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Landscape Design

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Landscape Design Competencies 17 ... Repeating prominent colors Repeating construction materials Continuing interior design themes to outdoor rooms Repeat plant ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Landscape Design


1
Landscape Design
  • Competencies 17.00-21.00

2
Landscaping Careers
3
What is Landscaping?
  • Landscaping is a profession that includes
    designing, installing, and maintaining the
    outdoor human environment.
  • There are 3 branches of the landscaping industry
  • Landscape Architecture
  • Landscape Contractors
  • Landscape Maintenance

4
Landscape Architects
  • Licensed professions
  • Conceptualize and plan the outdoor environment or
    landscape for residential and commercial clients.
  • Landscape designers usually do actual drawings
    for residential landscapes.

5
Landscape Contractors
  • Carry out the installation or actual construction
    of the landscape plan
  • Often use subcontractors to do special work such
    as pools, electrical work, stonework, etc.

6
Landscape Maintenance
  • Extended care of existing landscapes
  • The care and upkeep of the landscape after
    installation

7
Design-build Firms
  • Landscape businesses that handle everything from
    the initial contact with the client through
    design and construction as well as long-term care
    and maintenance.

8
Landscape Nursery Worker
  • Professional who sells and installs landscape
    plants and related materials.

9
Types of Landscape Plans
10
Types of Landscape Plans
  • There are three types of plans used in
    landscaping
  • Sequential
  • Computer Assisted
  • Graphics

11
Landscape Plans
12
Sequential Plans
  • Each part of the plan is increasingly more
    specific and detailed.
  • Includes
  • Functional diagrams
  • Preliminary designs
  • Final Plans

13
Sequential Plans-Functional Diagrams
  • Begin the arrangement of the clients program on
    the site.
  • Called bubble diagrams because they use loosely
    drawn freeform shapes to represent areas or
    spaces
  • Help the designer make decisions concerning
    layout and sizes and the use of each area.

14
Sequential Plans-Preliminary Designs
  • Break the bubbles to show first draft vision of
    how each landscape area will be shaped.
  • Landscape is given its form, type of materials to
    be used, and application of landscape design
    principles.
  • Simple without real details, but the horizontal
    and vertical relationships between objects and
    areas are now included.
  • A number of these may be shown before final plans
    are made.

15
Sequential Plans-Final Plans
  • Use suggestions and reactions of the client to
    make a master drawing that is graphically
    detailed and specific in its intent for the
    landscape.
  • Include identified plants, paving patterns, and
    other specific information.
  • Can also include construction drawings for the
    landscape contractor or subcontractor
  • Graphics are designed to impress

16
Computer Assisted
  • Also called drawing board
  • CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems are
    accelerated drafting systems, designed to draw
    landscape plans using a personal computer.

17
Graphics
  • Consists of letters and numbers
  • Free-hand lettering
  • Mechanical lettering
  • Computer lettering

B
A
C
18
Landscape Principles and Procedures
19
Principles of Design
  • Balance
  • Focalization of Interest
  • Simplicity
  • Rhythm and Line
  • Proportion
  • Unity

20
Balance
  • Materials are distributed evenly on opposite
    sides of a central axis
  • Three types of balance
  • Symmetric
  • Asymmetric
  • Proximal/distal
  • Macro-range-the viewer sees the landscape from
    the most distant vantage point
  • Closer range-the views from other locations not
    as distant

21
Symmetric Balance
  • One side is a reflective mirror image of the
    opposite side
  • Most formal type of balance

22
Asymmetric Balance
  • Each side has as much interest as the other
  • Not a duplicate of the other side

23
Proximal/Distal Balance
  • Balances right and left as well as near and far

24
Focalization of Interest
  • Selects and positions visually strong items in
    the landscape composition to create focal points
  • Draws the eye of the viewer to one major feature
    in each use area
  • Example corner planting

25
Simplicity
  • Seeks to make viewers comfortable within the
    landscape
  • Excludes any unnecessary changes in shape, color,
    direction, etc.

26
Rhythm and Line
  • Repeating something at a standard interval or
    pattern creates rhythm
  • Lines establish the shape and form of the
    landscape
  • Replicating strong existing lines such as the
    lines of a house or a pool
  • Functions of line plantings include foundation
    plantings, block a view, frame a view, and
    provide privacy.

