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Malaria Control


Malaria Control Jody Collinge Global CHE Network Where does malaria occur? Areas at risk: How does malaria spread? What determines the spread of malaria? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Malaria Control

Malaria Control
  • Jody Collinge
  • Global CHE Network

Where does malaria occur?
  • Areas at risk

How does malaria spread?
Source Roll Back Malaria. What is malaria?
What determines the spread of malaria?
  • Malaria spread depends on
  • Rainfall pattern
  • (How does this affect mosquito breeding?)

Female Anopheles mosquito What do you notice
about it?
  • Types of mosquitoes in the area
  • How close are people to the breeding sites?
  • Some areas constantly have a high rate of
  • Other areas have malaria seasons or occasional
    epidemics of malaria.

How often does malaria occur in your area?
  • Is it common and frequent throughout the year?
  • Young children and pregnant women are at highest
    risk in these areas
  • With frequent exposure, adults develop some
    immunity to malaria
  • Or is it seasonal, occurring in bursts during
    rainy season or times of flooding?
  • Who is at risk in these areas?

What problems does malaria cause?
  • Every 30 seconds, a child dies from malaria.
  • Nearly one million people die from malaria every
  • Most of those dying are African children.
  • About one half of the worlds population is at
    risk of malaria.
  • Malaria also hurts the economy.
  • That sounds pretty bleak.
  • What hope do we have?

Source of statistics WHO. 2009. Malaria Fact
Malaria is preventable and curable.
  • The focus of this talk will be on preventing
  • But it is also important to stress early and
    effective treatment of malaria.

  • Main Symptoms
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Chills
  • Vomiting
  • These usually start about 10 to 15 days after the
    mosquito bite.

Severe Malaria
  • There are 4 types of malaria.
  • One of them, falciparum malaria, can cause severe
  • How common is falciparum malaria in your area?
  • Severe malaria can cause
  • Coma
  • Breathing problems
  • Anemia
  • Jaundice
  • Kidney failure
  • Shock
  • Death

Mosquitoes and Malaria
  • The spread of malaria depends on the life cycle
    of the mosquito.
  • Adult mosquitoes lay their eggs on water.
  • The eggs hatch to become larvae and then pupae,
    before turning into adults.
  • Adult females mosquitoes only live 2 to 4 weeks.
  • So you can reduce malaria by attacking any of
    these four stages of the mosquito.

What is happening here? Why?
Where do mosquitoes breed?
Irrigation water
Tire tracks
Any place there is water! So what is one way to
reduce malaria?
Rice paddies
Rice paddies
Describe what is happening.How does this reduce
Source Health Education Program for Developing
Countries. 2009.
How can you kill mosquito larvae?
  • Some fish, such as mosquitofish, carps, and
    Tilapia, eat mosquito larvae.
  • Dragonflies, and perhaps also birds, bats, and
    lizards also kill larvae.
  • Larvae can also be killed by surface films or by
    some chemicals such as methoprene that are toxic
    to mosquitoes.
  • Check with your local health department to see
    what steps they are taking.

The main strategy for malaria control Attack the
adult mosquitoes, or prevent them from biting
  • What is happening here?

Can you think of any risks to these approaches?
  • Some risks
  • Toxicity of DDT
  • Resistance of mosquitoes

How does indoor residual spraying work?
What are ways to prevent mosquito bites?
  • Use mosquito repellants.
  • Wear long pants and long sleeves.
  • Wear light-colored clothes.
  • Use window screens
  • Use bed nets.

What are different types of bed nets?
  • Traditional bed nets
  • Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs)
  • Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs)

Which type of nets do you use? How do nets that
are treated with insecticides work?
Insecticide-Treated Nets (ITNs)
  • What is happening here?
  • What needs to happen within six months?
  • Can you think of any practical challenges?

Source HEPFDC, 2009.
Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs)
  • These are pretreated with insecticides.
  • They last about 3 to 5 years, and do not need to
    be retreated.
  • They are an effective and inexpensive way to
    prevent malaria.
  • They are recommended by the World Health
  • Are you using them?

