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Quality Principles and Philosophies

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Deming s 14-point Management Philosophy Publish top management s permanent commitment to continuous improvement of quality and productivity Juran Juran s 10 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Quality Principles and Philosophies


1
Quality Principles and Philosophies
  • Imran Hussain

2
Dr. W. E. Deming
3
Demings Background
  • Main architect for introducing Total Quality into
    Japan
  • Born 1900
  • Graduated in Electrical Engineering
  • PhD in mathematical physics
  • Became statistician for US govt.
  • Sent by US govt. to Japan after WWII to advise on
    Japanese census.

4
Demings Philosophy
  • Quality is about people, not products
  • Suggested quality concept for designing product
  • Management need to understand nature of variation
    and how to interpret statistical data
  • Promoted importance of leadership
  • 85 of production faults responsibility of
    management, not workers
  • Enumerated a 14-point management philosophy

5
Product Development Cycle
  • Design the product.
  • Make it.
  • Try to sell it.
  • Do consumer research and test the products uses.
  • Redesign start the cycle all over again.

6
Achieving Quality
  • Companies should direct efforts towards
  • Innovation of products
  • Innovation of processes
  • Improvement of existing products
  • Improvement of existing processes

7
Quality Approach in Context
8
Quality
Costs
Productivity
Prices
Market Share
Stay in business
9
Attributes of a Leader
  • Coaches not judges
  • Strives to understand variation and its causes
  • Strives to remove obstacles within the
    organization
  • Responds to all customer forces
  • Adopts consistency of purpose
  • Places and emphasis on improving processes

10
Attributes of a Leader
  • Recognizes that people are not assets they are
    jewels
  • Strives to recognize those who need help and the
    gives help
  • Creates and atmosphere of trust
  • Knows the work he supervises
  • Does not place an over-reliance on figures
  • Encourages education and continuous improvement
    of each person

11
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • Create constancy of purpose for continual
    improvement of products
  • Create constancy of purpose for improvement of
    systems, products and services, with the aim to
    become excellent, satisfy customers, and provide
    jobs. Reduced defects and cost of development.

12
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • Adopt a commitment to seek continual improvements
  • Constantly and forever improve the system
    development processes, to improve quality and
    productivity, and thus constantly decrease the
    time and cost of systems. Improving quality is
    not a one time effort.

13
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • Switch from defect detection to defect prevention
  • Cease dependencies on mass inspection (especially
    testing) to achieve quality. Reduce the need for
    inspection on a mass basis by building quality
    into the system in the first place. Inspection is
    not the answer. It is too late and unreliable
    it does not produce quality.

14
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • In dealing with suppliers one should end the
    practice of awarding business on price. Move
    towards quality of product, reliability of
    delivery and willingness to cooperate and
    improve. Build partnerships.
  • Minimize total cost. Move towards a single
    supplier for any one item or service, making them
    a partner in a long-term relationship of loyalty
    and trust.

15
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • Improvement is not confined to products and their
    direct processes but to all supporting services
    and activities
  • All functions in an organization need to become
    quality conscious to deliver a quality product.

16
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • Train a modern way.
  • Institute training on the job. Everyone must be
    trained, as knowledge is essential for
    improvement.

17
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • Supervision must change from chasing, to coaching
    and support.
  • Institute leadership. It is a mangers job to
    help their people and their systems do a better
    job.

18
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • Drive out fear and encourage two-way
    communication.
  • Drive out fear, so that everyone may work
    effectively. Management should be held
    responsible for the faults of the organization
    and environment.

19
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • Remove barriers between departments
  • Break down barriers between areas. People must
    work as a team. They must foresee and prevent
    problems during systems development and use.

20
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • Do not have unrealistic targets
  • Set realistic targets. Do not place people under
    unnecessary pressure by asking them to do things
    which are not achievable. Eliminate slogans,
    exhortations, and targets that ask for zero
    defects, and new levels of productivity. Slogans
    do not build quality systems.

21
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • Eliminate quotas and numerical targets
  • Eliminate numerical quotas and goals. Substitute
    it with leadership. Quotas and goals (such as
    schedule) address numbers - not quality and
    methods.

