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Scaffold and Aerial Lift Safety


Scaffold and Aerial Lift Safety Stan Liang, CIH, CSP, CET KTA-Tator, Inc. Each employee on a walkway within a scaffold must be protected by a guardrail system ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scaffold and Aerial Lift Safety

Scaffold and Aerial Lift Safety
  • Stan Liang, CIH, CSP, CET
  • KTA-Tator, Inc.

Webinar Objectives
  • Brief overview of the following
  • OSHA Scaffold Standard
  • Safe work practices for the use of scaffolds,
    aerial lifts, and scissor lifts
  • Resources for additional information

Scaffolds/Aerial lifts
  • Hazards
  • Falls
  • Falling objects
  • Structural instability
  • Electrocution
  • Overloading

Scaffolds29 CFR 1926 Subpart L
  • 1926.450 Scope, application, and definitions
  • 1926.451 General requirements
  • 1926.452 Requirements applicable to specific
    types of scaffolds
  • 1926.453 Aerial lifts
  • 1926.454 Training requirements

29 CFR 1926 Subpart L Appendices
  • Appendix A Scaffold specifications
  • Appendix B Fall protection for scaffold
    erectors and dismantlers
  • Appendix C National consensus standards
  • Appendix D Training topics for scaffold
    erectors and dismantlers
  • Appendix E Drawings and illustrations

Competent Person
  • One who is capable of identifying existing and
    predictable hazards in the surroundings or
    working conditions which are unsanitary,
    hazardous or dangerous to employees and has
    authorization to take prompt corrective measures
    to eliminate them.

Qualified Person
  • One who by possession of a recognized degree,
    certificate, or professional standing, or who by
    extensive knowledge, training, and experience has
    successfully demonstrated his or her ability to
    solve or resolve problems related to the subject
    matter, work, or the project.

General Requirements
  • Support its own weight and 4 times the maximum
    intended load
  • Suspension rope and connecting hardware support 6
    times the maximum intended load

General Requirements
  • Stall load of scaffold hoist not to exceed 3
    times the rated load
  • Designed by a qualified person and loaded
    according to design

General Requirements Scaffold Platform
  • Platforms must be fully decked and planked
  • Platform must be at least 18 inches wide
  • Planks must be in good condition

General Requirements Scaffold Platform
  • Each abutted end shall rest on a separate support
  • Platforms overlap not less than 12 and only over
  • Platforms that rest on a bearer at an angle other
    than a right angle must be laid first

General Requirements Scaffold Platform
  • The end of the platform must extend at least 6
    inches beyond the support or
  • Restrained by hooks, cleats or other means

General Requirements Scaffold Platform
  • Platforms 10 feet long or less extend no more
    than 12 inches past the support
  • Platforms more than 10 feet long extend no more
    than 18 inches

General Requirements Scaffold Construction
  • Scaffold components manufactured by different
    manufacturers shall not be used together unless
  • Components fit together without force
  • Scaffold's structural integrity is maintained by
    the user
  • Competent person determines the resulting
    scaffold is structurally sound

General Requirements Scaffolds Construction
  • Components of dissimilar metals can not be

General RequirementsSupported Scaffolds
  • Fully planked
  • Bear on adequate foundations
  • Plumbed and braced
  • Unstable objects not used as work platforms

General Requirements Suspended Scaffolds
  • Support devices must support 4 times the imposed
  • Direct connection evaluated by a competent person

General Requirements Suspended Scaffolds
  • Counterweights made of non-flowable material
  • Counterweights secured and not removed until
    scaffold is disassembled
  • Tiebacks secured to sound anchorage
  • Single tiebacks installed at an angle prohibited

General RequirementsSuspended Scaffolds
  • Minimum lengths for suspension ropes on hoists
  • No repaired wire rope
  • Ropes inspected by a competent person prior to
    each shift

General RequirementsSuspended Scaffolds
  • No gasoline powered equipment or hoist
  • Automatic brakes on powered and manual hoists
  • Positive crank force required for descent
  • Tied to prevent swaying
  • Safety devices not used as platforms

Scaffold Access
  • Access must be provided when platforms are more
    than 2 feet below or above a point of access
  • Cross braces can not be used as a point of access

Scaffold Access
  • Hook on attachable ladders
  • Specifically designed for the type of scaffold
  • Rest platforms at 35 foot intervals when more
    than 35 feet high

Scaffold Use
  • Do not overload scaffold
  • Platform can not deflect more than 1/60 of the
    span when loaded
  • Inspect scaffolds prior to each shift or after an
    event which may have damaged the scaffold
  • Do not move the scaffold when occupied unless
    designed for such use
  • Shore or lean-to scaffolds can not be used.

