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U.S. Educational Instructional Technology: Past, Present and Future

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No technology is a panacea for education ... Computer literacy/technological literacy offers a ... Operate a computer system to use software successfully ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: U.S. Educational Instructional Technology: Past, Present and Future


1
U.S. Educational Instructional Technology Past,
Present and Future
Mid-Atlantic Region Japan-in-the-Schools (MARJiS)
Program
  • University of Maryland
  • Educational Technology OutreachDirector Davina
    Pruitt-Mentle

2
U.S. Educational Instructional Technology Past,
Present and Future
  • Statistics
  • Trends in Educational Technology
  • Teacher Training Trends
  • Standards
  • Current Issues in Educational Technology
  • New Challenges
  • Current K-12 Trends
  • Activities for you to explore

3
Educational Technology Drivers
  • Equal Access
  • Technology
  • At home
  • At school
  • Training
  • Usage

4
Digital Divide
  • Differences in access between haves and
    have-nots
  • Gap still exists but is narrowing
  • Studies focus on socio-economic condition, race,
    gender, and education
  • Access highest for
  • Upper income brackets
  • White
  • Male
  • College degree

5
Internet Usage
Source Pew Internet American Life Project
surveys, Nov-Dec 2000. Margin of error is 3.
6
Maryland Trends
Source Maryland Business Roundtable
7
Teacher Training Leads to Effectiveness
  • Report to the President on the Use of Technology
    to Strengthen Education (2000)
  • Only 62 of teachers with one or more computers
    systems in the classroom use the computer for
    instruction
  • Teachers commonly report that they have not
    received adequate preparation in the effective
    use of computers within the classroom.
  • The more ambitious and promising applications of
    computers call for considerably more skill from
    the teacher, who must effectively integrate
    technology into the curriculum and devise ways of
    assessing student work based on individual and
    group projects.
  • Technology effectiveness requires teacher training

8
Characteristics of Teachers Who Successfully
Integrate Technology
  • Experienced (median age 44)
  • Technology savvy (upper quintile of skills)
  • Instructional leaders, not fringe innovators
  • Access to multiple networked computers in
    classroom
  • Have online computer at home (74)
  • Spend over 100 of personal funds on project (63)

Source 3Com (2000) Preparing Teachers to Use IT
in the Classroom
9
What do teachers need to be ready for technology?
  • Develop a philosophy
  • Purchase products
  • Identify and solve problems
  • Speak the language
  • See where technology fits in educational
    integration

Do computers make a difference? Do pencils make
a difference?
10
Technology in Education
  • Since 1920- emphasis on radio and television
  • Current Internet
  • 20 years from now
  • Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction (ICAI)
  • Monitor student performance
  • Create personal profile for each student
  • Automatically tailor instruction to particular
    needs
  • Update profile as progress is made
  • Virtual Reality (VR)
  • Simulation

11
Educational Technology
  • Definition by Roblyer Edwards
  • Educational technology is a combination of the
    processes and tools involved in addressing
    educational needs and problems, with an emphasis
    on applying the most current tools computers and
    their related technologies.
  • Roblyer, M.D., and Edwards, J. (2000).
    Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching.
    (2nd Edition) Merrill Publishing

12
Four Perspectives That Shaped Educational
Technology
13
Various Approaches to Technology in Education
14
Integrating Educational Technology
  • Process of determining which electronic tools and
    which methods for implementing them are
    appropriate for given classroom situations and
    problems

15
Milestones and Trends in Educational Computing
Technology
  • The Era Before Microcomputers
  • 1950 - First instructional computer use
    computerized flight simulator used to train
    pilots at MIT
  • 1959 - First computer use in schools IBM 650
  • 1966 - IBM offers the 1500 system Dedicated
    instructional mainframe
  • 1967 - CCC offers first minicomputer-based
    instructional system (DEC PDP/1) Mitre
    Corporation offers TICCIT system
  • 1970s - CDC offers the Plato instructional
    delivery system
  • The Microcomputer Era and Beyond
  • 1977 - First microcomputers enter schools
  • 1980 - Seymore Papert writes Mindstorms The Logo
    movement begins
  • 1980s
  • MECC offers microcomputer software educational
    materials publishers begin courseware development
    and marketing
  • The courseware evaluation is emphasized
    MicroSIFT, EPIE, others
  • The computer literacy movement begins, then wanes
    after 1988
  • 1990s - Use of ILS and other networked systems
    increases multimedia use and development
    increases
  • The Internet Era
  • 1994 - Widespread use of the Internet begins
  • 2000 - Virtual reality systems and other virtual
    environments are emphasized

16
What have we learned from the past?
  • Teachers usually do not develop technology
    materials or curriculum
  • Technically possible does not equal desirable,
    feasible, or inevitable
  • Things change faster than teachers can keep up
  • Older technologies can be useful
  • Teachers always will be important
  • No technology is a panacea for education
  • Computer literacy/technological literacy is a
    moving target
  • Computer literacy/technological literacy offers a
    limited integration rationale
  • Standalone computers and networked computers have
    benefits and limitations

17
Elements of a Rationale for Using Technology in
Education
  • Motivation
  • Unique instructional capabilities
  • Support for new instructional approaches
  • Increased teacher productivity
  • Required skills for an information age

