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Communication Skills Workshop

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Title: Communication Skills Workshop


1
Communication Skills Workshop
  • Preparing Effective Reports and Presentations
  • UNCW Cameron School of Business MBA Program
  • Learning Alliance Growth and Profit Project
  • Joe Dougherty
  • July 16th, 2005

2
Todays Agenda
  • Introduction, Background and Workshop Objectives
  • Overview of the Consulting Process
  • Organizing and Writing Consulting Reports
  • Making Effective Consulting Presentations
  • Conclusion

3
Why Have this Workshop?
  • Help strengthen your analytical and communication
    skills These skills are rare and thus a
    competitive advantage.
  • Help ensure that you deliver a high quality
    product Doing so strengthens UNCW
    / Cameron MBA Program relationship with the
    business community.
  • Provide a forum to discuss issues and generate
    ideas related to your Growth Profitability
    projects.
  • Offer an opportunity to practice communicating
    findings, conclusions and recommendations.

4
Why Me?
  • Ten years post-MBA work in management consulting
    A.T. Kearney, Deloitte, Emerging
    Markets Group
  • Received training on consulting skills, report
    writing, presentation skills, project management,
    etc.
  • Delivered training to Deloitte EMG, Kenan
    Institute Asia (Thailand), Russias Center for
    Fiscal Policy, several banks, etc.
  • I write a lot of consulting reports and do a lot
    of presentations!

5
Workshop Objectives
  • Understand the basics of the consulting process
    and how consultants add value for their clients
  • Learn (or re-learn) the principles of effective
    communications
  • Learn specific techniques for preparing and
    delivering successful reports and presentations
  • Improve your ability to deliver a high quality
    product for your Learning Alliance client

What, specifically, would you like to accomplish
today?
6
Workshop Format
  • Informal Feel free to interrupt or interject
  • Flexible We can adapt as required to meet your
    objectives
  • Interactive Please question, challenge and
    probe
  • Ambitious We will introduce a lot of material
    in a short time
  • Experimental First rule of consulting manage
    expectations!

7
Todays Agenda
  • Introduction, Background and Workshop Objectives
  • Overview of the Consulting Process
  • Organizing and Writing Consulting Reports
  • Making Effective Consulting Presentations
  • Conclusion

8
How Do (Good) Consultants Create Value?
  • Identifying problems or opportunities
  • Structuring approaches to problems or
    opportunities
  • Developing solutions and (often) helping
    implement them
  • Building support for action by
  • using fact-based analysis
  • communicating effectively (listening and talking)
  • demonstrating results (quick hits)
  • Lending credibility / being a scapegoat

Success in Management Consulting Recommendations
That Are Understood, Accepted and Implemented
and Deliver Positive, Tangible Results.
9
Alternative Management Consulting Models
Consulting Models
Description/Examples
Pros and Cons
  • Product Based
  • Experience/
  • Knowledge Based
  • Process Based
  • Narrow focus or separate lines/units
  • Often IT-related services/products
  • Standard engagements and procedures
  • IBM, EDS, most Big 4 firms
  • Narrow industry or function focus
  • Usually very senior consultants
  • Niche firms or individuals
  • Oliver Wyman, EMG, IESC, most development
    consulting firms
  • Broad range of services, industries
  • Larger teams, leveraged approach
  • Emphasis on problem-solving process
  • McKinsey, AT Kearney, Booz Allen, other
    strategy firms
  • Simplest to manage
  • Best option for standard tasks
  • Commoditized / low rates
  • Frequently inflexible
  • Instant credibility
  • Built-in intellectual capital
  • Harder to manage - ego issues
  • Sometimes inflexible, more experts than
    Consultants
  • Flexible and responsive
  • Can be highly profitable, but hard to prove
    value ex-ante
  • Requires hard work and need to establish
    credibility

10
The Core Of The Consulting Process
Step 1 Plan the Engagement
Step 2 Gather the Facts
Step 3 Analyze the Problem
Step 4 Recommend Solutions
11
Step 1 Plan The Engagement
Step 4 Recommend Solutions
Step 3 Analyze the Problem
Step 2 Gather the Facts
Step 1 Plan the Engagement
Key Steps
Building Blocks
Outputs
1. Define objectives and commitments 2. Define
the problem(s) and structure the approach 3.
Prepare for fact gathering
  • Agreed-upon, clear objectives
  • Top-down logic and creative intuition
  • Structured, organized thinking and writing
  • Issue Diagram
  • Hypotheses and Key Questions
  • Data Framework
  • Data Source Matrix
  • Project Workplan
  • Interview Guides

12
Define the Project Objectives
  • Understanding the Clients Situation

Current Situations
Know we need to change and know how, but lack
time/resources to do so.
Dont knowif we shouldchange.
Know we need to change, but dont know how.
Lack Insight
Have Insight
Have Plan
Want PlanImplemented
Want Insight
Want Plan
Desired Results
13
Types of Consulting Engagements
  • Six Types of Consulting Projects

Number of Objectives
1
Insight
1
Planning
2
Insight Planning
1
Implementation
2
Planning Implementation
3
Insight, Planning Implementation
14
Defining Project Objectives
  • The project objectives answer the question,
  • What does the client want to happen as a result
    of this engagement?
  • How many objectives?
  • What are the key issues to be addressed?
  • What specific products will be delivered?
  • Proper project objectives are...
  • Concise and clearly stated
  • Understood and agreed upon by clients and
    consultants
  • Tangible and measurable
  • Achievable within the given time frame
  • Within the consultants ability to control

15
Sample Project Objectives
  • Think of the project objectives (in the proposal)
    as a legal commitment
  • Complete a study to determine whether to
    establish a branch office in China
  • Reduce non-personnel costs by at least 30 per
    year
  • Develop a plan for restructuring troubled
    state-owned banks
  • Review current MIS and recommend actions for
    meeting management data needs
  • Identify best practices in risk management,
    assist in determining how best to improve risk
    management in our organization, and provide an
    action plan for improvement