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Scaffold Use
  • Scaffolds must be erected, moved, and dismantled
    only under the supervision of a competent person
  • Erecting, moving, or dismantling scaffolding must
    be performed by trained employees selected for
    such work by the competent person

Scaffold Use
  • Employees are prohibited from working on
    scaffolds covered with snow, ice, or slippery
  • Tag lines or equivalent means must be used to
    prevent swinging loads from contacting the
  • Work on scaffolds is prohibited in high winds.
  • Debris can not accumulate on platforms.

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Power Line Clearances
Power Line Clearances
Power Line Clearance Alternatives
  • Two times the length of the insulator
  • Notify utility company in advance and
  • De-energize the power lines
  • Relocate the lines or
  • Install protective covering to prevent accidental

Fall Protection
  • Fall protection is required when employees are
    more than 10 feet above a lower level
  • Fall protection is required for erection or
    dismantling of scaffolds, if the competent person
    determines it is feasible

Fall Protection Methods
  • Boatswains chair, catenary scaffold personal
    fall arrest
  • Single or two point adjustable suspension
    scaffold personal fall arrest and a guardrail
  • All other scaffolds personal fall arrest or a

Fall Protection
  • Each employee on a walkway within a scaffold must
    be protected by a guardrail system installed
    within 9 1/2 inches of and along each walkway

Personal Fall ArrestVertical Life Lines
  • Can not be used if overhead components are part
    of a single point or two point adjustable
  • Attached to an anchorage independent of the
  • Protected from sharp edges and abrasion

Personal Fall ArrestHorizontal Lifelines
  • Can not be attached only to suspension ropes
  • Independent anchorages are mandatory on all
    suspended scaffolds, except for two-point
    suspension scaffolds

Additional Requirements forPersonal Fall Arrest
  • If lanyards or lifelines are connected directly
    to a two-point suspension scaffold, the scaffold
    must be provided with additional independent
    support lines
  • Vertical lifelines, independent support lines and
    suspension ropes shall not be tied to each other
    or share common anchorage points

Fall ProtectionGuardrails
  • Guardrails must be installed on all open sides
  • Guardrails must be installed prior to use
  • Top rail height must be between 38 inches and 45
  • Where personal fall arrest is also used, top rail
    height must be between 36 inches and 45 inches

Fall ProtectionGuardrails
  • Intermediate members must be not more than 19
    inches apart
  • Mid rails, screens, or mesh must be used
  • Screens or mesh, if used, must extend along the
    entire opening between supports and from the top
    rail to the platform

Fall ProtectionGuardrails
  • Top rail must withstand 200 pounds of force (100
    pounds for single-point and two-point adjustable
    suspension scaffolds)
  • When maximum force is applied, the top rail must
    not deflect below minimum permissible height
  • Mid rails, screens, mesh, and intermediate
    members must withstand a force of 150 pounds (75
    pounds for single-point and two-point adjustable
    suspension scaffolds)

Fall ProtectionGuardrails Cross Bracing
  • Can be used in place of a mid rail when the
    crossing point is between 20 inches and 30 inches
    above the work platform
  • Can be used instead of a top rail when the
    crossing point is between 38 inches and 48 inches
    above the work platform
  • Upright end points must be more than 48 inches

Falling Object Protection Options
  • Barricading the work areas below
  • Install toe board on scaffold platforms
  • Install canopies or debris nets to protect
    workers below the platform

Requirements for Specific Scaffolds
  • Tube and coupler scaffolds
  • Mobile scaffolds
  • Containment platforms
  • Two-point suspension scaffolds
  • Singe-point suspension scaffolds
  • Pik boards

Tube and Coupler Scaffolds
  • Designed by a P.E. if over 125 feet
  • Requirements for couplers and bracing

Containment Platforms
  • Containment platforms must comply with 1926.
    Subpart L.

