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Scaffold and Aerial Lift Safety

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Scaffold and Aerial Lift Safety Stan Liang, CIH, CSP, CET KTA-Tator, Inc. Each employee on a walkway within a scaffold must be protected by a guardrail system ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scaffold and Aerial Lift Safety


1
Scaffold and Aerial Lift Safety
  • Stan Liang, CIH, CSP, CET
  • KTA-Tator, Inc.

2
Webinar Objectives
  • Brief overview of the following
  • OSHA Scaffold Standard
  • Safe work practices for the use of scaffolds,
    aerial lifts, and scissor lifts
  • Resources for additional information

3
Scaffolds/Aerial lifts
  • Hazards
  • Falls
  • Falling objects
  • Structural instability
  • Electrocution
  • Overloading

4
Scaffolds29 CFR 1926 Subpart L
  • 1926.450 Scope, application, and definitions
  • 1926.451 General requirements
  • 1926.452 Requirements applicable to specific
    types of scaffolds
  • 1926.453 Aerial lifts
  • 1926.454 Training requirements

5
29 CFR 1926 Subpart L Appendices
  • Appendix A Scaffold specifications
  • Appendix B Fall protection for scaffold
    erectors and dismantlers
  • Appendix C National consensus standards
  • Appendix D Training topics for scaffold
    erectors and dismantlers
  • Appendix E Drawings and illustrations

6
Competent Person
  • One who is capable of identifying existing and
    predictable hazards in the surroundings or
    working conditions which are unsanitary,
    hazardous or dangerous to employees and has
    authorization to take prompt corrective measures
    to eliminate them.

7
Qualified Person
  • One who by possession of a recognized degree,
    certificate, or professional standing, or who by
    extensive knowledge, training, and experience has
    successfully demonstrated his or her ability to
    solve or resolve problems related to the subject
    matter, work, or the project.

8
General Requirements
  • Support its own weight and 4 times the maximum
    intended load
  • Suspension rope and connecting hardware support 6
    times the maximum intended load

9
General Requirements
  • Stall load of scaffold hoist not to exceed 3
    times the rated load
  • Designed by a qualified person and loaded
    according to design

10
General Requirements Scaffold Platform
Construction
  • Platforms must be fully decked and planked
  • Platform must be at least 18 inches wide
  • Planks must be in good condition

11
General Requirements Scaffold Platform
Construction
  • Each abutted end shall rest on a separate support
    surface
  • Platforms overlap not less than 12 and only over
    supports
  • Platforms that rest on a bearer at an angle other
    than a right angle must be laid first

12
General Requirements Scaffold Platform
Construction
  • The end of the platform must extend at least 6
    inches beyond the support or
  • Restrained by hooks, cleats or other means

13
General Requirements Scaffold Platform
Construction
  • Platforms 10 feet long or less extend no more
    than 12 inches past the support
  • Platforms more than 10 feet long extend no more
    than 18 inches

14
General Requirements Scaffold Construction
  • Scaffold components manufactured by different
    manufacturers shall not be used together unless
  • Components fit together without force
  • Scaffold's structural integrity is maintained by
    the user
  • Competent person determines the resulting
    scaffold is structurally sound

15
General Requirements Scaffolds Construction
  • Components of dissimilar metals can not be
    intermixed

16
General RequirementsSupported Scaffolds
  • Fully planked
  • Bear on adequate foundations
  • Plumbed and braced
  • Unstable objects not used as work platforms

17
General Requirements Suspended Scaffolds
  • Support devices must support 4 times the imposed
    load
  • Direct connection evaluated by a competent person

18
General Requirements Suspended Scaffolds
  • Counterweights made of non-flowable material
  • Counterweights secured and not removed until
    scaffold is disassembled
  • Tiebacks secured to sound anchorage
  • Single tiebacks installed at an angle prohibited

19
General RequirementsSuspended Scaffolds
  • Minimum lengths for suspension ropes on hoists
  • No repaired wire rope
  • Ropes inspected by a competent person prior to
    each shift

20
General RequirementsSuspended Scaffolds
  • No gasoline powered equipment or hoist
  • Automatic brakes on powered and manual hoists
  • Positive crank force required for descent
  • Tied to prevent swaying
  • Safety devices not used as platforms

21
Scaffold Access
  • Access must be provided when platforms are more
    than 2 feet below or above a point of access
  • Cross braces can not be used as a point of access

22
Scaffold Access
  • Hook on attachable ladders
  • Specifically designed for the type of scaffold
  • Rest platforms at 35 foot intervals when more
    than 35 feet high

23
Scaffold Use
  • Do not overload scaffold
  • Platform can not deflect more than 1/60 of the
    span when loaded
  • Inspect scaffolds prior to each shift or after an
    event which may have damaged the scaffold
  • Do not move the scaffold when occupied unless
    designed for such use
  • Shore or lean-to scaffolds can not be used.

