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Part 1: Global Problems: Disease and the Environment Part 2: Nationalism Part 3: International Organizations and Non-governmental Organizations Theme: The effect of globalization on the power of the nation-state

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Title: Part 1: Global Problems: Disease and the Environment Part 2: Nationalism Part 3: International Organizations and Non-governmental Organizations Theme: The effect of globalization on the power of the nation-state


1
Part 1 Global Problems Disease and the
EnvironmentPart 2 Nationalism Part 3
International Organizationsand Non-governmental
OrganizationsTheme The effect of globalization
on the power of the nation-state
  • Lesson 23

2
Part 1 Global Problems Disease and Environment
  • Lesson 23

3
Disease
  • Globalization has facilitated the spread of
    disease through things like travel and
    immigration
  • Globalization has also helped stop or slow
    disease through technology and international
    cooperation

Probable early diffusion of AIDS (Adapted from
The Geography of AIDS, Shannon, Pyle, and Bashsur)
4
(No Transcript)
5
Disease
  • One phenomenon that works against eliminating
    some diseases is that they occur in the
    predominantly poorer Southern Hemisphere where
    money for both research and medicine is scarce
  • Leprosy
  • Malaria
  • AIDs

Global distribution of AIDs
6
Disease
  • The World Health Organization (WHO)
  • Established in1948 as the United Nations
    specialized agency for health
  • Objective is the attainment by all people of the
    highest possible level of health
  • Defines health as a state of complete physical,
    mental and social well-being and not merely the
    absence of disease or infirmity

7
Disease
  • WHO launched an intensified plan to eradicate
    smallpox in 1967
  • Small pox was pushed back to the horn of Africa
    where the last natural case occurred in Somalia
    in 1977
  • There was a fatal laboratory-acquired case in the
    United Kingdom in 1978
  • A commission of scientists certified the global
    eradication of smallpox in December 1979 and the
    World Health Assembly endorsed this announcement
    in 1980.

8
Disease
  • In 1988, the World Health Assembly adopted a
    resolution for the worldwide eradication of polio
  • Since then, polio cases have decreased by over
    99
  • In 1998, there were more than 350,000 cases in
    more than 125 endemic countries
  • In 2005, there were just 1951 reported cases
  • In 2006, only four countries in the world
    remained endemic for the disease
  • Eradication of polio is within sight thanks to
    the global effort to eradicate the disease

9
Environment
  • By 2000, the worlds population had passed 6
    billion and had created great strains on the
    environment
  • Many, especially in poorer nations, have left the
    countryside in search of employment and
    opportunity in the city
  • Urbanization has created overcrowding, pollution,
    and sewage problems

10
Environment
  • Many environmental problems are transnational in
    nature and require massive international
    cooperation to solve, but national self-interest
    works against meaningful change
  • Global warming
  • Amazon rain forests
  • Garbage

11
Environment
  • In 1986, the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl in
    Ukraine, at that time a republic of the USSR,
    exploded and led to huge releases of radioactive
    materials into the atmosphere
  • Fallout drifted throughout the western Soviet
    Union, Eastern and Western Europe, Scandinavia,
    Britain, and as far as the eastern coast of North
    America

12
Environment
  • The UN World Tourism Organization and the UN
    Environmental Program are increasingly concerned
    with the environmental aspects of world tourism
  • The Wider Caribbean Region, stretching from
    Florida to French Guiana, receives 63,000 port
    calls from ships each year, and they generate
    82,000 tons of garbage. About 77 of all ship
    waste comes from cruise vessels. The average
    cruise ship carries 600 crew members and 1,400
    passengers. On average, passengers on a cruise
    ship each account for 3.5 kilograms of garbage
    daily - compared with the 0.8 kilograms each
    generated by the less well-endowed folk on
    shore.
  • UNEP

13
Part 2 Nationalism
  • Lesson 23

14
Thirty Years War (We talked about this in Lesson
3)
  • From 1618-1648, Spanish, French, Dutch, German,
    Swedish, Danish, Polish, Bohemian, and Russian
    forces fought the Thirty Years War over
    political, economic, and, especially, religious
    differences
  • It was the most destructive European conflict
    before the 20th Century
  • One-third of the German population was killed
  • In order to avoid tearing their society apart,
    European states ended the war with the Peace of
    Westphalia in 1648

15
Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • Laid the foundation for a system of independent,
    sovereign states
  • All states agreed to regard each other as
    sovereign and equal
  • They mutually recognized their rights to organize
    their own domestic affairs, including religious
    affairs
  • States would conduct their own political and
    diplomatic affairs according to their own
    interests

Detail from a painting of the oathtaking of the
Peace of Westphalia by Gerard Terborch (1617-1681)
16
Nation-state
  • A political unit consisting of an autonomous
    state inhabited predominantly by a people sharing
    a common culture, history, and language.
  • Sometimes called Westphalian states

17
Tension of Globalization
  • Governments still operate on the basis of the
    territorially delineated state as proclaimed by
    the Peace of Westphalia, but, as the worlds
    nations and people become increasingly
    interdependent, nations are being pressured to
    surrender portions of their sovereignty