Which Type of Consulting Engagement Does Each
Represent?
16
Developing Hypotheses
  • Using a hypothesis-driven approach to problem
    solving focuses resources and saves time, making
    the process more efficient
  • What is a hypothesis?
  • An idea or suggestion used as a starting point
    for reasoning and/or investigation
  • A proposition accepted as provisional explanation
    to guide investigation or accepted as very likely
    in light of established facts
  • A tentative conclusion as to problems or
    opportunities, based on partial data (and often
    conditional on receipt and analysis of more data)

Hypotheses Are Not Conclusions, Nor Are They
Deliverables!
17
Step 1 Plan The Engagement
Step 4 Recommend Solutions
Step 3 Analyze the Problem
Step 2 Gather the Facts
Step 1 Plan the Engagement
Key Steps
Building Blocks
Outputs
1. Define objectives and commitments 2. Define
the problem(s) and structure the approach 3.
Prepare for fact gathering
  • Agreed-upon, clear objectives
  • Top-down logic and creative intuition
  • Structured, organized thinking and writing
  • Issue Diagram
  • Hypotheses and Key Questions
  • Data Framework
  • Data Source Matrix
  • Project Workplan
  • Interview Guides

18
Step 2 Gather the Facts
Step 4 Recommend Solutions
Step 3 Analyze the Problem
Step 2 Gather the Facts
Step 1 Plan the Engagement
Key Steps
Outputs
Building Blocks
1. Gather Facts 2. Synthesize Findings
1. Notes 2. Charts and Graphs 3. Reasonable
Assumptions 4. More Charts and Graphs
  • Structured, efficient approach
  • Use of reasonable assumptions
  • Ability to differentiate key findings from noise

19
Step 2 Sources of Information
Step 4 Recommend Solutions
Step 3 Analyze the Problem
Step 2 Gather the Facts
Step 1 Plan the Engagement
Interviews
Documents and Reports
Personal Observations
  • Client managers
  • Client staff
  • Competitors
  • Customers
  • Suppliers
  • Industry analysts
  • Experts within your firm
  • Trade unions
  • Other stakeholders
  • Financial statements and budgets
  • Policy and procedural manuals
  • Operational data
  • Personnel records
  • Organizational charts, job profiles
  • Market studies and data
  • Periodicals and books
  • Competitor annual reports
  • Industry studies
  • Client activities
  • Employee attitudes
  • Environment
  • Procedures and results
  • Same for competitors

20
Step 3 Analyze The Problem
Step 4 Recommend Solutions
Step 3 Analyze the Problem
Step 2 Gather the Facts
Step 1 Plan the Engagement
Key Steps
Outputs
Building Blocks
1. Synthesize facts 2. Draw conclusions 3.
Test conclusions
1. Findings 2. Conclusions 3. Logic Diagram
  • Deductive logic
  • Structure
  • Intuition
  • Discussion

21
Synthesizing Facts into Findings
  • Notes
  • Fact
  • Fact
  • Fact
  • Reasonable Assumptions
  • Acceptable Theories

Finding
Finding
Synthesis
Finding
Finding
Finding
22
How Is A Finding Different Than A Fact?
  • Findings answer the question, So What?
  • Facts
  • Operating a branch office in China would cost at
    least 5 million per year
  • The client has set a minimum ROI for new branches
    of 20
  • The market for the product in China is 20
    million per year
  • Question
  • So What?
  • Finding
  • The branch office would need to achieve 25
    market share to break even, and 30 market share
    to achieve the hurdle rate

What Is The Next Question You Would Ask?
23
Drawing Conclusions
Diagnose
Synthesize
Research
Prescribe
  • Conclusions
  • Problems
  • ..
  • ..
  • Opportunities
  • ..
  • ..
  • Recommendations
  • Actions
  • Benefits
  • Risks
  • Costs

Finding
Finding
Finding
24
Drawing Conclusions (continued)
  • Do the finding support the hypothesis?
  • How do the findings add detail to the hypothesis?
  • What is the problem to be addressed or
    opportunity to be pursued?
  • We have the facts - so what?

A Conclusion Is A Hypothesis That Has Been Tested
And Proven By Findings
25
Preparing A Logic Diagram - Example
Conclusion
Findings
Facts
102o F/39o C Temperature
Elevated temperature
Red Spots
Abnormal skin rash
Charlie has the measles
Susan had measles two weeks ago
Exposure two weeks ago
Charlie plays with Susan
26
Step 4 Recommend Solutions
Step 4 Recommend Solutions
Step 3 Analyze the Problem
Step 2 Gather the Facts
Step 1 Plan the Engagement
Key Steps
Outputs
Building Blocks
1. Brainstorm 2. Prepare draft
recommendations 3. Test recommendations 4.
Present recommendations
1. Ideas 2. Options 3. Client Buy-In 4.
Implemented Improvement Actions
  • Creativity
  • Listening
  • Adaptability
  • Practicality

27
What Is A Recommendation?
Recommendation
Facts
Findings
Conclusion
102o F/39o C Temp
Elevated temperature
Treat for Measles Rest in Bed Take Aspirins Drink
Fluids
Red Spots
Abnormal skin rash
Charlie has the measles
Susan had measles two weeks ago
Exposure two weeks ago
Charlie plays with Susan
A Recommendation Describes Specific Actions The
Client Should Take To Solve A Problem Or Take
Advantage Of An Opportunity
28
Developing Recommendations - Guiding Principles
  • Following these guiding principles will help
    ensure the client takes action
  • Develop alternative recommendations for each
    conclusion, test the alternatives then arrive at
    the best possible solution
  • Make sure recommendations always describe
    specific actions to be taken
  • Identify (and try to quantify) the results that
    will occur if the action is taken (benefits)
  • Ask yourself, Will this recommendation help meet
    the project objectives?
  • Make sure your recommendations cover all the
    issues and agreed-upon outputs
  • Make sure the recommendations are feasible and
    acceptable in the clients specific circumstances
    (constraints)

