex, showing
    the Arab love of geometry

38
The Mesquita - Cordoba
  • Perhaps the strangest feature of the Mesquita
    today is th Christian church carved out of the
    middle of the original mosque.
  • Yet another example of cultural recycling but
    strangely out of keeping with the rest of the
    building.

39
The Alhambra - Grenada
  • For a time Grenada was the Moorish capital of
    Spain.
  • The Alhambra palace complex contains some of the
    most beautiful Islamic architecture in the world.

40
The Alhambra - Grenada
  • The Court of Lions, with its slim columns and
    carved lace-like wall surfaces are unique.

41
The Alhambra - Grenada
42
The Alhambra - Grenada
  • The carved stucco of the ceiling in the Hall of
    the Two Sisters is unparalleled in beauty and
    geometrical complexity.

43
The Alhambra - Grenada
  • Of particular note is the use of water as an
    architectural feature.
  • The Patio de los Aranyanes shows the value of
    water to a culture with desert roots.

44
The Generalife - Grenada
  • The fountains and abundant water features serve
    to reduce the temperature of the palace gardens.

45
Mud Mosque at Djenne - Mali
  • One of the strangest Islamic structures in the
    world is the mud mosque at Djenne.

46
Mud Mosque at Djenne - Mali
  • Here the palm wood beams extend out in order to
    support scaffolding for the workers who must
    annually plaster its surface.

47
Islamic Architecture Today
  • Traditional features remain apparent, but are
    interpreted in novel ways.
  • New building materials and techniques create new
    and interesting possibilities.

48
Islamic Architecture Today
49
Finis
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