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Safety

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Runway Initiative Safety * Auckland NZ procedure: There clearance for takeoff is not given before the air traffic controller can visually confirm that the aircraft ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Safety


1
Safety
Runway
Initiative
2
Participants
  • Airbus
  • Embraer
  • ACI
  • IATA
  • ERA
  • Eurocontrol
  • AAPA
  • US NTSB
  • AEA
  • Honeywell
  • ALPA
  • EASA
  • CANSO
  • IFALPA
  • FAA/CAST
  • LVNL
  • Boeing
  • DGAC France
  • Flight Safety Foundation
  • IFATCA
  • NLR
  • ALTA

3
RSI Meetings
1. Initial RSI meeting in Amsterdam 7 and 8
Feb 2007 2. Meeting in Brussels 30 and 31 May
2007 3. Meeting in Toulouse 6 and 7 September
2007 4. Meeting in Miami 9 and 10 January
2008 5. Meeting at NTSB in Washington on 7 and
8 May 2008 6. Meeting at EASA in Cologne on 20
and 21 August 2008 7. Meting in Seattle on 13
and 14 November 2008 8. Meeting in Brussels
on 25 and 26 February 2009 9. Steering team
meeting at FSF on 16 and 17 April 2009
4
DefinitionA runway safety issue is any safety
issue that deals with the runway environment (or
any surface being used as a runway) and the areas
immediately adjacent to it (e.g., overruns,
high-speed taxiways).
5
Runway Safety Issues
  • Runway Incursions
  • Runway Confusion
  • Runway Excursion

6
ICAO Definition of Runway Incursion Any
occurrence at an aerodrome involving the
incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or
person on the protected area of a surface
designated for the landing and takeoff of
aircraft.
7
2007 runway safety events
- TAROM runway incursion accident (0 fatalities)
- S7 excursion report from MAK (126 fatalities)
- Garuda excursion in Indonesia (21 fatalities)
- TAM excursion (187 fatalities)
- Southwest Airlines Midway excursion report
- Air France A340 Toronto excursion report
8
2008 Runway Safety Events
- Hewa Bora DC-9 excursion (3 Fatal)
- Kalitta B747 excursion (0 fatalities)
- TACA A-320 excursion (3 Fatal)
- Sudan Airways A-310 excursion (30 fatal)
- Continental excursion in Denver (0 fatalities)
- Several corporate aircraft fatal excursions
9
2008 Runway Safety Data
Total Accidents 97 (44 Jet/53 TP all Western
and Eastern built commercial jet and turboprop
aircraft, Major or substantial damage)
Total Incursion Accidents 0
Total Confusion Accidents 0
Total Excursion Accidents 38 (39) - 32
Fatalities
10
Data Availability
  • Runway Incursions - Good
  • Runway Excursions - Good for Accidents
    and Incidents with Damage
  • Runway Confusion - Limited (normally no
    damage, no injury, no loss of
    separation)

11
1977 - KLM / Pan Am
Los Rodeos Airport, Tenerife, Canary Islands
12
USAir Runway Incursion Accident Los Angeles
Controller cleared aircraftto land with another
aircraft on the runway.
February 1991
13
SASOctober 2001
Milan, Italy
14
Runway Incursions
  • Part of the new breed of safety challenge
    - Not a lot of accidents - Numerous incidents
  • Basic Risk Management Risk (Probability)
    X (Severity)

15
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16
Runway Excursion When an aircraft on the runway
surface departs the end or the side of the runway
surface. Runway excursions can occur on
takeoff or on landing. They consist of two types
of events Veer-Off Excursion in which an
aircraft departs the side of a
runway Overrun A runway excursion in which an
aircraft departs the end of a
runway
17
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23
The Players
  • Aircraft Manufacturers
  • Operators - Aircrews - Management
  • Airports
  • ATC
  • Regulators

24
Manufacturers
  • Safe/reliable aircraft
  • Data and procedures for normal operations
  • Data and procedures for non- normal
    operations

25
Operators
  • Stabilized approach criteria
  • True no-fault go-around policy
  • Training
  • Decision making
  • - On approach - On the runway

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Airports
  • Airport design
  • Lighting
  • Approach aids (e.g. ILS, VASI, PAPI)
  • Runway design (crown, grooved, porous)
  • Runway markings and signage
  • Runway clearing/cleaning
  • Runway condition measurement
  • Runway end safety areas
  • Airport ARFF