29
Developing Recommendations - Key Steps
Key Steps
  • List and explore all ideas first, then judge
  • Come at the problem from different angles
  • Include clients, if appropriate
  • Think through implications to eliminate options

1. Brainstorm 2. Prepare draft
recommendations 3. Test recommendations 4.
Present recommendations
  • List steps needed for implementation
  • Try to quantify likely benefits
  • Describe how it addresses the problem
  • Think through risks and cost implications
  • Model impact under various scenarios
  • See it from the perspective of the implementers
  • How will change-resistors respond?
  • Discuss informally with the client / project
    sponsor
  • Confirm problem or opportunity
  • Present options for action (often useful)
  • Indicate best option and why
  • Demonstrate benefits and identify requirements

30
Todays Agenda
  • Introduction, Background and Workshop Objectives
  • Overview of the Consulting Process
  • Organizing and Writing Consulting Reports
  • Making Effective Consulting Presentations
  • Conclusion

31
Three Basic Premises of Writing Reports
Premise 1
  • Three Types of Writing
  • 1. Creative
  • 2. Informative
  • 3. Persuasive
  • Report Sections
  • Statement of Management Problem
  • Relevant Background Information
  • Alternative Approaches to Problem
  • Supported Recommendation
  • Implementation Process

Match the Type to the Section
HINT This is a trick question!
32
Three Basic Premises of Writing Reports
(continued)
Premise 2
  • Barriers to Acceptance
  • Short Attention Spans
  • Limited Understanding of the Relevant Issues
  • Personal Biases and Agendas
  • Political or Financial Interests
  • Limited Intelligence

A Great Report with All the Right Answers
Even getting it right does not always ensure
success. Examples?
33
Three Basic Premises of Writing Reports
(continued)
Premise 3
A Great Report with All the Right Answers
Logic
Psychologic
  • What we know
  • How they feel about the issues

Clients make decisions based on both logical and
psychological reasons. Breaking through the
barriers requires a careful balance of both
elements.
34
Three Basic Premises of Writing Proposals
(continued)
Premise 3 (continued)
  • Using Logic
  • Reason is a whore Martin Luther
  • Consider Xenos Paradox

Logic
Psychologic
  • What we know
  • How they feel about the issues
  • Using Psychology
  • Give the people what they want
  • Jimmy Cliff
  • Consider ego and need for security

Consider the psychological aspect first what
will the client see as a winner? Then use logic
to challenge (or justify) the clients vision or
bias.
35
The Communication Process
Client-Focused, Effective Reports and
Presentations
Develop Communication Strategy
Structure Story To Fit The Strategy
Write Document That Tells The Story
All of what follows applies equally to text
reports and graphical presentations.
36
Developing A Communication Strategy
Client-Focused, Effective Reports and
Presentations
Develop Communication Strategy
Structure Story To Fit The Strategy
Write Document That Tells The Story
  • 1. Set a meaningful objective
  • 2. Determine how to meet the objective with
    this audience

37
Setting Communication Objectives
Wrong
Right
Objective Focused On Desired Outcome
Objective Focused On Content
  • Provide background information on the clients
    industry
  • Explore the nature of the clients problem
  • Take the client through the market segmentation
  • Describe our action plan
  • Describe the risks of rushing implementation
  • Get the client to understand the key success
    factors in the industry
  • Make sure the client knows where he meets and
    falls short of these factors
  • Convince the client that we should focus future
    analysis on the high end of the market
  • Get the client to agree to start implementing our
    plan next week
  • Get the client to delay implementation until plan
    can be revised to address risks

What is the objective of your GP report and
presentation? What is the objective of each
section of the report?
38
Understanding The Audience
Typical Characteristics
Typical Roles On A Project Steering Committee
  • Decision Maker
  • (e.g. CEO, Department Head)
  • Ratifier
  • (e.g. Advisor, Dept Head)
  • User
  • (e.g. Line Manager)
  • Gatekeeper
  • (e.g. CFO, Logistics Manager)
  • Interested in looking good and usually has
    strong biases
  • Interested in big picture and usually has
    implicit veto power
  • Interested in how the project will affect his
    career often subjective
  • Interested in cost / benefit details and
    compliance cant say yes but can say no

Project Sponsor (can play any of 3 roles at
various times)
What are the implications of this for supporting
your recommendations?
39
Understanding The Audience (continued)
The REACH Model Readers Characteristics
  • How will the key individuals act on the
    communication?
  • What does the audience expect form the
    communication?
  • Will they tend to agree, disagree, object
    emotionally or be neutral? What is their level
    of knowledge?
  • Do they prefer formal/informal, concepts/facts,
    analysis/action verbal/graphical communication
  • What is the single issue that will grab and keep
    their attention?

Role Expectations Attitudes Communication
Style Hook
Tailor The Report To The Audience- Refer To The
Hook Early And Often
40
Creating A Winning Story
Client-Focused, Effective Reports and
Presentations
Develop Communication Strategy
Structure Story To Fit The Strategy
Write Document That Tells The Story
1. Raise the right question to meet the
objective 2. Use the question to focus the
introduction 3. Answer the question with the
main message 4. Build logical pyramid to
support the main message
41
Beginning The Story - The S-C-Q Model
Communication Objectives
The S-C-Q Model
  • 1. Create common ground with the audience let
    them know we understand their problem
  • 2. Show (rather than tell) the purpose and
    importance of the presentation by raising (not
    usually stating) the central question
  • Summarize the main message

Starting Point
Catalyst
(Question)
Main Message (Top of Pyramid)
42
The S-C-Q Model Example 1
  • I. Tanzania Postal Bank has operated profitably
    for seven of the last ten years and it plays an
    important role in the countrys economic
    development, by providing basic services in
    remote areas.
  • II. However, achieving even modest profits might
    be more difficult than it has in the past
  • New, more efficient competitors are entering the
    market, with more capital
  • Yields on safe investments are declining, while
    deposit rates are rising
  • Staying competitive will require investments in
    IT, HR and bricks-and-mortar presence
  • Staying competitive will require taking on more
    risk (i.e. expanding loan portfolio)
  • III. As a state-owned bank, TPB cannot access
    the capital and expertise that are available to
    its private competitors. Also, governance and
    internal controls are relatively weak, which
    makes lending riskier. There is a substantial
    risk that TPB will cause losses for its
    shareholders within the next three years.
  • IV. We therefore suggest that the Government
    consider privatizing TPB as soon as possible, by
    selling a majority share to a qualified strategic
    investor. In the interim, the bank should
    restrict new lending, complete the automation
    process, and concentrate on collecting past due
    loans.