Other Ways to Prevent Malaria
  • Who is at the highest risk of malaria?
  • Travelers to an area high in malaria
  • Travelers often take prophylactic (preventive)
    medicines to prevent malaria.
  • Pregnant women (especially those with HIV)
  • Pregnant women are given intermittent preventive
    treatment. They are given at least 2 doses of a
    malaria drug during their pregnancy.
  • Young children
  • How can you protect young children?

Malaria Vaccine
  • Scientists are working on a new malaria vaccine.
  • The vaccine would help protect children from
    deadly malaria.
  • The vaccine boosts the immune response against
  • However, the vaccine is still being tested.

Early and effective treatment
  • Children are at a high risk of malaria.
  • They have little immunity or defense against
  • So be sure to
  • Diagnose malaria early. In malaria areas, any
    child with a fever may have malaria.
  • Treat children with malaria promptly.
  • Use a combination of medicines, so there is less
    resistance to the treatment.

Suspect malaria when a child in an area of
malaria risk has a fever.
Source World Health Organization/ UNICEF.
Integrated Management of Childhood Disease chart
What can you do?
  • What are some ways that your CHE teams can work
    to prevent malaria?
  • What are practical steps that you can take?
  • What can you do?
  • Make a list

1. Find out about malaria in your community
  • Do PLA activities focused on malaria.
  • Visit families to ask them about their
    experiences with malaria.
  • Ask about bed nets.
  • Check for standing water.
  • Visit the local health center.
  • Use KAP surveys.

2.Teach about malaria
  • Teach about malaria and malaria prevention.
  • Use health stories for malaria teaching.
  • You will enjoy the malaria comic book.
  • Do skits make posters tell stories be

Go to our Global CHE Network site for stories and
lessons about malaria, for both adults and
  • Where can you teach about malaria?
  • During home visits
  • In community meetings
  • At the health center and local school

3. Do community cleanup
  • Check with your health center. They may work
    together with you on this.
  • Get rid of any sources of standing water (old
    tires, cans, jars, pools of water).
  • Cover any water containers.

4. Encourage the use of long-lasting insecticidal
  • Ask
  • Where can you buy them?
  • How much do they cost?
  • How can you distribute them?
  • On home visits?
  • During vaccination campaigns?
  • On another heath campaign?
  • How can you teach about them and encourage
    families to use them?

5. Investigate indoor residual spraying
  • Who is doing it in your community?
  • What chemical are they using?
  • Are there any problems or side effects?
  • What does it cost?

6. Know how to recognize malaria and where to go
for malaria care
  • CHEs should know when to suspect malaria and when
    to refer people for health care.
  • Check with your health center How is malaria
    diagnosed and treated in your area?
  • Dont wait! Be sure to get treatment right away.
  • Learn how to use the IMCI chart. (IMCI is
    Integrated Management of Childhood Illness.)
  • CHEs can help families get health care and also
    do follow-up visits.

7. Do home visits
  • Has anyone been sick with malaria?
  • What are they doing to prevent malaria?
  • Are they using bed nets?
  • Is the area around the home clean and free of
    standing water?
  • Do a KAP survey.
  • Teach about malaria.
  • Help the family get medical care when needed.

Resources on the Global CHE Network website
  • Go to http//
  • You will find
  • Malaria lessons for adults and children
  • Malaria stories for adults and children
  • A malaria comic book
  • A movie on the Malaria Initiative

In conclusion
  • Malaria is a serious disease that kills up to 1
    million people a year.
  • But malaria can be prevented.
  • And malaria can be treated.
  • We need to work together to prevent malaria and
    to encourage prompt and effective treatment.
  • What steps are you taking to prevent malaria?
  • Have you taken our malaria survey yet?
  • Join the Global CHE Network in our malaria

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010.
    Anopheles Mosquitoes. Available from
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010.
    Malaria. Available from http//
  • Health Education Program for Developing
    Countries. 2009. Available from
  • Wikipedia. 2010. Malaria. Available from
  • Wikipedia. 2010. Mosquito. Available from
  • Wikipedia. 2010. Mosquito control. Available
    from http//
  • World Health Organization. Integrated Management
    of Childhood Illness chart booklet.
  • World Health Organization. 2009. Malaria Fact
    File. Available from http//
  • World Health Organization. 2010. Ten Facts on
    Malaria. Available from http//
  • World Health Organization. Roll back malaria.
    Available from http//