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Title: Meetings with Indigenous Religious Leaders


1
Meetings with Indigenous Religious Leaders A
Preparation Guide for Army Chaplains April 2008
2
Religious Leader Liaison Consider the Terms
  • BI-LATERAL defined
  • affecting reciprocally two nations or parties.
  • to arrange or bring about an agreement through
    conference, discussion, and compromise.
  • ENGAGEMENT defined
  • a promise or commitment to appear at a certain
    time.
  • appointment.
  • a battle or encounter.
  • a hostile encounter between military forces.
  • to interlock.
  • emotional involvement, commitment, promise.
  • LIAISON defined
  • a close bond or connection.
  • communication for establishing and maintaining
    mutual understanding esp. between parts of an
    armed force.
  • MEETING defined
  • the act or process or an instance of coming
    together an encounter.
  • an assembly or gathering of people, as for a
    business, social, or religious purpose

3
Religious Leader Liaison Consider the Terms
The Religious Leader Liaison mission does not
refer only to meetings with indigenous religious
leaders. The Army RLL mission is defined as
follows the unit chaplain, as the unit
Religious Leader, conducts full spectrum liaison
functions for all aspects of the JIIM
environment. This means that the unit chaplain
will interface/liaison with Joint forces,
Interagency organizations and individuals,
Intergovernmental organizations and individuals,
and Multinational forces (JIIM). -- Chaplain
(LTC) Guy E. Glad, Branch Chief, Joint and
Multinational Concepts and Doctrine Directorate
of Combat Developments US Army Chaplain Center
and School
4
Who Can Engagements/Meetings Take Place With?
  • Iraqi/Afghan Leaders Any Time, Any Place
  • Imams
  • Mullahs
  • Police Chiefs
  • Mayors
  • Sheikhs
  • Medical Personnel
  • City Council Members
  • Ministers
  • Iraqi Army Leaders
  • Media

5
An Expanded Role for the Chaplain in Current
Operations
Religion in Counterinsurgency Operations Often
the United States attempts to avoid religion in
an effort to respect the personal dimension of
faith. Nations that do not separate church and
state perceive this attempt at respect as
dismissive, thereby furthering the perception of
the God-less West. The United States adheres
foundationally to separation of politics and
religion. In the Muslim world, religious leaders
are more powerful than political leaders. --
Military Chaplains as Peace Builders Embracing
Indigenous Religions in Stability Operations,
Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee
6
An Expanded Role for the Chaplain in Current
Operations
Religion in Counterinsurgency Operations It is
through communication and understanding that we
may win the hearts and cooperation of the local
populace. Victory for moderate Muslims over an
extremist minority vying for control in many
Muslim nations depends upon the United States
effectively filling the information gap.
Miscommunication can lead to misunderstandings
and misperceptions of US intent and plans. --
Military Chaplains as Peace Builders Embracing
Indigenous Religions in Stability Operations,
Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee
7
An Expanded Role for the Chaplain in Current
Operations
Overall we are not doing a good job of trying
to include religious leaders to show respect for
their faith as apart of stability operations.
-- Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld,
responding to an inquiry about how well the
Department of Defense intentionally brings
indigenous religious leaders into the planning
and implementation process for stability
operations
8
An Expanded Role for the Chaplain in Current
Operations
Military chaplains are uniquely suited and
positioned within the US military structure to
function as the initial component resource to
provide for inclusion of local religious groups
into stability operations. -- Military
Chaplains as Peace Builders Embracing
Indigenous Religions in Stability Operations,
Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee
9
An Expanded Role for the Chaplain in Current
Operations
The following chart contrasts the most likely
candidates among US Army military personnel for
religious liaison missions. Training criteria
included general knowledge of major world
religions, faiths, practices and beliefs. Skills
criteria indentified as negotiation, religious
diplomacy and consensus building. (From
Military Chaplains as Peace Builders Embracing
Indigenous Religions in Stability Operations,
Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee)
For Official Use Only
10
Scenario One
  • The Task Force Commander calls you to his desk in
    the Tactical Operations Command (TOC).
  • Chaplain, we got a Imam in the city preaching
    jihadist messages from his mosque. I need you to
    go meet with him. See if you can get him to stop
    these messages.
  • What are you thinking?
  • What are your concerns?
  • What are your questions?
  • What is your response to the CDR?