43
The S-C-Q Model Example 1
  • I. Tanzania Postal Bank has operated profitably
    for seven of the last ten years and it plays an
    important role in the countrys economic
    development, by providing basic services in
    remote areas.
  • II. However, achieving even modest profits might
    be more difficult than it has in the past
  • New, more efficient competitors are entering the
    market, with more capital
  • Yields on safe investments are declining, while
    deposit rates are rising
  • Staying competitive will require investments in
    IT, HR and bricks-and-mortar presence
  • Staying competitive will require taking on more
    risk (i.e. expanding loan portfolio)
  • III. As a state-owned bank, TPB cannot access
    the capital and expertise that are available to
    its private competitors. Also, governance and
    internal controls are relatively weak, which
    makes lending riskier. There is a substantial
    risk that TPB will cause losses for its
    shareholders within the next three years.
  • IV. We therefore suggest that the Government
    consider privatizing TPB as soon as possible, by
    selling a majority share to a qualified strategic
    investor. In the interim, the bank should
    restrict new lending, complete the automation
    process, and concentrate on collecting past due
    loans.

Starting Point
Catalyst
Main Message
44
The S-C-Q Model Example 1
  • I. Tanzania Postal Bank has operated profitably
    for seven of the last ten years and it plays an
    important role in the countrys economic
    development, by providing basic services in
    remote areas.
  • II. However, achieving even modest profits might
    be more difficult than it has in the past
  • New, more efficient competitors are entering the
    market, with more capital
  • Yields on safe investments are declining, while
    deposit rates are rising
  • Staying competitive will require investments in
    IT, HR and bricks-and-mortar presence
  • Staying competitive will require taking on more
    risk (i.e. expanding loan portfolio)
  • III. As a state-owned bank, TPB cannot access
    the capital and expertise that are available to
    its private competitors. Also, governance and
    internal controls are relatively weak, which
    makes lending riskier. There is a substantial
    risk that TPB will cause losses for its
    shareholders within the next three years.
  • IV. We therefore suggest that the Government
    consider privatizing TPB as soon as possible, by
    selling a majority share to a qualified strategic
    investor. In the interim, the bank should
    restrict new lending, complete the automation
    process, and concentrate on collecting past due
    loans.

Findings
Conclusion
Recommendation
45
The S-C-Q Model Example 2
  • 1. Wrightsville Fish Merchants have a strong
    local brand, and sales volume has expanded
    steadily over the past five years. However,
    overall profitability has declined over the same
    period.
  • 2. Our cost-of-sales analysis indicates that
    profitability varies widely by product and
    customer. The largest variable determining
    customer profitability was delivery cost in
    general, more distant customers are less
    profitable.
  • However, several of the largest customer accounts
    are also the most distant delivery locations and
    are therefore less profitable than other
    accounts. Simply raising prices, or charging
    these customers for delivery costs, might be a
    risky approach.
  • We therefore recommend that Wrightsville Fish
    Merchants consider 1) gradually reducing the
    volume discount that it offers to customers X, Y
    and Z, and 2) aggressively pursuing cross-sell
    opportunities with these customers, in order to
    spread delivery costs across more products.
    Doing so can increase profitability by up to X.

46
The S-C-Q Model Exercise
  • Break into your LA teams
  • Come up with a message based on the S-C-(Q)-M
    modelwhat would you tell the owner of your
    client company if you had one minute of her time?
  • If you dont know what your recommendation will
    be, make one up i.e. develop an informed
    hypothesis
  • Elect one team member as spokesperson. Be
    prepared to tell the class the message in one
    minute or less.
  • Lets take 10 minutes to do this.

47
The Main Message
  • The Main Message can be a conclusion or a
    recommendation - depending on the status of the
    project. In either case, the Main Message should
    be...
  • A synthesis, not a list
  • Action-oriented, not static
  • Targeted to the audience hook
  • Written and described in plain English!

The Main Message Answers The Key Question To
Meet Your Communication Objective
48
The Main Message - Examples
  • The middle-income and eastern region customer
    segments have the largest potential revenue
    contribution
  • Bank AAA could lower its cost of funds by
    targeting a greater proportion of its funds from
    low interest products
  • Company X is significantly less efficient than
    its competitors
  • Bank AAA should focus more on cheap sources of
    funds, like savings and current accounts versus
    term deposits and higher interest-bearing funds
    in order to decrease the overall cost of customer
    deposits
  • The Government should consider raising the
    retirement age to 60

Which Ones Are Conclusions And Which Ones Are
Recommendations?
49
Building Logical Structure - The Pyramid
Main Message
State a Synthesized, Audience-Focused Theme
Key Line
Rigorously Choose the Main Ideas and the Right
Logical Relationship
Support EachMain Idea With a Cogent Story Line
First Support Line
50
Arranging Ideas
  • You have five choices for each idea, finding or
    conclusion...
  • Find a single place where it fits in the pyramid
    structure
  • Place it in the introduction if it is the
    starting point or catalyst of the story
  • Put it in an appendix if it can be described as
    any of these
  • Purely informational
  • Educational
  • Microscopic in detail
  • Proof of how much work we did
  • Put it into another communication if
  • It does not help meet the objective for this
    communication
  • It is too important not to tell the client
  • Leave it out if it is of interest to you but of
    no value to the client