22
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • Remove barriers that prevent employees having
    pride in the work that they perform
  • Remove barriers to pride of workmanship. The
    responsibility of project managers must change
    from schedules to quality.

23
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • Encourage education and self-improvement for
    everyone
  • Institute and vigorous program of education and
    self-improvement for everyone. There must be a
    continuing commitment to training and educating
    software managers and professional staff.

24
Demings 14-point Management Philosophy
  • Publish top managements permanent commitment to
    continuous improvement of quality and productivity

25
Juran
26
Jurans 10-point Program
  • Identify customers
  • Determine customer needs
  • Translate
  • Establishment units of measurement
  • Establish measurements
  • Develop product
  • Optimize product design
  • Develop process
  • Optimize process capability
  • Transfer

27
Crosby
28
Crosbys 14-step program
  • Management commitment
  • Quality improvement team
  • Quality measurement
  • Cost of quality evaluation
  • Quality awareness
  • Corrective action
  • Zero defect program
  • Supervisor training

29
Crosbys 14-step program
  • Zero defects day
  • Goal setting
  • Error cause removal
  • Recognition
  • Quality councils
  • Do it over again

30
Crosbys Maturity Grid
  • Uncertainty (adhoc)
  • Awakening (recognition begins but management
    unwilling to spend on quality)
  • Enlightenment (management begins to support
    quality improvement program, culture of openness)
  • Wisdom (management fully participates, defect
    prevention is now part of the culture)
  • Certainty (the whole organization is involved in
    continuous improvement)

31
Shingo
32
Shingos Philosophy
  • Poka Yoke (meaning mistake proofing)
  • This involves identifying potential error sources
    in the process and monitoring these sources for
    errors.
  • A variant to this approach is FMEA

33
Ishikawa
34
Ishikawas Philosophy
  • Quality Control Circles (QCC)
  • A quality control circle consists of a small
    group of employees who do similar work and
    arrange to meet regularly to identify and analyze
    work-related problems, to brainstorm and to
    recommend and implement solutions.

35
Quality Control Circles
  • Select problem
  • State and re-state problems
  • Collect facts
  • Brainstorm
  • Build on each other ideas
  • Choose course of action
  • Presentation

36
Genichi Taguchi
37
Taguchis Philosophy
  • Defines quality in terms of loss
  • the loss a product causes to society after being
    shipped, other than losses caused by its
    intrinsic function
  • He defines a loss function as a measure of the
    cost of quality
  • He also developed a method for determining the
    optimum value of process variables which will
    minimize the variation in a process while keeping
    mean on target

38
Peter Drucker
39
Druckers Philosophy
  • Success is threefold
  • Know your business
  • Know your competencies
  • Knowing how to keep focused on goals
  • Effective management and employee participation
  • Link between the bottom line and satisfying the
    customer

40
Druckers Philosophy
  • Purpose of business lies outside itself that
    is in creating and satisfying a customer. The
    decision process is central, and structure has to
    follow strategy and management has to be
    management by objectives and self-control.

41
Druckers 5 Principles of Management
  • Setting objectives
  • Organizing
  • Motivating and communicating
  • Establishing measures of performance
  • Developing people

42
Tom Peters
43
Peters Philosophy
  • Excellent firms believe in constant improvement
    and constant change
  • Need to move from hierarchical management to
    horizontal, fast, cross-functional co-operative
    organization

44
Peters Management Guidelines
  • Actively create a quality revolution
  • Put the customer first in everything you do
  • Listen actively to all stakeholders
  • Invest in people, training, education and
    recruitment
  • Openly reward, recognize and support productivity
    innovation
  • Openly support failures where people have tried
    to improve
  • Involve everyone in everything at all times

45
Peters Management Guidelines
  • Setup simple and understandable measures
  • Fight against bureaucracy and inflexibility
  • Look through a different mirror step outside the
    company and look at it from a different
    perspective
  • Teamwork and trust develop strong interpersonal
    and team skills
  • Work on attitudes and attention to detail get
    things done
  • Be consistent and strive for improvements in all
    areas

46
References
  • A Practical Approach to Software Quality, Ch. 1
  • Total Quality Management A Total Quality
    Approach, Ch. 1
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