11
Use W.A.T.E.R.S. as a Guide
  • W WHO AND WHAT
  • A ACTION LEADER
  • T TIME AND PLACE
  • E EFFECTS
  • R RESPONSE
  • S SPECIFIC MESSAGE

12
W.A.T.E.R.S.
  • WHO AND WHAT
  • Who am I conducting the liaison with?
  • What are his issues?

13
W.A.T.E.R.S.
  • ACTION LEADER
  • Who is the primary conducting the liaison?

14
W.A.T.E.R.S.
  • TIME AND PLACE
  • What is the time and place of the meeting?

15
W.A.T.E.R.S.
  • EFFECTS
  • What are the effects to achieve? (long-term)
  • What is the end-state goal?
  • What is the intended outcome? (short-term)
  • What do you want?
  • What will we accept as the bottom-line?

16
W.A.T.E.R.S.
  • RESPONSE
  • What are your responses to impasse?
  • What are you willing to do if you dont get what
    you want?

17
W.A.T.E.R.S.
  • SPECIFIC MESSAGE
  • What specific command message needs to be
    delivered during the liaison?

18
A Tactical Operation Preparation, Execution and
Follow-Up
ENGAGEMENTS happen from the squad leader to
general officer level and should be treated as a
tactical operation involving Preparation,
Execution, and Follow-Up. -- from Engagement A
Preparation Guide, LTC William Wunderle
For Official Use Only
19
Meeting with Indigenous Religious
Leaders Preparation Phase
20
Methodology for Preparation Four Keys to Success
  • Intelligence Preparation of the Environment (IPE)
    /Mission Analysis
  • Identify Intended Outcomes
  • Develop Intended Outcome Strategy
  • Leader Rehearsals

1
2
3
4
The methodology for RST Liaison Mission
preparation is similar to the Military Decision
Making Process (MDMP).
21
MDMP vs. Liaison Prep
Liaison
1. IPE/Mission Analysis
2. Identify Intended Outcomes
Receive the Mission/ Mission Analysis
3. Develop Intended Outcome Strategy
Strategy Approval
COA Development/ Analysis/ Comparison
4. Leader Rehearsals
COA Brief / Approval
Execution
Rehearsals
MDMP
Execution
22
Meeting Preparation Intelligence Preparation of
the Environment
  • Starts with
  • Religious Intelligence Preparation of the
    Environment (IPE)

Just as Intelligence Preparation of the
Battlefield (IPB) drives a Maneuver Operation,
the IPE drives the Religious Leader Liaison
preparation process.
1
23
Meeting Preparation Intelligence Preparation of
the Environment
  • Religious IPE Involves
  • Data Mining the process of analyzing data from
    different perspectives and summarizing it into
    useful information.
  • Situational Awareness (BUBs)
  • Involvement in Information Operations Working
    Group (IOWG)
  • Knowledge Management (information sharing)
  • Religious Thinking religious talking points
    for leaders in the COIN environment
  • Managing Religious Priority Information
    Requirements (PIR)

1
24
Meeting Preparation Intelligence Preparation of
the Environment
  • IPE STEPS
  • Develop target folder review (biography,
    photograph, motivations, level of influence,
    family history, summary of previous engagement,
    measures of effectiveness, spheres of influence)
  • Identify and Anticipate the indigenous leaders
    objectives
  • Identify personal similarities between the
    leaders (US and indigenous)
  • Review religious affiliations and influences
  • Understand higher RST CDRs guidance, messages
    and themes
  • Understand current unit Information Operations
    (IO) messages and themes
  • Determine welcoming remarks and familiarization
    discussion points
  • Determine transition talking points to move from
    social to business
  • Use Mission Analysis and IPE to develop
    Liaison Milestones

1
25
Meeting Preparation Sample RST IPE Products
  • RST Liaison Outcomes Brief
  • RST Liaison Running Estimate
  • Religious POI Familial Links
  • Mosque Assessment
  • Mosque Message Trends

1
26
Sample Outcomes Brief
RST Liaison Outcomes AO Warrior 23 January 2005
  • 23JAN05 CH liaison with Sheikh Ali Husayn.
  • Sheikh Ali Husayn. Imam of the East Mosque,
    Ramadi. An influential religious scholar
    (Masters Degree, Baghdad University) in Ramadi
    and member of the Provincial Council (Al Anbar).
    Says local Association of Muslim Scholars (AMS)
    has not met for security reasons. Mosque needs
    repairs.
  • 21JAN05 CH liaison with Sheikh Ghafur.
  • Sheikh Ghafur. Imam of the Ibrahim Khalid
    Mosque, Ramadi. An influential religious scholar
    (PhD, Ramadi University) in Ramadi and member of
    the Provincial Council (Al Anbar). Says that his
    mosque is not the Al Faruq Mosque. Al Faruq
    Mosque is a few streets away, further from the
    market. Insurgents destroyed part of his mosque
    last year. He believes that US forces should be
    stronger against outside fighters. He says US
    should be in control of Iraq because we have
    tanks and planes and helicopters. He does not
    want to see US occupation indefinitely, but
    realizes that it is necessary for peace. He
    believes that US should train Iraqi Army and
    provide the same equipment that US forces have.