51
Developing The Key Line
  • Key line is usually 3 or 4 boxes
  • Never less than 2
  • Never more than 5
  • Each key line point corresponds to a main
    division of your communication
  • Each key line point is essential to the story
  • New to this audience
  • So-whats rather than mere information
  • Big-picture ideas rather than low-level details
  • Test story badly weakened if idea left out
  • Each key line point is either
  • A premise in a deductive argument, or
  • An item in an inductive grouping

52
Inductive vs. Deductive Logic
  • Grouping a set of 2 - 5 like ideas that all
    support a message in the same way

Message
Inductive Top-Down
  • Argument a set of (usually) 3 ideas that build
    on each other to prove a point

Message
Deductive Bottom-Up
53
Deductive Argument
Summary of third point and reasoning behind it
DeductiveConclusion
Statement
ThereforePoint
Comment
Powerful observation about the world
Comment on the first point
Therefore point, stating the implications of the
first two points existing at the same time
54
Deductive Argument - Example
Starting point Entered new market 2 years
ago Catalyst Sales and profits are
disappointing (Question How to improve
performance?)
To meet targets, adopt a more market-focused
approach
Therefore, company should take steps to tailor
approach to market requirements
Company is not currently meeting the success
factors
Success in this market depends on 3 factors
  • Attractive product features
  • Low price and cost
  • Effective promotions
  • Products less attractive than competitors
  • Production costs too high
  • Promotions show low return
  • Tailor product line
  • Reduce production costs
  • Redesign promotions for greater impact

55
Typical Lines of Deductive Argument
Statement about Situation
Conclusion
Specific Comment on Situation
Success requires X You are focusing on X You
thought X was the problem Performance is not as
expected
Youre not equipped to do X Y would be
better Further investigation shows its
Y Underlying cause is X
Therefore, develop capability for X Therefore,
change direction to Y Therefore, shift focus to
Y Therefore, take steps to fix X
56
Inductive Argument
Summary of Recommendation
InductiveInference
Item
Item
Item
  • Ideas are all of same kind
  • All can be described by the same plural noun
    (factors, reasons, steps, actions, benefits, etc)

57
Inductive Argument - Example
To meet targets, adopt a more market-focused
approach
Redesign promotions for greater impact with these
customers
Reduce production costs for reasonable margin
despite price competition
Tailor product line to unique needs of this market
Current product line does not meet requirements
Therefore, need to tailor products
This market has unique requirements
Deductive lead-in
58
Inductive Argument Proposal Example
Deloitte offer the right mix of strengths to fix
RBB
A firm with strong capabilities and deep
understanding of banking best practices
A senior team with experience on similar projects
An approach that combines rigor and responsiveness
Fixing it is not easy, but must be done to reform
the economy
Therefore, need a really good management team
RBB has potential, but is in very bad shape
Deductive lead-in
59
When To Use Each Approach
Use Deductive Argument
Use Inductive Grouping for Most Communication
  • To give comprehensive view of analyses or our
    perspective
  • To prove point to resistant audience
  • To educate an uninitiated audience
  • To focus a situation analysis
  • To convince decision makers
  • To guide implementers

60
Summary - Introduction And Pyramid
StartingPoint
Describe a situation with which the audience is
already familiar
Catalyst
Describe a complication, change, or problem
Introduction
that implicitly raises the central question
(Question)
State the answer to the question, tailored to
meet your communication objective with this
audience
Main Message
Key Line
Rigorously choose the main ideas and the right
logical relationship among them
Pyramid
First SupportLine
Support each main idea with a cogent story line
Keep going until the story is told
61
The Pyramid Model Exercise
  • Describe a project, using S-C-(Q)-M model.
  • State and defend the recommendation. List
    benefits, reasons or other key selling points
  • Organize into pyramid with key lines and, if
    possible, sub lines
  • Troubleshoot / identify counterarguments
  • Do this in 10 minutes, then elect a (different)
    spokesperson
  • Others take the role of client. Critique
    and/or question.

62
Writing Reports and Presentations
Client-Focused, Effective Reports and
Presentations
Develop Communication Strategy
Structure Story To Fit The Strategy
Write Document That Tells The Story
  • 1. Build logical structure into the document
  • Draft clear, logical pages or sections
  • Use psychologic bells and whistles

Whoever Tells The Best Story Wins - John
Quincy Adams (as portrayed in Amistad)
63
Three Elements Of Effective Documents
  • The message must be clearly worded and
    convincingly presented
  • The logical and graphical structure of the
    document supports the message
  • The format of the document reinforces the logical
    structure and conveys professionalism

Format
Structure
The Message
Structure
Format
64
Drafting The Document
  • Use short, clear sentences - one sentence per
    idea
  • Favor active rather than passive tense
  • Avoid consulting (and MBA) jargon
  • Tailor the language to the clients sensitivities
    and the status of the project
  • problem / improvement opportunity
  • you should / the Company might consider
  • is / seems, appears
  • Use action words
  • Pick up and incorporate the clients language
  • department / unit / division
  • IT / systems / technology
  • human resources / personnel

Format
Structure
The Message
Structure
Format
65
Maximizing Obfuscatory Verbiage Lets Not
  • Part of the consultants job is to make complex
    problems simple. Always state messages in the
    most straightforward way possible. Using jargon,
    unnecessary big words or complicated sentences
    doesnt make you appear more professional - it
    makes you a bureaucrat. Dont Be Sesquipedalian!