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30
,
31
ATC
  • Stabilized approach assistance
  • Pertinent and timely information
  • - Weather - Runway condition

32
Regulator
  • Provide appropriate and professional
    oversight
  • Stabilized approach requirements
  • - Approaches with vertical guidance

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34
Runway Safety Products Catalog
35
Runway Incursion Product Title
Originator
Type Product Target Audience 1. ICAO
Runway Safety Toolkit ICAO
CD and web Aircrew, Airports,
ATM,

Management 2.
Runway and Surface Safety FAA
CD and web Flight
Instructors

Pilot
Examiners 3. Taxi 101
FAA CD
and web Maintenance personnel 4.
Runway Incursion Prevention FAA, ACI,
CD and web Aircrew,
Airports, ATM Program
IATA, PAAST 5. European
Action Plan for the Eurocontrol et al
CD and web Aircrews, Airports, ATM
Prevention of Runway Incursions

Vehicle drivers 6. Runway Incursion CAST JSIT
FAA (CAST) CD
Aircrews, Airports, ATM
Reports 7. FAA Runway Safety Website
FAA Web site
Aircrews, ATM, Vehicle


Drivers 8. Enhanced Taxiway Centerline
FAA CD and web
Aircrews, ATM, Airports 9. AOPA Runway
Safety Course FAA, AOPA
Web site General Aviation
Pilots 10. ALPA Runway Safety Course
FAA, ALPA Web site
Aircrews 11. ACI Airside Safety Handbook
ACI Handbook
Airports 12. Runway Safety Its
Everybodys FAA
Handbook Pilots, Controllers
Business 13. Pilot Guide to Runway Safety
Sportys CD
General Aviation Pilots
36
Runway Safety Products Catalog
  • Runway Excursion
  • Product Title
    Originator Type Product
    Target Audience
  • ALAR Tool Kit Flight
    Safety Foundation CD
    Aircrews, ATM, Airports
  • 2. Managing Threats and Errors Flight
    Safety Foundation Web Aircrews
  • During Approach and Landing
  • How to avoid a Runway Overrun
  • 3. Takeoff Safety Training Aid FAA
    CD and web
    Aircrews

37
Runway Safety Products Catalog
Runway Confusion
Runway Confusion (Many runway incursion products
may be
applicable here)
38
Runway
Confusion
Data
Safety
Incursion
Excursion
39
 
40
Accident Data19952008 Commercial
Aircraft (Substantial and Major Damage, Western-
and Eastern-built Turbojets and Turboprops)
Jets
Turboprops Major Substantial
Major Substantial 286
372 528
243Total 658
771 1,429 Total Accidents
(of all types, not just runway safety accidents)
41
Runway Safety Accident Data199520081,429
Total Accidents
Number Percent of
Total Incursions 10 (.7/year)
.6
Confusion 4 (.3/year)
.3
Excursions 417 (29.8/year) 29
42
Runway Safety Data19952008Runway Excursion
Data
  • 36 of jet accidents
  • 24 of turboprop accidents

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45
Runway Safety Fatality Data19952008
1,429 Total Accidents492 fatal accidents (33)
Number of Fatal Accidents
(Onboard Fatalities) Incursions 5
(129)
Confusion 2 (132)
Excursions 34 (712)
46
Fatal and Non-Fatal Runway Accidents by Type,
1995 Through 2008
Fatal
Runway Confusion
Non-Fatal
Runway Incursion
Runway Excursion
Number of Accidents
47
79
21
48
63
37
49
53
47
50
41
36
17
6
51
43
35
19
3
52
Takeoff Excursions Top 10 Factors
53
Landing Excursions Top 10 Factors
54
Corp/Biz Aircraft vs. Full Fleet - Landing
Excursions
55
Runway Safety Observations
  • Data shows we are being effective in
    preventing runway incursion accidents, but
    the number of incidents and severity still
    indicates a very high risk
  • Data shows runway excursions are the most
    common type of runway safety accident (96)
    and the most common type of fatal runway
    safety accident (80)
  • Severity of runway excursions dependent on
    - Energy of aircraft when departing the runway
    - Airport layout, geography, and rescue
    capability

56
Runway Safety Observations
  • New procedures (e.g., Auckland, NZ) may be
    helpful in reducing the risk in some runway
    incursion and runway confusion situations
    but not all
  • In the case of runway confusion, many runway
    incursion interventions may be useful (e.g.,
    moving map)
  • In the case of runway excursions, a major
    risk reduction factor is flying a stabilized
    approach with landing in the touchdown zone

