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Critical Thinking: The Who, What, How, & Why

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Critical Thinking: The Who, What, How, & Why Department of Psychology Professional Development Workshops January 15, 2004 What is Critical Thinking? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Critical Thinking: The Who, What, How, & Why


1
Critical Thinking The Who, What, How, Why
  • Department of PsychologyProfessional Development
    WorkshopsJanuary 15, 2004

2
  • What is Critical Thinking?
  • William Perrys Theory of Intellectual
    Development
  • Why is critical thinking important?
  • How do we teach critical thinking?
  • What are examples of critical thinking
    activities?

3
What is Critical Thinking?
  • The object of education is to prepare the young
    to educate themselves throughout their lives.
    Robert M. Hutchins
  • Critical thinking is the process of analyzing the
    arguments of others. It means examining the logic
    of such arguments. It enables people to do more
    than just repeat knowledge.

4
Features of Critical Thinking
  • Skepticism
  • Operational definitions
  • Questioning of assumptions of arguments
  • Caution in using correlational evidence
  • Alternative interpretations
  • No oversimplification
  • No overgeneralization

5
William Perrys Theory
  • Perrys theory explains how college students make
    sense of what they hear and experience in the
    college classroom. (1970, 1981)
  • There are three major stages of intellectual
    development that most students progress through
  • DUALISTIC STUDENTSSee the world as a place of
    absolutes . There is a single correct
    answer.Knowledge is seen as existing absolutely.
  • Tend to think in terms of "right" answers
  • The role of the professor is to provide the
    correct answers.
  • MULTIPLISTIC STUDENTS Recognize that there are
    multiple perspectives to problems. Cannot
    evaluate each perspective adequately.
  • Typical response might be "We're all entitled to
    our own opinions,"
  • RELATIVISTIC STUDENTS
  • See knowledge as relative to particular frames
    of reference.
  • Look for the "big picture,
  • Think about their own thinking, may have
    difficulty making a decision..

6
IMPLICATIONS OF THE PERRY MODEL FOR CLASSROOM
INSTRUCTION
  • Dualistic students often respond negatively and
    question the credibility of a professor who fails
    to respond immediately with a firm answer. They
    can be confused when told there are multiple
    correct answers and
  • The notion of "right answers" carries over to
    evaluation of students. Dualistic students want
    absolute correct answers. Multiplistic students
    wonder why their answers are not correct

7
More implications
  • Working with dualistic students-challenge
    students to consider the validity of alternative
    perspectives-provide support, concrete examples
    and opportunities to practice more complex
    thinking.
  • Working with multiplistic students-provide
    experience that help them distinguish between
    good and poor arguments-encourage students to
    explore knowledge together

8
Blooms Taxonomy of Thinking Skills
  • Knowledge facts or bits of information
  • Comprehension understanding what information
    means
  • Application finding a practical use for the
    knowledge
  • Analysis breaking down the knowledge into
    component parts
  • Synthesis connecting knowledge to other
    knowledge and devising something new
  • Evaluation judging knowldge

9
Revised Blooms Taxonomy
  • Remember
  • Understand
  • Apply
  • Analyze
  • Evaluate
  • Create
  • Four dimensions of knowledgefactual,
    conceptual, procedural, metacognitive

10
Why is Critical Thinking Important?
  • Critical thinking prepares students to educate
    themselves for the rest of their lives.
  • Critical thinking skills are necessary for
    success in many fields.
  • Critical thinkers are less likely to just go
    along with the crowd

11
How to Teach Critical Thinking
  • Use analogies
  • Promote interaction among students
  • Ask open-ended questions
  • Allow sufficient time for reflection
  • Teach students to apply knowledge to other
    domains
  • Use real-life problems
  • Allow for thinking practice

12
Resources
  • Perry, W.G. (1970). Forms of intellectual and
    ethical development in the college years A
    scheme. New York Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Perry, W.G. (1981). Cognitive and ethical growth
    The making of meaning. In Arthur Chickering, The
    Modern American College, pp.76-116. San
    Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • http//www.cs.buffalo.edu/rapaport
  • http//ericfacility.net/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed3
    85606.html
  • http//ericece.org/pubs/digests/1990/carr90.html
  • http//ericae.net/edo/ed385606.htm
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