Wrong
Right
  • Operating expenses can be substantially reduced
    by merging existing processing centers and
    centralizing these in one location
  • Notwithstanding the inabstrusity of the
    foregoing passage
  • Embarking upon a merger can be a difficult
    process, and many risks will be faced along the
    way...
  • Company X can reduce costs by centralizing its
    processing function
  • Even though this seems clear
  • Mergers are difficult and fraught with risks

Keep in mind the audiences limited time and
attention span.
Barbara Meacham, A. T. Kearney
66
Choosing the Right Words
  • Adjectives and adverbs are like swear words use
    them sparingly for maximum impact. Be
    conservative with very, extremely,
    critical, highly, etc. Very few things are
    critically important and very few people are
    extremely experienced.
  • Be consistent in your use of nouns to avoid
    confusion and keep the reader on track..
    Example is it a program, a project or an
    initiative? Is it a workstream, a task area or
    an initiative? A unit, department or business
    line?
  • Switch up commonly-used verbs to avoid boredom
    and bring it down to earth. Implement carry
    out, conduct, perform, or even sometimes
    do. Evaluate assess or review keep a
    thesaurus handy.
  • But, use verbs consistently when they are the
    name of phases or specific recommendations. If
    Phase 1 is Evaluate Current Market, it must
    always be referred to in exactly the same words.
  • Avoid slashed words except in rare circumstances.
    In almost every case, you should either choose
    one word or put an and or an or in between
    them. Example What domestic/foreign markets
    should be domestic or foreign. Instead of
    government officials/policymakers, pick one
    word or the other.
  • Dont use words you dont need. USAID says that
    AMAP is designed to provide services to male and
    female microentrepreneurs in urban, peri-urban
    and rural areas. Which microentrepreneurs does
    it not serve?
  • Favor Anglo-Saxon words over Latin ones sometimes
    depending on the reader and the situation.
    Consider initiate v. start or launch,
    conduct v. drive, manage v. run. Would
    you rather have a hearty welcome or a cordial
    reception?

67
Say What You Mean Mean What You Say
  • Decipher, deconstruct and re-phrase the following
    passages
  • The consultation between the contractor and the
    Bank to agree with the workplan shall be
    processed.
  • The program will develop the process of how to
    measure the risk of business assets resulting
    from the adverse effects of defaults from the
    financial and exchange markets and credit risk
    and other types of risk facing a bank
  • We apprehended the alleged perpetrator while
    surreptitiously entering the premises
  • Proposals should not exceed 25 pages in length,
    single spaced, to include pagination, and table
    of contents. Items such as graphs, charts, cover
    pages, dividers, table of contents, attachments,
    and other items specified below are not included
    in this document length. (No items specified
    below)
  • The Management Team for Rastriya Banijya Bank
    will be appointed by Nepal Rastra Bank and will
    report directly to the Governor of the Central
    Bank and the Secretary for Finance through the
    Board.
  • The Palestinian National Authority (PNA) in West
    Bank Gaza (WBG) in an effort to encourage
    private sector development includes the
    development of a regional and domestic regulated
    capital market. The PA has initiated the capital
    market effort in 1995 by granting a license,
    under a letter agreement MOU, to a private joint
    stock company, the Palestine Development
    Investment Company (PADICO) to operate a stock
    exchange headquartered in the West Bank city of
    Nablus

Say it firstthen write itthen read it out loud.
68
Structuring The Document
Format
  • Keep ideas separate and organized hierarchically
  • Use consistent sentence / phrase structure
  • Maintain consistent level of detail
  • Use text or graphical guides to remind the
    audience where they are in the story

Structure
The Message
Structure
Format
69
Organizing Lists and Concepts - MECE
Mutually Exclusive, Collectively Exhaustive
  • Organize questions, issues, findings, conclusions
    and recommendations around units, functions,
    channels, products, cost/revenue sources, or
    processes
  • Introduce the organizational framework early on
    and refer to it in communications throughout the
    project
  • Make sure every unit, function, etc. is covered
    (not necessarily in detail)
  • Place each issue, finding or conclusion in one,
    and only one, box

Designing The Framework Is One Of The First Steps
In The Writing Process
70
MECE Example 1
Hallmarks Of World Class Credit Risk Management
Credit Organization and Culture
  • Clear accountability for credit quality
  • Supported by appropriate incentives/evaluation
    structure
  • Top down communication of credit philosophy,
    policies, guidelines and approach, as well as
    individual responsibilities and expectations

Recovery and Workout
Measurement and Monitoring
Analysis and Approval
Policies and Guidelines
1
  • Comprehensive, detailed policy covering entire
    credit process
  • Guidelines revised based on portfolio analysis
  • Policies well-understood and consistently applied
  • Standard analysis guidelines and clear approval
    criteria
  • Emphasis on individual accountability
  • High skills levels achieved through ongoing
    training
  • Timely payment performance tracking
  • Consistent frequent loan review
  • Ongoing portfolio-level monitoring and analysis
  • Consistent treatment of past due payments
  • Early warning systems and focus on immediate
    action
  • Prioritization of cases based on expected
    recovery value

Credit Administration and Operations
  • Clear segregation of approval, disbursement and
    control duties
  • Effective leveraging of information technology
  • Streamlined, clear procedures and short
    turnaround times

71
MECE Example 2
Framework Chart from Proposal to Develop
Enabling Environment for Small Business
Development in Africa
Microenterprises and MED Support Programs
Which issues are of most concern to
microenterprises in each country? In which areas
can USAID assistance have the greatest impact?
72
MECE Example 3
Conceptual Framework for Real Estate Cost
Reduction Project
(
)
x

  • Increase usage density
  • Sell or sublet unused space
  • Consolidate locations
  • Shift to less expensive space
  • Reduce cost of existing space
  • Reduce maintenance or utility costs
  • Downsize HQ real estate unit
  • Outsource key functions
  • Reduce non-personnel expenses
  • Review own / rent strategy
  • Renegotiate central support contracts

73
Maintaining Consistency
  • Bullet-pointed lists are often more effective
    than prose.
  • Points should be worded consistently and one list
    should describe one concept

Wrong
Right
Key Success Requirements
Key Actions Required
  • Streamline existing procedures
  • Developing human resources
  • Focused marketing strategy
  • Operating costs reduced substantially
  • Need to provide better service
  • Streamline procedures
  • Develop human resources
  • Focus marketing strategy
  • Reduce operating costs
  • Provide better service
  • OR
  • Key Success Requirements
  • Efficient procedures
  • Strong human resources
  • Focused marketing strategy
  • Low operating costs

