Ohio University Interior Architecture Program HCIA 351, Materials and Construction II Spring 2010 Matthew Ziff, Associate Professor - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Ohio University Interior Architecture Program HCIA 351, Materials and Construction II Spring 2010 Matthew Ziff, Associate Professor


Interior design is a practice that responds to changes in the economy, organization, technology, demographics, and business goals of an organization. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ohio University Interior Architecture Program HCIA 351, Materials and Construction II Spring 2010 Matthew Ziff, Associate Professor

Ohio UniversityInterior Architecture
ProgramHCIA 351, Materials and Construction
IISpring 2010Matthew Ziff, Associate Professor
Commercial Interiors Projects
  • In design practice there is a substantial
    distinction between residential design and
    commercial design.
  • Commercial design typically involves complicated
    physical, financial, and legal relationships.
  • The base building (architectural shell) is today
    often quite separate from the interior infill.
    Partition systems, office work stations that are
    demountable, open work space all make interior
    environments independent from the enclosing
    building envelope

Interior Design PracticeThe following
information is taken from the Whole Building
Design Guide web pagehttp//www.wbdg.org/design/d
  • Interior design concerns itself with more than
    just the visual or ambient enhancement of an
    interior space it seeks to optimize and
    harmonize the uses to which the built environment
    will be put.
  • Thus, in the words of the U.S. Bureau of Labor
    Statistics, it is "practical, aesthetic, and
    conducive to intended purposes, such as raising
    productivity, selling merchandise, or improving
    life style." Interior design is a practice that
    responds to changes in the economy, organization,
    technology, demographics, and business goals of
    an organization.

  • As a human activity, interior design is centuries
  • As a coherent profession identified by the label
    "interior designer," it is relatively recent.
  • Many experts trace its beginnings to the early
    20th century and the rise of interior decoration
    as a career separate from architecture. In the
    early decades, this practice focused largely on
    the residential arena.
  • By the 1940s, the terms "interior design" and
    "interior designer" were used primarily by those
    individuals providing services to a small but
    growing number of business clients.

Elsie de Wolfe, 1865 1950She was without
question the first woman to create an occupation
as designer where none had existed before.
  • After World War II, nonresidential
    designoffices, hotels, retail establishments,
    and schoolsgrew in importance as the country
    rebounded economically. Interior design is
    generally divided into two categories,
    residential and contract or commercial.
  • Today, interior design is becoming increasingly
    specialized as buildings and materials get more
    complex technologically and regulations and
    standards more demanding.

Office interior from 1930sThe following images
are taken fromhttp//www.officemuseum.com/
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Office interior 2010
  • The first national professional organization for
    interior designers, The American Institute of
    Interior Decorators (later, the American
    Institute of Interior Designers), was founded in
    1931, and a second, the National Society of
    Interior Designers, in 1957.

  • But it was not until the 1960s and 70s that
    independent organizations were established to
    assess qualifications for designers and design
    programs, thereby putting in place the
    cornerstones of the profession standards for
    education, experience, and examination.
  • These are the Interior Design Educators Council,
    the Council for Interior Design Accreditation,
    and the National Council for Interior Design
    Qualification. In 1975, AID and NSID merged to
    form the American Society of Interior Designers.
    The International Interior Design Association was
    founded in 1994

  • Efforts to bring about statutory licensing of
    interior designers, variously through title or
    practice acts, also began in the 1960s.
  • In 1982, Alabama became the first state to enact
    legislation for the regulation of interior
  • Today, 25 states and jurisdictions have adopted
    some form of regulation for interior design.

  • Interior design as a profession includes a scope
    of services performed by a professional design
    practitioner, qualified by means of education,
    experience and examination, to protect and
    enhance the life, health, safety, and welfare of
    the public.

William LeBaron Jenney Home Insurance Building
1883-1885 Chicago, Illinois
The development of high rise construction, and
especially the steel frame, really made
commercial interior space possible. William
LeBaron Jenney's Home Insurance Building of 1883
was an early example of the potential of large
scale open commercial space
The Rookery, Chicago, IL  (1886), John Wellborn
The Rookery, Chicago, IL  (1886), John Wellborn
Frank Lloyd Wright Johnson Wax building,
Racine, Wisconsin, 1947 The Great Work Room
Parking garage and front entrance of Johnson Wax
Building, Racine, Wisconsin
Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, in 1936 for the
SC Johnson Wax Administration Building (Racine,
Since the early 1940s there have been three
large, and well known companies that support
designers and their work
  • Herman Miller Zeeland, Michigan
  • Knoll New York City
  • Steelcase Grand Rapids, Michigan

Herman Miller was founded by D. J. De Pree, who
bought the Michigan Star Furniture Company in
1923 with his father-in-law, Herman Miller, and a
small group of local businessmen. The company was
located in Zeeland, Michigan.
  • Herman Miller, Inc., is one of the leading
    manufacturers of office furniture and furniture
    systems, second only to Steelcase in sales.
  • Ranked since 1986 among the top ten in Fortune
    magazine's annual list of the 500 most admired
    companies, Herman Miller is esteemed as an
    innovator in furniture design, as well as for its
    unique commitment to employee relations and the
  • The company maintains operations in 35 countries.

