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Literacy and Technology: Integrating Technology into Literacy Instruction Letty Vaca and Christina Napolitano EDU 702.22 Fall 2008

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Title: Literacy and Technology: Integrating Technology into Literacy Instruction Letty Vaca and Christina Napolitano EDU 702.22 Fall 2008


1
Literacy and Technology Integrating Technology
into Literacy InstructionLetty Vacaand
Christina NapolitanoEDU 702.22 Fall 2008
2
  • Table of Contents
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • -Statement of the Problem
  • -Review of Related Literature
  • -Statement of the Hypotheses
  • Method
  • -Participants
  • -Instruments
  • -Experimental Design
  • -Procedure
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Implications
  • References
  • Appendix (ces)

3
Introduction
  • Technology has become part of our everyday lives.
  • Since the NCLBA and the National Education
    Technology Plan (2004), the plan calls for
    schools to keep up with the times and integrate
    technology that are deemed beneficial to teachers
    and students
  • Technology is something students can relate to
    because they do use it every day, from cell
    phones to video games technology engages
    children because again it is something they use
    in their everyday lives.
  • The appropriate technologies and software
    programs that are evaluated useful by the
    teacher, not only engages children in what she/he
    is learning, but can help them understand clearly
    what they are learning, especially for students
    of different learning types.
  • Literacy will always be an important topic in the
    field of education.
  • This study is not advocating that technology
    should take over to teach reading skills, but
    technology should be attempted to be used in
    classrooms to supplement, support and enhance
    learning in any subject, especially in reading.

4
  • Statement of the Problem
  • A large percentage of the fourth graders
    reading scores in the State of New York are still
    below the proficient reading level (November,
    2007). Integrating technology in the classrooms
    to support or supplement teachers literacy
    instruction can enhance childrens reading skills.

5
  • Review of Related Literature
  • Four theorists that align with our action
    research project
  • Howard Gardner
  • Gardener believes that people are intelligent in
    different ways Verbal/Linguistic,
    Logical/Mathematical, Bodily/Kinesthetic,
    Musical/Rhythmic, Interpersonal, and
    Intrapersonal

6
  • Maria Montessori
  • Students are lifelong learners and problem
    solvers
  • Learning occurs in an inquiring and cooperative
    atmosphere
  • Students increase their own knowledge through
    self-and teacher-initiated experiences.
  • Learning takes place through the senses.
  • Students learn through manipulating materials and
    interacting with others.
  • These meaningful experiences are precursors to
    the abstract understanding of ideas.

7
  • Jean Piaget
  • Constructivism is a philosophy of learning
    founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our
    experiences, we construct our own understanding
    of the world we live in. Each of us generates our
    own rules and mental models, which we use to
    make sense of our experiences. Learning,
    therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our
    mental models to accommodate new experiences
    (Funderstanding, 2008).

Children can construct their own knowledge ?
build knowledge through experience ? experience
enables to create schemas (mental models)
8
  • Lev Vytgosky
  • Children make meaning through community places,
    which plays a central role, and the people around
    the student greatly affect the way he or she sees
    the world.
  • The type and quality of tools used for cognitive
    development (culture, language, important adults
    to the student) determine the pattern and rate of
    development.
  • The Zone of Proximal Development - problem
    solving skills of tasks can be placed into three
    categories Those performed independently by the
    learner. Those that cannot be performed even with
    help. Those that fall between the two extremes,
    the tasks that can be performed with help from
    others.