74
Organizing Details Hierarchically
Wrong
Right
  • Overall costs are higher than industry average
  • Personnel costs are 15,000 per staff, other
    firms average 10,000 per staff
  • Service quality is below standard
  • Turnaround time for claims processing is 35 days
  • Average cost per claims transaction is 140, 75
    above benchmark
  • Key Findings To Date
  • Above-average cost structure...
  • driven mostly by personnel costs, 50 above
    industry average
  • And inefficient procedures...
  • Long turnaround time of 35 days (industry
    standard is 15 days)
  • Lead to high costs per transaction
  • 140 - 75 above benchmark

75
Using Clear Sentence Structure
  • Favor the active over the passive voice. Which
    sounds better the consultation between the
    contractor and the bank to agree on the workplan
    shall be processed, or the contractor and the
    bank will consult with each other to agree on the
    workplan?
  • But use the passive voice if the object is more
    important than the subject.. Example
    Reengineering, however, cannot be done by
    consultants alone v. Consultants alone,
    however, cannot do reengineering. Dont always
    trust Microsofts rules of grammar!
  • Keep your sentences short and sweet. Example
    Romanias capital markets, confronted with
    numerous difficulties, are in need of reform and
    therefore USAIDs proposed assistance program
    will have significant impact if it is implemented
    by a competent team like Deloitte. versus
    Romanias capital markets face a number of
    difficulties and are in need of reform. USAIDs
    program will have great impact if Deloitte is
    selected to carry it out.
  • Know where to break the sentences. Words like
    nevertheless, however, therefore, in
    addition generally should be at the beginning of
    a sentence rather than in the middle.
  • Replace lawyerish sentence-starters with common
    ones sometimes. Instead of Moreover or In
    addition, try Also. Instead of
    aforementioned, say as mentioned earlier.
    Instead of inter alia, how about among others?

Develop a personal voice and use it
consistently.
76
Formatting The Document
  • Use one idea per page (presentations) or
    paragraph (text reports)
  • Keep font sizes and types, numbering, and page
    structure consistent to reinforce structure
  • Use the 30-second test for charts and graphs
  • Use tables rather than prose wherever possible

Format
Structure
Structure
Format
77
Consistent Headings And Titles
  • Every proposal, report or presentation done by
    your team / firm / organization should conform to
    a broad set of graphic and structural guidelines
    (logo, font sizes/types, etc.) this builds
    brand awareness.
  • Use descending font size or bold/italics to mark
    major and minor headings
  • Usually no more than three levels of headings are
    required - if you end up with more, either a
    minor heading should become a major or you need
    an Appendix
  • Major and minor section headings can be phrases
    or sentences, but never both at the same level -
    maintain consistent phrase structure
  • A reader should be able to perceive the logical
    flow of the document by reading only the section
    headings

78
Tips for Formatting Text Reports
  • Use underlying logic to link sections, not the
    obvious. Instead of In this section we will
    describe our technical approach, try This
    complex problems demands a rigorous and
    structured approach, as described below.
  • Never have more than two pages of unbroken text,
    if possible. Read through and see whether you
    can add minor headings, convert prose into
    bulletpoints, or use a chart or graph. Remember,
    readers get bored quickly.
  • A numbered outline reinforces the logical
    structure for both the reader and the writer.
    Rather than relying on font size or type to
    convey the structure, use numbers (2, 2.1, 2.1.1,
    2.2) to reinforce the hierarchy of the pyramid.
    Never more than three levels.
  • Try not to use more than three colors, and use
    them consistently. This reinforces our brand
    and our professionalism. Too many colors can be
    distracting.
  • Dont put in anything that is too small to read
    unless it is purely an illustration.
  • Use the same basic format for all charts and
    illustrations. They should either be embedded or
    offset, either titled or not titled, they should
    all use the same font and color scheme, and
    should be roughly the same size.

Format is often overlooked, but is critical.
Format is a branding mechanism. It also
supports the logical structure of the report.
79
The 30-Second Test
  • Senior managers seldom have the time or patience
    to wade through complex data or charts - one
    should be able to grasp the message of a chart or
    illustration immediately.
  • Use graphical charts instead of numerical tables
    whenever you can
  • Keep to one finding, one message per chart or
    graph
  • Pick the chart type that best highlights the
    message
  • pie chart or waterfall chart for breakdown of a
    total
  • waterfall charts for cumulative effects (e.g.
    improving performance)
  • bar charts for simple comparisons
  • line charts for time series or trend comparisons
  • Illustrate only the bottom line, not the
    supporting analysis
  • Use charts only to illustrate relevant findings
    that support the message, never simple facts
  • Use labels where possible instead of multiple
    colors and patterns

80
The 30-Second Test - Example
  • Which page passes the test? This one

Implementation
Sequencing Quadrant 1 The gap-closing
initiatives that will have the highest impact
on GSB and are the easiest to implement will be
completed first. Quadrant 2 Initiatives that
are difficult to implement, but will have a high
impact on GSB, will be prioritized
next. Quadrant 3 Thirdly, the initiatives
which are easiest to implement, but will have a
low impact on the bank will be approached.
Quadrant 4 The gap-closing initiatives that
will be given the lowest priority are those
that are both difficult to implement and have a
low impact on GSB.
High
1
2
Gap 8
Gap 1
Gap 3
Gap 2
Sample Task 3 Deliverable Gap-closing initiative
prioritization
Gap 4
Gap 7
Gap 9
Impact of Closing Gap
3
4
Gap 5
Gap 6
Size of bubble represents required capital
expenditure of project
Low
Difficult
Easy
Ease of Implementation
Finally, the prioritization of gap-closing
initiatives will produce the Enterprise-Wide Risk
Management Roadmap
81
The 30-Second Test Example (continued)
  • Or this one? Was any important information
    lost?

