The Leaning Tower of Pisa - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Leaning Tower of Pisa

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The Leaning Tower of Pisa What went wrong?! So What Will We Talk About? A brief history of the tower. Why the structure failed. The reason it still stands. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Leaning Tower of Pisa


1
The Leaning Tower of Pisa
  • What went wrong?!

2
So What Will We Talk About?
  • A brief history of the tower.
  • Why the structure failed.
  • The reason it still stands.
  • The attempts to straighten the tower.
  • The reason it still leans.

3
The History
  • In Italian, it is called the Torre Pendente di
    Pisa
  • It is the bell tower of the towns cathedral.
  • Today it is 186 ft tall, with a 13 degree tilt.

4
History (contd) the construction
  • Construction began in 1173 and continued off and
    on until 1372.
  • Political crises caused breaks.
  • Used multiple architects.
  • First began tilt in 1178 with 3rd floor.

5
So What happened
  • Engineering was often trial and error due to lack
    of technology.
  • The foundation was poorly constructed and was
    only about 3 meters thick.
  • Built on an ancient riverbed just 6ft above sea
    level, made up of weak sand and clay.

6
  • The first lean of the tower was South.
  • After trying to even the floors, it leaned North.

7
  • This is an over exaggerated picture of the plan
    to make it straight

8
Why hasnt it fallen down?
  • The soil compacted and settled due to the length
    of construction
  • Without the break the tower would have fallen.
  • It was built of limestone, which can handle more
    stress than most stone.

9
Attempts to Straighten the Tower
  • Mussolini drilled and filed holes in the base
    with concrete, this made it tilt worse. (1934)
  • Became unstable forcing the Italy government
    hired several engineers to stabilize it. (1964)

10
Problems
  • Was forced to close in 1990 due to increasing
    tilt.
  • Later, it was stabilized by removing 40 cubic
    meters of soild from the raised end.
  • Reopened to the public in
  • 2001.

11
Why is it still leaning?
  • Engineers decided not to straighten the tower for
    tourists.
  • Instead, they gave it the relatively stable tilt
    of 13 degrees.
  • It is believed to stand for at least another 300
    years.

12
So, We talked about
  • The history and construction.
  • The poor foundation which lead to the lean.
  • That the solid compacted over time letting it
    stand.
  • It still leans for a reason

13
The End
  • Thank you
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