1
27
Sample RLL Estimate
Name (Leader positions) Name of Mosque
(City) Updated 28 September 2004
  • HOME
  • RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION Arab Sunnah
  • FAMILY/TRIBAL AFFILIATION Al Husayni. Son of
    Sheikh Dr. Husayn (same mosque) and possible
    nephew of Sheikh Dr. Ali and cousin to Umar.
  • INFLUENTIAL POWER (??? out of 5) Sheikh of
    moderate-sized mosque in Hit. Has been at the
    mosque since 2001. Has a masters degree from
    the college in Ramadi.
  • INFLUENTIAL MEANS (???? out of 5) Conducts
    prayers everyday.
  • RECENT OUTCOMES
  • PAST OUTCOMES
  • 28SEP04
  • His father, Sheikh Dr. Husayn, is in Baghdad all
    week.
  • No significant issues with city block and
    checkpoints.

Insert Photo Here
Name
Relationship Estimate
Hostile Opposing Neutral Supportive Friendly
1
Contacts 2 Most Recent 28SEP04
For Official Use Only
28
Sample RLL Familial Links
Key Familial Links Religious Spheres of
Influence Religious Area Analysis, AO Warrior
1
For Official Use Only
29
Sample Mosque Assessment
Name of Mosque (City) Map Location (Grid) Updated
29 August 2004
SECTOR MOSQUE SHEIKHS ATTENDANCE OTHER
NAMES NEIGHBORHOOD KEY MEMBERS RELIGIOUS
AFFILIATIONS TRIBAL AFFILIATIONS HISTORY
INFRASTRUCTURE PROBLEMS
EAST MOSQUE (City)
1
For Official Use Only
30
Sample Mosque Monitoring Trends
Mosque Monitoring Trends Analysis (as of 23
January 2004)
1
For Official Use Only
31
Sample Mosque Monitoring Trends
Mosque Monitoring Individual Mosques (as of 23
January 2004)
1
For Official Use Only
32
Scenario Two
  • Your unit is has just completed the RIP/TOA for a
    small Arab Sunni city in Al Anbar, Iraq. The
    task force commander is supportive of your
    conducting RLL ops in the city.
  • What information are you looking for?
  • Who are the resources in your unit? Higher?
  • What role will your chaplain assistant play
    during the RLL? What are all his/her
    responsibilities?
  • How will you conduct your first RLL?

33
Meeting Preparation Identify Intended Outcomes
  • Every meeting must have an intended outcome.
  • What is the purpose of this engagement? Are you
    trying to quell a riot?... Stand up a police
    station?...or is your intended outcome just to
    build a better relationship with your partner,
    whereby you can set the conditions for future
    engagements?
  • Identifying the intended outcome is initially a
    joint effort between the RST and the staff
    officer (S-3/S-6) following the IPE phase.
  • Once identified, the staff examines the
    suitability and feasibility of the intended
    outcomes and determine bottom-line.

2
34
Meeting Preparation Intended Outcome vs. Bottom
Line
  • The RST must examine the intended outcomes in
    relation to the Partners position and determine
    a bottom line the Leader is willing to accept.
  • The bottom line is a minimum threshold that
    must be met.
  • The bottom line serves as an acceptable
    alternative outcome to the Leaders intended
    outcome
  • Identifying intended outcomes and their
    respective bottom-line facilitates Liaison
    Strategy Development (similar to Course of Action
    development).

2
35
Meeting Preparation Intended Outcome vs. Bottom
Line
Situation A US commander is running 7 mounted
patrols a day in a relatively quiet sector. The
population has been supportive of the US
occupation and understands its mission. A
significant religious cleric is very upset that
US soldiers are teaching children vulgar language
and displaying pornography where the local Iraqis
can see. Many citizens have been complaining
about these issues and want the soldiers out of
their town.
  • CDR RST Bottom Line
  • Temporarily reduce patrols to 4 a day. The
    soldiers will be trained in cultural awareness
    and sensitivity.
  • CDR/RST Intended Outcome
  • Maintain 7 random mounted patrols per day and
    build positive relations.