  • Knoll Group Inc. is a leading U.S. manufacturer
    of office furniture.
  • Its products include chairs, wood case goods,
    files and storage mechanisms, and full office
    systems. Knoll also produces textiles on contract
    and markets computer support accessories.
  • The company sells its products through
    showrooms, sales offices, and dealerships in
    about 500 U.S. locations. It also sells through
    independent dealers in Europe, the Pacific Rim,
    and Latin America.

Steelcase,Inc., Grand Rapids, Michigan
  • Steelcase was incorporated as the Metal Office
    Furniture Company on March 16, 1912, in Grand
    Rapids, Michigan.
  • Although the new company had a novel
    idea--fabricating furniture from sheet metal--it
    received little notice in "The Furniture City,"
    which already had nearly 60 furniture

  • In 1914 Metal Office hit on an idea that solved
    the problem of carelessly flicked cigar and
    cigarette ashes The Victor, a fireproof steel
  • Touted for its strength and durability, the
    wastebasket could also be color coordinated with
    other furniture.
  • Victor became an official trademark in 1918 and
    eventually became an expanded line of products.

Charles and Ray (his wife) Eames.Great American
Molded plywood chairs designed by Charles and Ray
Eames, manufactured by Herman Miller
Molded plywood screen designed by Charles and Ray
Eames, manufactured by Herman Miller
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Cast aluminum and leather chairs, designed by
Charles and Ray Eames, manufactured by Herman
The Eames lounge chair, manufactured by Herman
Model 670 was the first design for the luxury end
of the market by Charles and Ray Eames. Designed
in 1956 it retailed for 634 in 1957. The Lounge
chair is unashamedly masculine, exuding a sense
of executive power and comfort through its
generous proportions and use of high-quality
materials. At first glance, the chair looks much
more complex than other pieces by Eames, but it
is actually built according to the same principle
as their simple plywood chairs. Three moulded
plywood elements joined together by metal
components and, with a lower frame, form the
basic structure.
The Merchandise Mart, completed in 1931, catered
exclusively to the wholesale trade. The largest
building in the world at the time of its
completion, the Mart continues to host the NEOCON
trade show annually.
NeoCon Worlds Trade Fair, North Americas
largest conference and exhibition for interior
design at The Merchandise Mart Chicago, features
the latest trends, products and concepts in
office, residential, hospitality, health care,
institutional and government environments, all
under one roof at Chicagos famous Merchandise
Open plan office furniture, or systems furniture
as it is called today, defines and separates work
spaces without the use of constructed partitions.
Today it is estimated that more than 30 of U.S.
businesses use systems Furniture. The practice
of commercial interior design today is a
specialty, requiring knowledge, skill, and an
ability to bring large and small scale
architectural components together into a smoothly
functioning environment.
Open Office Plan
  • Open plan offices have existed for a long time.
    However, prior to the 1950s, these mostly
    consisted of large regular rows of desks or
    benches where clerks, typisst, or technicians
    performed repetitive tasks.
  • Such designs were rooted in the work of
    industrial engineers or efficiency experts such
    as Frederick Winslow Winslow Taylor, and Henry
  • In the 1950s, a German team named Quickborner
    developed office landscape office which used
    conventional furniture, curved screens, large
    potted plants, and organic geometry to create
    work groups on large, open floors.

  • Office landscape was quickly supplanted by office
    furniture companies which developed cubicles
    based on panel-hung or systems furniture.
  • Many different terms (mostly derisive) have been
    used over time for offices using the old-style,
    large arrays of open cubicles including sea of
    cubicles and cube farm.

Open Plan Office Furniture
Base Building and Tenant Improvements The
commercial office building shell and core, which
include essential services, such as the HVAC
system, elevators, and toilet rooms, is commonly
referred to as the 'base building'. Tenant
improvements are those materials and
constructions that form the infill, responding to
the tenant's needs, which are not part of the
base building. The base building standard, or
building standard, is a package of typical
tenant improvements provided by, and sometimes
required of, the landlord. By standardizing
building components like suite entry doors, suite
signage, lighting fixtures, and window
treatments, the landlord can maintain coherence
in design, and consistency in maintenance
routines throughout the building. Usually there
is a tenant improvement allowance to cover
standard items that will be installed at no cost
to the tenant. The quantity of tenant
improvements is usually described per square foot
of rentable space.
For example, 1 telephone jack every 125 square
feet of leased space, 1 door every 300 square
feet of leased space, et cetera. Sometimes the
allowance is stated as a certain amount of money
to be allocated per square foot of leased space.
A lease is an agreement between the property
owner and the tenant. There are standard
improvements that landlords provide to tenants
as part of the rental rate. The document that
describes these improvements to the rented space
is the work letter which is attached to, and
becomes part of the lease.
Measuring Commercial Space There are about a
dozen different methods of measuring
commercial office space in current use. All
methods make similar distinctions between gross
area, usable area, and rentable area, but they
differ in how these areas are calculated. The
building gross area defined as the "construction
area" by the Building Owners and Managers
Association (BOMA), is the floor area within the
exterior face of the building including the
thickness of the exterior wall. It is the
total constructed space. This measurement is
used in evaluating building efficiency, and in
comparing construction costs between projects.
  • The rentable area is usually defined as the
    interior floor area excluding vertical
    penetrations (stairs, duct chases, elevator
    shafts, et cetera).
  • This measurement is often used to determine the
    income producing
  • capability of a building.
  • The usable area is the floor area that is
    inhabitable by the tenant.
  • This measurement is used in planning and
    designing the space.
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