24
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25
Scaffold Use
  • Scaffolds must be erected, moved, and dismantled
    only under the supervision of a competent person
  • Erecting, moving, or dismantling scaffolding must
    be performed by trained employees selected for
    such work by the competent person

26
Scaffold Use
  • Employees are prohibited from working on
    scaffolds covered with snow, ice, or slippery
    materials
  • Tag lines or equivalent means must be used to
    prevent swinging loads from contacting the
    scaffold
  • Work on scaffolds is prohibited in high winds.
  • Debris can not accumulate on platforms.

27
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28
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29
Power Line Clearances
30
Power Line Clearances
31
Power Line Clearance Alternatives
  • Two times the length of the insulator
  • Notify utility company in advance and
  • De-energize the power lines
  • Relocate the lines or
  • Install protective covering to prevent accidental
    contact

32
Fall Protection
  • Fall protection is required when employees are
    more than 10 feet above a lower level
  • Fall protection is required for erection or
    dismantling of scaffolds, if the competent person
    determines it is feasible

33
Fall Protection Methods
  • Boatswains chair, catenary scaffold personal
    fall arrest
  • Single or two point adjustable suspension
    scaffold personal fall arrest and a guardrail
  • All other scaffolds personal fall arrest or a
    guardrail

34
Fall Protection
  • Each employee on a walkway within a scaffold must
    be protected by a guardrail system installed
    within 9 1/2 inches of and along each walkway

35
Personal Fall ArrestVertical Life Lines
  • Can not be used if overhead components are part
    of a single point or two point adjustable
    scaffold
  • Attached to an anchorage independent of the
    scaffold
  • Protected from sharp edges and abrasion

36
Personal Fall ArrestHorizontal Lifelines
  • Can not be attached only to suspension ropes
  • Independent anchorages are mandatory on all
    suspended scaffolds, except for two-point
    suspension scaffolds

37
Additional Requirements forPersonal Fall Arrest
  • If lanyards or lifelines are connected directly
    to a two-point suspension scaffold, the scaffold
    must be provided with additional independent
    support lines
  • Vertical lifelines, independent support lines and
    suspension ropes shall not be tied to each other
    or share common anchorage points

38
Fall ProtectionGuardrails
  • Guardrails must be installed on all open sides
  • Guardrails must be installed prior to use
  • Top rail height must be between 38 inches and 45
    inches
  • Where personal fall arrest is also used, top rail
    height must be between 36 inches and 45 inches

39
Fall ProtectionGuardrails
  • Intermediate members must be not more than 19
    inches apart
  • Mid rails, screens, or mesh must be used
  • Screens or mesh, if used, must extend along the
    entire opening between supports and from the top
    rail to the platform

40
Fall ProtectionGuardrails
  • Top rail must withstand 200 pounds of force (100
    pounds for single-point and two-point adjustable
    suspension scaffolds)
  • When maximum force is applied, the top rail must
    not deflect below minimum permissible height
  • Mid rails, screens, mesh, and intermediate
    members must withstand a force of 150 pounds (75
    pounds for single-point and two-point adjustable
    suspension scaffolds)

41
Fall ProtectionGuardrails Cross Bracing
  • Can be used in place of a mid rail when the
    crossing point is between 20 inches and 30 inches
    above the work platform
  • Can be used instead of a top rail when the
    crossing point is between 38 inches and 48 inches
    above the work platform
  • Upright end points must be more than 48 inches
    apart

42
Falling Object Protection Options
  • Barricading the work areas below
  • Install toe board on scaffold platforms
  • Install canopies or debris nets to protect
    workers below the platform

43
Requirements for Specific Scaffolds
  • Tube and coupler scaffolds
  • Mobile scaffolds
  • Containment platforms
  • Two-point suspension scaffolds
  • Singe-point suspension scaffolds
  • Pik boards