57
Basics
- Stabilized approach with landing in
touchdown zone
- Energy Mass X V2
- Effect of reverse thrust is significantly
greater on a contaminated runway
- Calculations and rules are important, but so
is adhering to the conditions used to calculate
them e.g., abort past V1 Land
long, land fast
58
Top Mitigating Factors
  • A mishandled Rejected Takeoff (RTO) increases
    risk of takeoff runway excursion
  • Operators should emphasize and train for proper
    execution of RTO decision
  • Training should emphasize recognition of takeoff
    rejection issues
  • Sudden loss or degradation of thrust
  • Tire and other mechanical failures
  • Flap and spoiler configuration issues
  • Training should emphasize directional control
    during deceleration
  • CRM and adherence to SOPs are critical in time
    critical situations such as RTOs

59
Top Mitigating Factors (cont.)
  • Takeoff performance calculation errors increase
    the risk of a takeoff runway excursion
  • Operators should have a process to ensure proper
    weight and balance, including error detection
  • Operators should have a process to ensure
    accurate takeoff performance data

60
Top Mitigating Factors (cont.)
  • Unstable approaches increase the risk of landing
    runway excursions
  • Operators should define, publish, and train the
    elements of a stabilized approach
  • Crews should recognize that fast and high on
    approach, high at threshold, and fast, long and
    hard touchdowns are major factors leading to
    landing excursions
  • ATC/ATM should assist crews to meet stabilized
    approach criteria

61
Top Mitigating Factors (cont.)
  • Failure to recognize the need for and to execute
    a go-around is a major cause of landing runway
    excursions
  • Operator policy should dictate a go-around if an
    approach does not meet the stabilized approach
    criteria
  • Operators should implement, and support no-fault
    go-around policies
  • Training should reinforce these policies

62
Top Mitigating Factors (cont.)
  • Contaminated runways increase the risk of runway
    excursions
  • Aircrews should be given accurate, useful, and
    timely runway condition information
  • A universal, easy to use method of runway
    condition reporting should be developed to reduce
    the risk of runway excursions
  • Manufacturers should provide operational and
    performance information to operators for the
    spectrum of runway conditions they might
    experience

63
Top Mitigating Factors (cont.)
  • Thrust reverser issues increase the risk of
    runway excursions
  • Flight crew application of reverse thrust is most
    effective at high speeds
  • Flight crews should be prepared for mechanical
    malfunctions and asymmetric deployment

64
Top Mitigating Factors (cont.)
  • Combinations of risk factors (such as abnormal
    winds and contaminated runways or unstable
    approaches and thrust reverser issues) have an
    undesirable synergistic effect on the risk of
    runway excursions
  • Airports and controllers should insure that
    accurate winds for landing are provided to the
    aircrew in a timely manner
  • Aircrews should use a runway excursion risk
    awareness tool to increase their awareness of the
    runway excursion risks involved with each landing

65
Top Mitigating Factors (cont.)
  • Establishing and adhering to standard operating
    procedures (SOPs) will enhance flight crew
    decision making and reduce the risk of runway
    excursions
  • Management and aircrews should mutually develop
    SOPs
  • SOPs should be regularly reviewed and updated by
    a management and aircrew team

66
Top Mitigating Factors (cont.)
  • The survivability of a runway excursion depends
    on the energy of the aircraft as it leaves the
    runway surface and the terrain it must traverse
    prior to coming to a stop
  • All areas surrounding the runway should conform
    to ICAO Annex 14 specifications
  • All runway ends should have a certified runway
    end safety area (RESA) or appropriate substitute
    (e.g., EMAS)
  • Aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF)
    personnel should be trained and available at all
    times during flight operations

67
Top Mitigating Factors (cont.)
  • Universal standards related to the runway and the
    conditions, and comprehensive performance data
    related to aircraft stopping characteristics,
    assist in reducing the risk of runway excursions
  • Regulators should develop global, uniform
    standards for runway condition measuring and
    reporting, and aircraft performance data

68
Basic Plan
  • 3 Critical Items for Success

1. Identify high risk areas (with data)
2. Develop interventions to reduce the
risk in the highest risk areas
3. Get information out internationally
On a regionally tailored basis In a
user friendly format
69
Report of the Runway Safety
Initiative Reducing the Risk of Runway
Excursions
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FSF Goal
Make aviation safer by reducing the risk of an
accident
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