As long as the negotiated number of patrols meets
or exceeds four, the minimum threshold will have
been met and both parties will be satisfied.
2
36
Meeting Preparation Steps 1 2 in Review
Step 1 IPE of Partner, Unit Campaign Objectives
and US IO Campaign Step 2 Identify and
Understand the Leaders Intended Outcome and
Bottom Line for each issue
2
1
37
Meeting Preparation Strategy Development to
Rehearsal
Wargame
Step
3
Vet the Strategy (IOWG or other venue)
Gain Leader approval of the Strategy
Rehearse
4
Step
4
3
38
Meeting Preparation Strategy Development
  • Step 3 Strategy Development
  • Wargame
  • Wargame the Leaders Intended Outcome and the
    Partners likely response
  • Wargame the Partners likely requests and the
    Leaders response
  • Wargame impasses
  • Vet the strategy (IOWG or other venue). Examine
    and evaluate usefulness.
  • Present the strategy to Leader for approval

3
39
Meeting Preparation Rehearsal Considerations
  • Step 4 Rehearsal
  • Determine who is required at the rehearsal
    (Chaplain, CH Assistant, PSD, security elements,
    interpreter, etc).
  • Ensure the interpreter understands your issues,
    the intended outcome, military jargon, etc.
  • Establish leader/interpreter signals (ex. tap on
    arm to stop talking).
  • If you host the meeting
  • Ensure facility appearance is professional
  • Rehearse pick-up of Partner at the gate
  • Sanitize the location (no operational graphics)
  • Plan snacks and drinks with cultural sensitivity
    (eating up front can lighten the Partners mood)

Rehearsals are key to the success of the liaison
meeting.
4
40
Meeting Preparation Overall Planning
Methodology Review
  • Step 1 IPE
  • Partner background / motivations
  • Leaders intended outcome / objectives
  • Unit Campaign plan
  • IO themes and messages
  • Step 4 REHEARSE
  • Chaplain
  • Chaplain Assistant
  • Security Detail
  • Interpreter

For Official Use Only
41
Scenario Three
  • There is a moderately large mosque just outside
    one of your units combat outposts (COP). You
    have chosen to liaison the Imam at this mosque as
    your first RLL mission. The unit commander
    supports the mission.
  • What is the Intended Outcome for the liaison?
  • What do you expect from the Imam (eg. reactions,
    questions, responses, etc.)?
  • What is your approach to the Imam? When? Where?
  • How do you introduce yourself to the him (name,
    position, purpose)?
  • What are your questions for him?
  • Who are the key players at your rehearsal?

42
Meeting Preparation Final Considerations
  • How much prep time did you have?
  • What tools did you use to prepare? (eg. TGT
    Folder, Bio, IO themes, Religious PIR, etc.)
  • Who did you incorporate? (Higher RST,
    Primary/Special Staff)
  • Do you use RLL Methodology?
  • What guidance did you receive from Higher? Was it
    sufficient?
  • Any unanswered RFIs?
  • Did you wargame entrance strategy? (Intro,
    Schmooze)
  • Anything to do differently?
  • Any coordination issues?
  • Any issues regarding security?

43
Actions During a Meeting with Indigenous
Religious Leaders Execution Phase
44
Actions During a Meeting Current Tactics,
Techniques, Procedures
  • Stay in your lane
  • Watch your facial expressions
  • Appearance- perceptions are everything- this
    applies to all those with you
  • Time management plan
  • 25 casual, develop professional relationships
  • 50 business
  • 25 closure and relationship time
  • Avoid slang / off-color humor / avoid jokes /
    avoid acronyms
  • Avoid Quid Pro Quo solutions (This for that)
  • Emphasize win win solutions
  • Only shift to win-lose if all else fails
  • 90 of all progress occurs away from the table
  • Focus on building a relationship!
  • Have prepared sound bites explaining your role as
    a chaplain
  • Properly prepare your team through effective
    rehearsals
  • Every aspect of the meeting is deliberate even
    small talk
  • Stick to your agenda do not let a
    confrontational person drag you all over the map
  • Watch your body language
  • Always separate the person from the problem
    attack the problem not the person

45
Actions During a Meeting Leader Dos and Donts
  • Dont assume your counterpart does not know/speak
    English.
  • Dont have side-bar conversations. Its very
    rude.
  • Dont tell jokes. They do not translate well.
  • Dont look at your interpreter. Look at your
    counterpart when you speak to them. Maintain
    eye-to-eye contact.
  • Dont rush off to the next meeting. Make them
    feel this meeting is the most important event
    in your day.
  • Dont promise anything beyond your ability to
    control.
  • Do know if the partner is a decision-maker.
  • Do finish on-time.
  • Do stay in your lane.
  • Do avoid discussion of US politics, or US
    foreign policy.
  • Do finish with review of agreements made!.