Mobile Scaffolds
  • Must be plumb, level, and squared
  • Wheels must be able to be locked
  • Scaffold must be leveled using screw jacks
  • Caster stems and wheel stems shall be pinned or
    otherwise secured

Mobile Scaffolds
  • Manual force to move the scaffold must be applied
    no more than 5 feet above the supporting surface
  • Power systems used to move the scaffolds must be
    designed for such use

Mobile Scaffolds
  • Employees can only ride mobile scaffolds under
    the following conditions
  • Surface is within 3 degrees of level
  • Height to base width is two to one or less
  • Outrigger frames, when used, are installed on
    both sides
  • Speed does not exceed one foot per second when
    power systems are used
  • No employee is on any part of the scaffold that
    extends outward beyond wheels, casters, or other

Two Point Suspension Scaffolds
  • Can not be connected together during raising and
    lowering operations unless the connections are
    articulated and hoists properly sized
  • Can not be more than 36 inches wide unless
    designed by a qualified person to prevent
    unstable conditions

Single Point Suspension Scaffolds
  • Use of a safety hook (hook with a latch), if a
    boatswains chair is used
  • Supporting rope must be kept vertical

Pik Boards
  • Safety ropes or clips on stirrups used to suspend
    the platform from the cables
  • Minimum width of the pik boards must be at least
  • - Pik secured to hangers at
    both ends

  • Employees using scaffolds must receive training
    from a qualified person that covers
  • Nature of electrical, fall, and falling object
  • Use of scaffold
  • Maximum intended load and load carrying
    capabilities of the scaffold
  • Requirements of subpart L

  • OSHA has separate training requirements for
    workers engaged in the following
  • Erecting
  • Disassembling
  • Moving
  • Repairing
  • Maintenance
  • Inspection

  • Employees engaged in activities other than use
    must receive training from a qualified person
    that covers
  • Nature of electrical, fall, and falling object
  • Correct procedures
  • Design criteria, load capacity, and intended use
  • Requirements of subpart L

  • Required if an employee lacks the skill or
    understanding needed for safe work involving
  • Retraining is also required when
  • Additional or new hazards exist
  • Changes occur in the type of scaffold and fall
  • Where there are inadequacies in an employees
    work practices

OSHA Aerial Lift RequirementsTraining
  • Operated only by authorized persons
  • According to an OSHA letter of interpretation
    training is required
  • Training requirements enforced by OSHA would be
    based on industry standards as defined in ANSI
    Standard A92.2

OSHA Aerial Lift RequirementsTraining
  • ANSI Standard A92.2 training requirements
  • Instruction in safe operation including the
    operators manual, users work instruction, and
    other applicable ANSI standards
  • Hands on training must also be included

OSHA Aerial Lift Requirements Fall Protection
  • Fall protection must be worn when in the basket
  • A short lanyard (e.g. 3 to 4 foot lanyard)
    should be used for restraint
  • Employees must always stand firmly on the floor
    of the basket (not the guardrails)

OSHA Aerial Lift Requirements
  • Must be provided with upper and lower controls
  • Lower controls to be operated only in emergencies
    or with permission of workers in the basket
  • Test controls daily prior to use

OSHA Aerial Lift Requirements
  • Place outriggers on solid surface or pads
  • Load limits specified by the manufacturer must
    not be exceeded
  • Boom must not be elevated when lift is moving

OSHA Scissor Lift Requirements
  • Requirements for mobile scaffolds apply
  • If guard rails are in place, no additional fall
    protection is required

Additional Information
  • 29 CFR 1926 Subpart L (Scaffold Standard)
  • CPL 02-01-023 CPL 2-1.23 (Compliance Directive)
  • Scaffolding Construction e-Tool
  • Letters of interpretation
  • (Scaffold Industry Association)
  • http// (American National Standard
  • A92 (SIA) Scaffolds and other elevating devices