27
Proportion
  • The size relationships between all the features
    of the landscape including vertical, horizontal,
    and spatial relationships

28
Proportion
  • Will maintain proper proportional relationships
    in a landscape between
  • Buildings and people
  • Buildings and plants
  • Plants and people
  • Plants and plants
  • Masses and soils

29
Unity
  • All the separate parts contribute to the creation
    of the total design
  • Ties together individual parts of each area by
  • Repeating prominent colors
  • Repeating construction materials
  • Continuing interior design themes to outdoor
    rooms
  • Repeat plant species
  • Raise patios, decks, and porches to door level

30
Landscape Processes
  • Process is a sequence of steps to reach a goal
  • There are three parts to the landscape process
  • Project development
  • Project maintenance
  • Design

31
Project Development Process
  • Includes determining need or objective
  • Design process
  • Accepting the design
  • Contracting and subcontracting
  • Landscaping
  • Acceptance
  • Billing and payment

32
Project Maintenance Process
  • Determining need or desire
  • Selecting landscape maintenance company which
    assesses the needs and presents a proposal
  • If the proposal is accepted, the company
    schedules and does the work
  • Customer is billed

33
Design Process
  • Site analysis and program analysis

34
Interior Landscaping
35
Interior Landscaping
  • Called interior plantscaping or interiorscaping

36
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39
Purposes of Interior Landscaping
  • Add color
  • Add textures
  • Add softness
  • Add life
  • Increase employee productivity
  • Decrease employee absenteeism
  • Add oxygen
  • Provide herbs for cooking, medicine, or fragrance
  • Add beauty and comfort by combining all of the
    previously mentioned purposes

40
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41
Benefits of Interior Landscaping
  • Adds color, texture, softness, life and oxygen to
    interior plantscape
  • Increases employee productivity
  • Decreases employee absences from work
  • Provides herbs for cooking, fragrance, or medicine

42
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43
Disadvantages of Interior Landscaping
  • Reduced light
  • Reduced root system
  • Dependant upon people for watering
  • Build-up of soluble salts from fertilizer
  • Plugging stomata from dust on leaves
  • Damage from heating, air conditioning, and
    cleaning chemicals

44
Disadvantages of Interior Landscaping
  • Growing medium
  • Only plants that will grow inside can be used
  • Picking or breaking leaves by people using the
    interior building area

45
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46
Benefits of Exterior Landscaping
  • Adds color, texture, and life
  • Adds aesthetic value (beauty)
  • Adds economic value to property
  • Adds comfort (shade)
  • Adds privacyborders, fences, etc.
  • Helps prevent erosion
  • Can use larger exterior plants
  • Rain natural soil provide most of required water
  • Gets natural light

47
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50
Disadvantages of Exterior Landscaping
  • May get too much rain and drown
  • Natural soils may have diseases, insects,
    improper pH, etc.
  • Natural soils may be shallow or rocky
  • Natural outdoor soils may be subject to erosion
  • Weed and insect control is more difficult
  • Large areas of landscaping costs more
  • More labor is required to establish outdoor
    landscape

51
Methods of Planting Ornamental Plants
52
Planting Ornamental Plants
  • Tools vary depending upon type and size of plants
    from bulb planter, trowel, spade, shovel to power
    augers and front end loaders.

53
Planting Ornamental Plants
  • Hole should be larger than plant roots and soil
    prepared so that new roots will grow in it.
  • Methods of installation are determined by root
    form whether bare-rooted, balled-and-burlapped or
    containerized

54
Balled and Burlapped Plants
  • Balled and burlapped plants have a round soil
    ball of roots wrapped in burlap fabric.
  • Planted in flat-bottomed, straight-sided hole
    that is deeper and wider than the ball.
  • Backfill soil should fill the hole enough to
    raise the plant to the level at which it grew in
    the nursery.
  • Loose burlap around top of plant.
  • Mounded ring of soil around plant to catch water.

55
Balled and Burlapped Plants
56
Containerized Plants
  • Use the same type hold, mounded ring, etc. as
    balled and burlapped.
  • In addition, the plant must be removed from the
    container
  • Roots should be unwound or cut at two inch
    intervals if pot-bound

57
Bare-rooted Plants
  • Have to have a mound or dome in the bottom of the
    hole to spread roots and direct roots to grow
    downward.

58
Planting Ornamental Plants
  • Tall plants, even small trees, need to be staked
    to prevent blowing over.
  • Mulching should be done to help retain water,
    prevent weeds, improve appearance, and minimize
    temperature fluctuations.
  • Water adequately and frequently enough for
    healthy plants.

59
Handling Ornamental Plants
  • Balled and burlapped plants should be handled by
    the root ball
  • Container grown plants should be handled by the
    container until removed and then by the root mass
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