46
Actions During a Meeting Current Interpreter TTPs
  • Rehearse Make them part of your team - Invest
    your time in them know his religion,
    background, history of hostilities!
  • Think before you speak and group your words in
    short bursts
  • Speak succinctly and simply
  • It takes extra time to get your message across
    make sure you plan for it
  • Interpreters get tired plan periodic breaks
  • Look at your counter-part, not at the interpreter
    or off in space maintain eye-to-eye contact.
  • Act normal speak as if the interpreter is not
    there
  • Consider taking a second interpreter
  • Plan the placement of your interpreter (beside,
    behind, or between)
  • Do not become reliant on one interpreter
  • Do not let the interpreter speak one on one with
    the counterpart

47
Actions During a Meeting Interpreter Expectations
  • Provide an accurate translation of your message
  • Uses same tone and inflection you use
  • Speaks in first person
  • Presents a professional appearance (well groomed)
  • Speaks for approximately the same length of time
    as you
  • Understands military jargon and can translate
  • Is prepared, knows the general subjects / topics
  • Will be on time, at the right place

48
Actions During a Meeting Current
Recorder/Process Observer TTPs
  • The recorder/process observer must be aware of
    all aspects of the meeting, including
  • time management
  • changes in tone
  • discussion leading to an impasse
  • interpreter disposition
  • Take notes, capture issues.
  • Proven techniques for formal liaison
  • Sit to watch the leader more than the partner,
    where you can provide signals to the leader
    outside of the partners field of view.
  • Use a template of notes to fill in the blanks.
  • Help keep the leader on the pathway to the
    intended outcomes through use of signals.
  • Schedule adequate breaks to keep the interpreter
    fresh as interpretation is a difficult task.
  • Alternates interpreters as the Liaison
    transitions from one phase to the next.
  • If the partner is a smoker, provide him a break
    once an hour.
  • Ensures appropriate refreshments are on-hand.

49
Actions During a Meeting Sample Meeting Schematic
Imam
PSD
Recorder
Chaplain
Interpreter
50
Actions After a Meeting with Indigenous
Religious Leaders Follow-Up Phase
51
Actions After a Meeting Its a Continuous Process
  • RST and staff/recorder must conduct an
    after-liaison hot-wash the sooner the better!
  • Update the RST target folder
  • Develop RST briefs
  • Review of agreements made
  • Outstanding issues captured
  • Recommended next steps
  • Share results and recommendations staffed with
    IOWG.
  • RST and staff officers discuss linkage to other
    persons of influence, current events, IO themes
    and campaign plan.
  • Determine next tasking that results from
    briefing.
  • Leader is provided brief, then provides clarity
    and guidance for follow-up.

A leaders credibility is directly linked to
the follow-through on agreements made.
52
Meetings with Indigenous Religious
Leaders Conclusion
53
Conclusion
  • Consider the meeting between a chaplain and
    indigenous religious leader a tactical operation
    with three phases
  • Preparation
  • Execution
  • Follow-up
  • Conduct thorough preparation (Rehearse!)
  • Rehearse your interpreter
  • Show respect to culture, religion, and the
    counterpart
  • Your actions after the meeting are just as
    important as your actions during the meeting

54
References
  • A Relational Approach to Religious Leader
    Liaison Operations, CH (CPT) Masaki Nakazono, US
    Army. https//www.us.army.mil/suite/collaboration
    /GetDocument.do?doid9854487
  • Engagement A Preparation Guide, LTC William
    Wunderle, Middle East Foreign Affair Officer,
    Senior Army Research Fellow, RAND Corporation.
    https//www.us.army.mil/suite/collaboration/GetDoc
    ument.do?doid9052438
  • Military Chaplains as Peace Builders Embracing
    Indigenous Religions in Stability Operations,
    Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee.
    https//www.us.army.mil/suite/collaboration/GetDoc
    ument.do?doid9050479
  • Religious Support Team Liaisons PowerPoint
    presentation. https//www.us.army.mil/suite/collab
    oration/GetDocument.do?doid10393618

55
Questions? Search AKO Religious Leader
Liaison https//www.us.army.mil/suite/page/4596
88
  • masaki.nakazono_at_us.army.mil
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