18
Decline of the Nation State
  • Erosion from above
  • International problems and the grow of
    international organizations that try to solve
    them
  • The global economy
  • Erosion from below
  • Internal ethnic, racial, cultural, and linguistic
    tensions
  • Exacerbated by weak national economies
  • The result is that national governments spend
    more and more of their time, energy, and money
    simply reacting reacting to problems or crises,
    to challenges both from above and below, and to
    agendas set by others.
  • Olin Robinson, Vermont Public Radio

19
The Role of the Nation-State
  • Although the nation-state as an institution will
    not die out in the foreseeable future, its
    monopoly of power has been considerably weakened,
    and its hold on populations has been greatly
    reduced.  The nation-state has become just one of
    several world organizational structures. 
    Sovereignty - presuming such a thing ever really
    existed - may well be consigned to the history of
    the late Industrial Age, a mere picturesque
    oddity on the pathway of humanitys journey.
  • Gary Dean

20
Part 3 Non-governmental Organizations and
International Organizations
  • Lesson 23

21
Why?
  • Why should international institutions exist at
    all in a world dominated by sovereign states?
  • Rhetorical question posed by Robert Keohane

22
Because.
  • Global problems require global solutions. We
    fall together or we succeed together.
  • Joseph Deiss, Minister of Economic Affairs of
    Switzerland

Air pollution obscures the ground in this aerial
photo of China
Diseases such as bird flu threaten to become
pandemics
23
Tension of Globalization
  • Traditional nation-states have difficulties
    handling problems of a global magnitude
  • A plethora of nongovernmental international
    organizations that do not respect territorial
    boundaries and are beyond the reach of national
    governments have sprung up to try to tackle the
    problem
  • Usually focus on a largely singular agenda

24
Some NGOs and their Agendas
  • Red Cross
  • Relieve suffering to wounded soldiers and
    prisoners of war
  • Greenpeace
  • Preserve the earths natural resources and animal
    and plant life
  • Amnesty International
  • Ensure human rights

25
Some IGOs and their Agendas
  • An organization of sovereign nations devoted to a
    agenda of international scope or character
  • United Nations
  • Maintain international peace and security
  • World Trade Organization
  • Foster free trade

26
The Reduction of Sovereignty
  • Under the WTO, member countries cannot tax or
    limit imports made under unfair or unsafe labor
    conditions. The same can be said for those
    imports that significantly harm the global
    environment during production. National
    sovereignty is what is at stake, since countries
    do not retain the ability to choose for
    themselves.
  • David Carstens, Bringing Environmental and
    Economic Internationalism into US Strategy

Pro-democracy protests in China in 1989 resulted
in the massive government crackdown at Tiananmen
Square
27
NGOs and the New Diplomacy
  • With the end of the Cold War, the US became the
    worlds only superpower
  • But a funny thing happened on the way to
    American supremacy. No sooner had the United
    States won the bipolar superpower game than the
    rules of international law and politics began to
    change.
  • Thousands of NGOs have succeeded in getting their
    issues to the top of the diplomatic agenda and
    taken advantage of technology and communications
    improvements to change the methods by which
    international decisions are made
  • The mantle of international leadership is no
    longer conferred by economic and military power
    alone instead, the power of ideas, and how they
    are communicated and marketed, has come to the
    fore.
  • David Davenport, The New Diplomacy

28
Case Study The Ottawa Convention
  • Throughout the 1990s, concern mounted over the
    use of land mines
  • Land mines left in place after fighting stopped
    in Cambodia, Afghanistan, Angola, Nicaragua,
    Bosnia, and elsewhere were continuing to claim
    victims, many of which were children

Cambodia land mine victim
29
Case Study The Ottawa Convention
  • Traditionally such an agenda was handled by
    international arms control and disarmament
    experts
  • The U.N. Convention on Certain Conventional
    Weapons and the U.N. Conference on Disarmament in
    Geneva were working toward international
    agreements limiting land mines
  • Some thought the traditional process was going
    too slowly and a new NGO, the International
    Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) decided a new
    approach was needed

30
Case Study The Ottawa Convention
  • The ICBL acted as the master NGO for a group of
    over 1,000 NGOs from more than 60 countries
  • A small core group of states, led by Canada,
    provided the necessary element of state
    leadership
  • Canadian Foreign Minister Lloyd Axworthy told the
    delegates in Ottawa the goal was to have a treaty
    in 15 months

Lloyd Axworthy
31
Case Study The Ottawa Convention
  • Usually international negotiations seek
    consensus, if not unanimity
  • The ICBL and its cohorts felt this would be
    destined to accepting the lowest common
    denominator and they felt too passionately about
    the subject to settle for that
  • Instead these negotiations required a 2/3
    majority vote rather than consensus
  • Less national participation would be accepted in
    order to keep the central content of the
    proposals intact

