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Architecture

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Architecture The art of sheltering people both physically and spiritually from the raw elements of the unaltered world Vertical Horizontal * Kallidrates. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Architecture


1
Architecture
  • The art of sheltering people both physically and
    spiritually from the raw elements of the
    unaltered world
  • Vertical
  • Horizontal

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Great Pyramids at Giza -2600 BCE
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Post Lintel
  • Horizontal beams laid across open space between
    vertical supports
  • Limited by lack of tensile strength -withstands
    bending
  • Has compressive strength- withstands crushing

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Columns
  • Columns- consist of a shaft, base, capital
  • Fluting- may be carved vertical lines on the
    shaft
  • Base- may be none, stepped, or elaborately
    stepped
  • Capital- uppermost section, transition from top
    of column to lintel

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Greek Architectural Orders
  • Doric Order- simple shaft, no base, curved shape
    supporting a squared capital
  • Ionic- shaft with fluting, rests on stepped base,
    carved scrolls on capital called volutes
  • Corinthian- most complex, fluted column rests on
    a detailed, stepped base with carved, stylized
    acanthus leaves on the capital

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Doric
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Ionic
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Corinthian
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Arch Construction
  • Stresses transfer outward from center (keystone)
    to legs does not depend on tensile strength of
    materials
  • Round- Roman
  • Horseshoe- Moorish
  • Lance- pointed, Gothic
  • Ogee arch

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Arch types
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Arch Construction
  • Perfected by the Romans by 2nd c. BCE
  • Can define large spaces because the stress is
    transferred from the keystone to the legs
  • Keystone- wedge-shaped central stone in the arch
    it is inserted last locks the other stones in
    place
  • Vault- arched masonry structure that spans an
    interior space

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Joined Arches
  • Arcade- a series arches placed side by side
  • Tunnel vault- half-round arch extended in depth,
    arches placed back to back to enclose space
  • Groin vault- formed by the intersection of two
    barrel vaults of equal size at right angles
  • Ribbed vault- tunnel or groin vault in which the
    lines marking the diagonal intersection of the
    vaults are reinforced with raised masonry
  • Dome-arch rotated 360 degrees on its vertical
    axis

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Arch Supports
  • Buttress- reinforcement to the legs of an arch to
    prevent them from caving outward
  • Flying Buttress- buttress designed to overcome
    bulk of stone by accomplishing structural ends
    that were light in appearance

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Contemporary Structural Systems
  • Cantilever- overhanging beam or floor supported
    only at one end
  • Bearing wall- the wall supports itself, the walls
    and the roof
  • Skeleton frame-a framework supports the building,
    the walls attach to the frame forming an exterior
    skin

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Variations
  • Skeleton frame
  • 1. Balloon construction When the framing
    utilizes wood, as in house construction
  • 2. Steel cage construction When the metal forms
    the frame, as in skyscrapers

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Building Materials
  • Stone- post lintel also combined with mortar
    or brick mortar, called masonry
  • Concrete- pre-cast concrete (cast in place using
    wooden forms around steel)
  • Ferro-concrete (reinforced concrete)
  • Wood- balloon framing or post beam
  • Steel steel cage, cantilever
  • Steel suspension (bridges, superdomes, aerial
    walkways)
  • Geodesic dome

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Stone
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Masonry
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Concrete
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Pre-cast Concrete
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Wood
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Steel
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Steel Suspension
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Common Terms
  • Line, forms, repetition
  • Materials, texture
  • Balance
  • Scale proportion
  • Color
  • Light
  • Space how do the forms (walls, ceiling, stairs,
    entries, roof) enclose the space

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Architectural Considerations
  • Structural system
  • Context- the environment. How does the example
    relate to the physical environment in contrast
    to or reflective of surroundings
  • Circulation design and flow of contiguous spaces
    relative to function
  • Climate-
  • Function- the purpose of the building
  • Dynamics- stability, instability movement
  • Style- historical reference
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