Action Prioritization Matrix
Easy
  • Quick Hits
  • Pursue selectively
  • Use to build momentum
  • Urgent Actions
  • Implement now
  • Publicize results

Prioritized, High Impact Action Plan
  • Relative Difficulty
  • Time and effort
  • Complexity and risk
  • Expense required
  • Low Priority
  • Ignore for now
  • Consider for later
  • High Priority
  • Begin planning now
  • Implement in phases

Hard
Low
High
  • Expected Impact
  • Better earnings potential
  • Improved investor confidence
  • Less volatility

82
Tables, Not Text - Example
Qualifications in Pension Reform Thailand Pension
and Provident Funds Reform The purpose of the
project was to conduct a comprehensive and
detailed assessment of all of Thailands current
public and private sector pension programs,
including the Government Provident Fund (GPF),
the Social Security Offices (SSO) Old Age
Pension Fund, and private provident funds. The
Deloitte team, working closely with the Ministry
of Finance, SSO, GFP, the SEC, and the
Association of Provident Fund Managers and other
stakeholders, developed a series of specific
recommendations for reform. We also studied the
operational, organizational, and regulatory
issues for systemic pension reform and presented
several different options for transition from the
current Tier 1 defined benefit (partially funded)
system to a fully funded system, addressing
critical issues related to financing operation,
investment regulatory, and institutional
arrangements, as well as the economic and social
justification for a pension system that includes
a mandatory fully funded Tier 2 component.
Indonesia Reform of Pension and Provident
Funds The purpose of this recently completed ADB
funded project was to prepare feasibility studies
and draft investment guidelines and a blueprint
of the legal, regulatory, and institutional
framework for the fully or partially funded
public and private pension plans of Indonesia,
which would mobilize larger flows of savings and
provide adequate social security coverage to a
larger segment of the population
83
Tables, Not Text - Example (continued)
Qualifications in Pension Reform
Client
Work Performed by Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
Ministry of Finance, Thailand Government of
Indonesia United States Government Accounting
Office
  • Performed detailed assessment of current pension
    programs
  • Recommended comprehensive new multi-pillar
    pension system
  • Developed detailed, action-oriented
    implementation plan
  • Designed robust new legal and regulatory
    framework for pension programs
  • Employed rigorous actuarial analyses to determine
    program sustainability
  • Recommended action steps to expand coverage and
    mobilize savings
  • Performed comprehensive audit of the Pension
    Benefits Guarantee Corporation, the US provident
    fund regulator
  • Recommended improvements to actuarial and
    accounting standards

84
The Communication Process - Review
  • Set communication objective
  • Figure out readers interests
  • Develop strategy (i.e. proposal themes and
    content)
  • Outline to fit the strategy
  • Build logical argument
  • Use S-Q-C model to start, then build inductive
    pyramids
  • Write out the message
  • Structure the document
  • Format the document to support the message

85
Todays Agenda
  • Introduction, Background and Workshop Objectives
  • Overview of the Consulting Process
  • Organizing and Writing Consulting Reports
  • Making Effective Consulting Presentations
  • Conclusion

86
Elements of An Effective Presentation
  • CONTENT Relevant, useful, understandable and
    interesting content that supports the
    communication objective.
  • FORMAT Clear, efficient slides that are
    visually attractive, informative but not
    distracting, and arranged in a clear logical
    order.
  • DELIVERY Confident, engaging, active but not
    distracting, and in control of the situation at
    all times.

87
Content Supporting Your Communication Objective
  • Report / Presentation Sections
  • Statement of Management Problem
  • Relevant Background Information
  • Alternative Approaches to Problem
  • Supported Recommendation
  • Implementation Process
  • Content
  • Deductive lead-in to main message (S-C-(Q)-M)
  • Inductive pyramid supporting main conclusion
    i.e. results of your analytical work (findings)
  • List of potential approaches, pros and cons of
    each, supporting your choice
  • Clear description of recommendation and (ideally)
    quantified benefits
  • Potential obstacles, how to address them, and
    immediate next steps

88
Content Organizing the Presentation
  • Wrightsville Fish Merchants have a strong local
    brand, and sales volume has expanded steadily
    over the past five years. However, overall
    profitability has declined over the same period.
    (Statement of Management Problem)
  • Our cost-of-sales analysis indicates that
    profitability varies widely by product and
    customer. The largest variable determining
    customer profitability was delivery cost in
    general, more distant customers are less
    profitable. (Relevant Background Information)
  • However, several of the largest customer accounts
    are also the most distant delivery locations and
    are therefore less profitable than other
    accounts. Simply raising prices, or charging
    these customers for delivery costs, might be a
    risky approach. (Alternative Approaches to
    Problem)
  • We therefore recommend that Wrightsville Fish
    Merchants consider 1) gradually reducing the
    volume discount that it offers to customers X, Y
    and Z, and 2) aggressively pursuing cross-sell
    opportunities with these customers, in order to
    spread delivery costs across more products. This
    approach can increase profitability by up to X.
    (Supported Recommendation)
  • Implementing this approach will require
    short-term investment in marketing and sales.
    Next steps include the following (Implementation
    Process)

89
Content Storyboarding the Presentation
  • Equivalent of outlining text documents lays out
    logical flow and main points
  • Lay out the slides according to main message for
    each slide
  • Divide a piece of paper into quarters or sixths,
    each segment is one slide
  • Figure 1 to 2 minutes per slide, depending on
    density (not including discussion) For a 30
    minutes presentation, probably use about 20
    slides
  • Conceptualize charts, use placeholder bullet
    points
  • Check flow against text report, logical pyramid

90
Content Storyboarding Example
  • Todays Discussion
  • Intro / Problem
  • Key Findings
  • Conclusion / Options
  • Recommendation / Benefits
  • Next Steps
  • Intro / Problem
  • Strong regional presence and good market share
  • Steady growth in sales volume
  • Wider variety of customers

Key Findings Variance in Profits by Customer
Slow decline in profitability rationale for
this project.
Key Findings (continued) Correlation b/w
Distance and Profit
  • Conclusion / Options
  • Raise price to account for higher delivery costs
  • Reduce volume discount gradually
  • Cross-sell other products

Recommendation / Benefits Potential Increase in
Total Profits
  • reduce discount
  • cross sell
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