32
Case Study The Ottawa Convention
  • The NGOs waged what Axworthy called the
    mobilization of shame using faxes, email, cell
    phones, and displays to strengthen their message
    and ridicule opposition
  • The US was left on the sidelines and by the time
    it recovered the momentum was strongly with the
    NGOs
  • US reservations to the treaty were never
    seriously considered and the US, along with China
    and Russia, had no choice but to not sign the
    treaty

American Jody Williams and the ICBL shared the
1997 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to ban
anti-personnel land mines
33
Accountability
  • Yet, the greatest challenges created by the
    growing influence of NGOs are not in the field
    but in the arena of public opinion and the
    corridors of power. Today, in a phenomenon that
    one environmental activist bemoaned as the rise
    of the global idiots, any group with a fax
    machine and a modem has the potential to distort
    public debate
  • P. J. Simmons

Pamela Anderson helping PETA make its point
34
Case Study Kosovo
  • Ethnic Albanians comprised about 14 of Serbias
    population
  • Most of the Albanians lived in the province of
    Kosovo
  • Throughout the 1990s, Serbian military and police
    forces battled the Kosovo Liberation Army
  • By 1998, the Serbs had embarked on a campaign to
    systematically cleanse Kosovo of its ethnic
    Albanian population

Camp Stenkovich II in Macedonia held
approximately 20,000 refugees.
35
Case Study Kosovo
  • On 24 March 1999, NATO initiated Operation Allied
    Force in order to
  • Stop the Serb offensive in Kosovo,
  • Force a withdrawal of Serb troops from Kosovo,
  • Allow democratic self-government in Kosovo,
  • Allow a NATO-led international peacekeeping force
    into Kosovo, and
  • Allow the safe and peaceful return of Kosovar
    Albanian refugees.

36
Case Study Kosovo
  • On June 9, 1999, Serbia agreed to a Military
    Technical Agreement that ended the 11-week war
  • On June 12, KFOR entered Kosovo under the
    authority of UN Security Resolution 1244
  • On February 12, 2002 former Serbian President
    Milosevic went on trial at the International
    Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
    (ICTY) in The Hague.
  • He died in 2006 before a verdict was reached

37
Case Study Kosovo
  • From an international law perspective, OAF got
    mixed reviews
  • It violated traditional principles of
    nonintervention and nonaggression
  • It could set a precedent for using military force
    for humanitarian reasons
  • It represented the use of force by a regional
    organization (NATO) without UN Security Council
    authorization

38
The Legitimacy of Intervention
  • Is there some threshold at which human rights
    violations become unacceptable and a state's
    sovereignty no longer precludes intervention? Is
    it the 500th slain ethnic citizen or the next
    refugee after 10,000 have been forced to leave
    home that triggers intervention or makes it
    legitimate?
  • Robert Tomes

Holocaust victims in a mass grave
39
Role of the UN
  • The United Nations is the preeminent institution
    of multinationalism. It provides a forum where
    sovereign states can come together to share
    burdens, address common problems, and seize
    common opportunities. The UN helps establish the
    norms that many countries including the United
    States would like everyone to live by.
  • Shashi Tharoor

40
But whose norms?
  • Austrian Presidency of the Council of the
    European Union
  • Permanent Council No. 592
  • 9 February 2006
  • EU Statement on Death Penalty in the USA
  • The EU reiterates its longstanding and firm
    opposition to the death penalty in all
    circumstances.
  • We remain particularly concerned by the
    imposition of the death penalty in cases of
    persons suffering from mental or intellectual
    disabilities. We urge states not to impose the
    death penalty in these cases.
  • We wish to express our concern about an imminent
    case of execution in the United States of a
    person suffering from mental illness. The EU has
    learned that Mr. Steven Staley, who has been
    diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia, is to be
    executed in the State of Texas on 23 February
    this year. We appeal to the appropriate
    authorities in the State of Texas to grant Mr.
    Staley relief from his death penalty.
  • While aiming for the universal abolition of the
    death penalty, we seek a moratorium in all
    countries which retain capital punishment as a
    first step towards this end.

41
US and the UN
  • A United Nations that focuses on helping
    sovereign states work together is worth keeping
    a United Nations that insists on trying to impose
    a utopian vision on America and the world will
    collapse under its own weight. If the United
    Nations respects the sovereign rights of the
    American people and serves them as an effective
    tool of diplomacy, it will earn and deserve their
    respect and support. But a United Nations that
    seeks to impose its presumed authority on the
    American people without their consent begs for
    confrontation and, I want to be candid, eventual
    US withdrawal.
  • Senator Jesse Helms

42
Unilateralism
  • I can assure you that, if he (Saddam Hussein)
    doesnt comply this time, well ask the U.N. to
    give authorization for all necessary means, and
    if the U.N. is not willing to do that, the United
    States, with like-minded nations, will go and
    disarm him forcefully.
  • Colin Powell

The US was unable to obtain the UN resolution to
invade Iraq in Operation Iraqi Freedom.
43
Next
  • The End of the Cold War, Desert Storm, and the
    New World Order
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