44
Tube and Coupler Scaffolds
  • Designed by a P.E. if over 125 feet
  • Requirements for couplers and bracing

45
Containment Platforms
  • Containment platforms must comply with 1926.
    Subpart L.

46
Mobile Scaffolds
  • Must be plumb, level, and squared
  • Wheels must be able to be locked
  • Scaffold must be leveled using screw jacks
  • Caster stems and wheel stems shall be pinned or
    otherwise secured

47
Mobile Scaffolds
  • Manual force to move the scaffold must be applied
    no more than 5 feet above the supporting surface
  • Power systems used to move the scaffolds must be
    designed for such use

48
Mobile Scaffolds
  • Employees can only ride mobile scaffolds under
    the following conditions
  • Surface is within 3 degrees of level
  • Height to base width is two to one or less
  • Outrigger frames, when used, are installed on
    both sides
  • Speed does not exceed one foot per second when
    power systems are used
  • No employee is on any part of the scaffold that
    extends outward beyond wheels, casters, or other
    supports

49
Two Point Suspension Scaffolds
  • Can not be connected together during raising and
    lowering operations unless the connections are
    articulated and hoists properly sized
  • Can not be more than 36 inches wide unless
    designed by a qualified person to prevent
    unstable conditions

50
Single Point Suspension Scaffolds
  • Use of a safety hook (hook with a latch), if a
    boatswains chair is used
  • Supporting rope must be kept vertical

51
Pik Boards
  • Safety ropes or clips on stirrups used to suspend
    the platform from the cables
  • Minimum width of the pik boards must be at least
    18"
  • - Pik secured to hangers at
    both ends

52
Training
  • Employees using scaffolds must receive training
    from a qualified person that covers
  • Nature of electrical, fall, and falling object
    hazards
  • Use of scaffold
  • Maximum intended load and load carrying
    capabilities of the scaffold
  • Requirements of subpart L

53
Training
  • OSHA has separate training requirements for
    workers engaged in the following
  • Erecting
  • Disassembling
  • Moving
  • Repairing
  • Maintenance
  • Inspection

54
Training
  • Employees engaged in activities other than use
    must receive training from a qualified person
    that covers
  • Nature of electrical, fall, and falling object
    hazards
  • Correct procedures
  • Design criteria, load capacity, and intended use
  • Requirements of subpart L

55
Retraining
  • Required if an employee lacks the skill or
    understanding needed for safe work involving
    scaffolds
  • Retraining is also required when
  • Additional or new hazards exist
  • Changes occur in the type of scaffold and fall
    protection
  • Where there are inadequacies in an employees
    work practices

56
OSHA Aerial Lift RequirementsTraining
  • Operated only by authorized persons
  • According to an OSHA letter of interpretation
    training is required
  • Training requirements enforced by OSHA would be
    based on industry standards as defined in ANSI
    Standard A92.2

57
OSHA Aerial Lift RequirementsTraining
  • ANSI Standard A92.2 training requirements
    include
  • Instruction in safe operation including the
    operators manual, users work instruction, and
    other applicable ANSI standards
  • Hands on training must also be included

58
OSHA Aerial Lift Requirements Fall Protection
  • Fall protection must be worn when in the basket
  • A short lanyard (e.g. 3 to 4 foot lanyard)
    should be used for restraint
  • Employees must always stand firmly on the floor
    of the basket (not the guardrails)

59
OSHA Aerial Lift Requirements
  • Must be provided with upper and lower controls
  • Lower controls to be operated only in emergencies
    or with permission of workers in the basket
  • Test controls daily prior to use

60
OSHA Aerial Lift Requirements
  • Place outriggers on solid surface or pads
  • Load limits specified by the manufacturer must
    not be exceeded
  • Boom must not be elevated when lift is moving

61
OSHA Scissor Lift Requirements
  • Requirements for mobile scaffolds apply
  • If guard rails are in place, no additional fall
    protection is required

62
Additional Information
  • www.osha.gov
  • 29 CFR 1926 Subpart L (Scaffold Standard)
  • CPL 02-01-023 CPL 2-1.23 (Compliance Directive)
  • Scaffolding Construction e-Tool
  • Letters of interpretation
  • www.scaffold.org (Scaffold Industry Association)
  • http//www.ansi.org (American National Standard
    Institute)
  • A92 (SIA) Scaffolds and other elevating devices

63
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