9
  • So how does Gardner, Montessori, Piaget and
    Vytgotsky fall into our action research project?
  • When instructional methods incorporate
    technology (software programs, podcasts, wikis,
    internet, e-mail, etc.) in cooperative learning
    and independent projects, students get to
    exercise their visual/spatial, logical/mathematica
    l and verbal/linguistic channels they become
    engaged with their peers, teacher/facilitator and
    are motivated to work on their own on a
    challenging software program or on a project with
    the guidance of their teacher.
  • Other positive effects (Learning Theory for
    Education and Training with Technology, 2000)
  • Interdependence
  • develop pro-social behavior
  • Improved self-esteem and appreciation of school
  • Greater psychological health
  • Students develop  positive peer relationships.
  • Social and communication skills are developed.
  • Improved intrinsic motivation
  • Groups provide an academic and personal support
    system
  • Reflective and metacognition abilities of learner
    are developed as student seek to clarify, explain
    and justify their stand
  • Promote greater competencies in critical thinking
  • Cognitive "rehearsal" results in enhanced short-
    and long-term memory. 
  • Learner learns to accommodate various
    perspectives on an issue.

10
  • Review of Related Literature
  • Technological tools (ex. SMARTBoard, Electronic
    books and software programs) can facilitate
    literacy instruction and increase both the
    students attention in learning and their reading
    comprehension (Matthew, 1997 Doty, Popplewell
    Byers, 2001 Gillen, Staarman, Littleton, Mercer
    Twiner, 2007 Shenton Pagett, 2007 Pearman,
    2008 Star, 2003).
  • Interactive whiteboards can accommodate multiple
    learning types (Basilicato, 2005 Wall, Higgins
    Smith, 2005).
  • Laptops can engage children in their learning
    process and enhance their reading skills
    (Warchauer, 2007).
  • Internet is another tool used for online
    activities (reading and writing), research on
    subjects and build vocabulary (Schmar-Dobler,
    2003 Bromley, 2002).
  • Web Quest engages students in information
    processing and collaboration. When Web Quests
    are literature based, books become the focal
    point for reading-centered learning activities
    (Teclehaimanot Lamb, 2004).

11
  • Review of Related Literature
  • CD-ROM Storybooks can increase and aid reading
    comprehension by helping students focus more on
    understanding the meaning behind the text and
    less on decoding. ((Matthew, 1997 Doty,
    Poppelwell Byers, 2001 Pearman, 2008 Pearman,
    2008).
  • Digital Story telling teachers can integrate
    Digital Storytelling in their lessons to enhance
    and accelerate student comprehension by using
    visual images (Robin, 2008).
  • Video games can help activate critical thinking
    skills and problem solving skills based on prior
    knowledge, and even help make connections (Gee,
    2008).
  • Text to speech software is a software that reads
    the story aloud as the student reads. It is
    useful especially for struggling learners
    because the struggling readers are able to
    listen to the words as they read the text.

12
  • Review of Related Literature
  • Pros for integrating technology
  • Facilitates different learning styles
  • Stimulates different learning channels (Auditory
    and Visual)
  • Can increase students attention
  • Can increase and aid reading comprehension
  • Can help activate critical thinking skills and
    problem solving skills
  • Can integrate images, audio and animation in
    lessons
  • Encourages collaboration /cooperation (ex.
    WebQuest assignments)
  • Educational website found that teachers promote
    using technology in the classroom because they
    find that it does improve students performance
    (Star, 2003).
  • Cons for integrating technology
  • Can be expensive, especially to maintain
  • Mastering programs for teachers and students
    takes time and effort
  • Can cause frustrations because of technical
    malfunctions (Wall, Higgins Smith, 2005).


13
  • Statement of Hypotheses
  • HR1
  • Integrating technology into literacy instruction
    will enhance 4th graders reading skills.
  • HR2
  • The absence of integrating technology into
    literacy instruction can hinder 4th graders from
    improving their reading.

14
Method
  • Participants
  • Total population of 48 fourth graders
  • One classroom- 95 African American 5 Hispanic
  • Second classroom- 60- African American, 39
    Hispanic, 1 Caucasian
  • Lower to middle class
  • Public elementary school located in the Bronx,
    N.Y.
  • Instruments
  • Interactive whiteboard
  • Internet (Online reading programs)
  • Surveys, questionnaires, etc.
  • Various reading software programs
  • Jumpstart 4th Grade
  • Reading Blaster
  • Vocabulary Adventures
  • Reading assessments such as running records and
    WRAPs to asses fluency and reading comprehension

15
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