18
Elements of a Rationale for Using Technology in
Education
  • Motivation
  • Gaining learner attention
  • Engaging the learner through production work
  • Increasing perceptions of control (intrinsic
    motivation)
  • Unique instructional capabilities
  • Linking learners to information sources
  • Helping learners visualize problems and solutions
  • Tracking learner progress
  • Linking learners to learning tools
  • Support for new instructional approaches
  • Cooperative learning
  • Shared Intelligence
  • Problem solving and higher-level skills
  • Increased teacher productivity
  • Freeing time to work with students by helping
    with production and record keeping tasks
  • Providing more accurate information more quickly
  • Allowing teachers to produce better-looking more
    student-friendly materials more quickly
  • Required skills for an information age
  • Technology literacy
  • Information literacy
  • Visual literacy

19
New Initiative Educational Technology Standards
  • ISTE (International Society for Technology in
    Education) and NCATE (National Council for the
    Accreditation of Teacher Education) have
    developed pre-service standards
  • National Educational Technology Standards (NETS)
    for K-12
  • Technology Standards for School Administrators
    (TSSA) for Principals

20
NCATE ISTE
  • Establish standards for teaching in education
  • Increase emphasis in use of technology in teacher
    training

21
NCATE/ISTE Required Technology Competencies for
Educational Technology Leaders
  • Evaluate, select, and integrate
    computer/technology-based instruction in the
    curriculum in a subject area and/or grade level
  • Demonstrate knowledge of uses of multimedia,
    hypermedia, and telecommunications tools to
    support instruction
  • Demonstrate skills in using productivity tools
    for professional and personal use, including word
    processing, database management, spreadsheet
    software, and print/graphic utilities
  • Demonstrate knowledge of equity, ethical, legal,
    and human issues of computing and technology use
    as they relate to society, and model appropriate
    behavior
  • Identify resources to keep current in
    applications of computing and related
    technologies in education
  • use technology to access information to enhance
    personal and professional productivity
  • Apply computers and related technologies to
    facilitate emerging roles of learners and
    educators
  • Operate a computer system to use software
    successfully
  • Evaluate and use computers and other technologies
    to support instruction
  • Explore, evaluate, and use technology-based
    applications for communications, presentations,
    and decision making
  • Apply current instructional principles and
    research and appropriate assessment practices to
    the use of computers and related technologies
  • Demonstrate knowledge of uses of computers for
    problem solving, data collection, information
    management, communications, presentations, and
    decision making
  • Develop student learning activities that
    integrate computers and technology for a variety
    of student grouping strategies and for diverse
    student populations

22
Standards Online
  • ISTE Draft http//cnets.iste.org/review/ectlitrev
    iew2.html
  • NCATE Standards http//www.ncate.org/standard/m_s
    tds.htm
  • Joint ISTE/NCATE http//www.iste.org/standards/nc
    ate/
  • TSSA
    http//cnets.iste.org/tssa/
  • NETS for Students http//cnets.iste.org/index2.ht
    ml

23
Todays Big Issues in Education and Technology
  • Societal issues
  • pro-technology movement
  • anti-technology movement
  • Cultural and equity issues
  • economic/ethnic bias
  • multi-cultural issues
  • gender bias
  • special needs students
  • Educational issues
  • directed vs. constructivist debate
  • interdisciplinary vs. single-subject instruction
  • technical issues

24
New Challenges
  • Technology skills and standards
  • New teacher and administrator requirements and
    assessments
  • Integrate of technology within curriculum (state
    national standards)
  • Established student competencies
  • Staying abreast of local and societal attitudes
  • Using strategies to ensure equity
  • Digital divide
  • Assistive technology
  • Matching integration strategies with needs

25
Current Trends in the K-12 Classroom
  • PD activity ends with a teacher developed lesson
    plan
  • Lesson Plan databases for others to use
  • Make use of other on-line activities
  • Implementing educational software into daily
    activities
  • PowerPoint, Excel, Kid Pix, Inspiration,
    Kidspiration, StoryWeaver, etc.
  • Selected Internet activities
  • WebQuests, Scavenger Hunts, Treasure Hunts, etc.
  • Problem-Solving Courseware
  • Educational Games, Simulations, Case Studies
  • E-Learning
  • New Equipment Developments
  • Graphic Calculators and Probes
  • Handheld Devices E-Books
  • Wireless Wearable Computers
  • Group Activities
  • Assessment through Electronic Portfolios

26
Lesson Plan Databases
  • Kathy Schrock http//school.discovery.com/lessonpl
    ans/
  • AskEric Lesson Plans http//www.askeric.org/Virtua
    l/Lessons/
  • The Lesson Plans Page http//www.lessonplanspage.c
    om/
  • EdHelper
    http//www.edhelper.com/
  • TeachersNet http//teachers.net
    /lessons/

27
Try ...
  • Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching
    http//cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/roblyer/
  • Go to Try This! Tutorial
  • Select Step 1

28
Inspiration
29
Kidspiration
30
Kid Pix
31
Selected Internet Activities
  • WebQuests (http//edweb.sdsu.edu/webquest/webquest
    .html)
  • Scavenger Hunts (http//lserver.aea14.k12.ia.us/Sc
    avenger.html)
  • Treasure Hunts (http//www.cybersurfari.org/)

32
Games Simulations
33
Electronic Portfolios
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