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Melting Ice Cubesaka. Thermodynamics and Heat

Transfer

HIGH ASPIRATIONS Created by Dave Johnson Kathy

Holliday-Darr

Miracle Thaw

- Is it really a miracle?
- Lets check it out

Melting Ice Cubes Icebreaker J

First experiment objective Determine how fast

each different test material melts an ice cube

AND how the melting of the ice cube effects the

test materials temperature.

- Establish teams and have them create a company

name - Run first experiment

Experiment Worksheet

- What is the room temperature?
- Measure and record the temperature of each

material. - Measure the weight of the material being tested.
- 5th grade Convert the weight from pounds to

kilograms - 6th grade Calculate the mass of the material and

compare it to the actual measurement. - High school Compare methods for calculating mass

and converting units. I.e., by hand, calculator,

spreadsheet, draw 3-dimensionally on a CAD system

and measure the properties, web

(http//n93.cs.fiu.edu/measures/fulltable.asp),

etc.

- Calculate the area of the ice cube.
- Discuss
- What shape is the ice cube?
- What is the formula for this shape?
- What measurements will be needed?
- How can the necessary measurements be found?

Calculate Area

- Trace ice cube
- Measure chord length c
- Measure height h

Calculate Area

- Discuss the best way to locate the following

measurements - Measure angle a
- Measure the radius r
- Calculate l

To Locate Center of Circle

- Rotate ice cube, overlapping the curved portion

of the ice cube, and trace it again. - Fold the circle in quarters to locate center or

use a compass.

- Area answers.
- Give your results to your teacher.
- Break into small groups and compare answers.
- Come up with one answer per group.
- Compare group answers.
- Using the initial readings, calculate the

average. - Compare the average to the group answers.
- The teacher will use this answer to calculate the

volume of the ice cube.

- Place the ice cube, side down, on the material.
- Time from the placement to completely melted.
- Students discuss
- Why is the ice cube melting?
- What is happening?
- How is it changing form?
- Where does the heat come from?

- Record
- the finish time
- temperature at the center of the puddle
- outside edge of the plate
- Share data with other groups.

Summary of First Experiment

- Where did the heat come from to melt each ice

cube (from the test material or from the

surrounding air) ? - What makes one test material faster at melting

the ice cube than another ? - Why did the ice cubes move ?
- Level of answers will depend on grade level.

Thermodynamics

- Greek words describe early forms of

thermodynamics - Therme (heat)
- Dynamics (power)
- Today it covers a wider spectrum of energy and

energy transformation - I.e., space shuttle to refrigeration

Thermodynamics

- Is the interaction between energy and matter and

it is everywhere - Hair dryers and heat guns, irons, furnace, air

conditioners, hot water tanks, etc. - Also must be considered when designing computers,

automobile engines, VCRs, CD players, dimmer

switches, etc. - What happens if
- a hair dryer gets too hot?
- a computer gets too hot?

5th Grade

- Calculate DT (Delta Time - change in temperature

of the material being tested.) - (Tfinal - Tinitial)
- Compare student DT results to calculated DT,

supplied by the teacher, in a line graph on graph

paper or using a spreadsheet. - Discuss the results

5th Grade cont.

- Compare the amount of heat (Q) each material has

available to the amount of heat required to melt

the ice cube in a combination bar/line graph.

(Data supplied by the teacher) - Which material(s) did not have enough heat

available to melt the ice cube? - What can be done to increase the available heat?
- Do you see any correlations between the two

graphs?

Summary

- What test material was the best at melting ice

cubes ? - Did the color seem to effect the performance ?
- Why would an ice cube melt, even if the test

material did not have enough energy to do it ?

Thermodynamics

- Therefore, different materials are used to the

transfer heat - I.e., the material in the computer chip in the

electric radio alarm clock is used to help keep

the chip from overheating.

Miracle Thaw

- Is it really a miracle?

Suggestions for Higher Grades

- Complete 5th grade level mathematics, graphs,

etc., only have the students calculate - The volume and mass of the ice cube.
- The amount of heat generated by each material.
- How long a specific material will take to melt an

ice cube. - Calculate the volume and mass of the material

being tested, and compared to actual measured

weight. - Discuss heat transfer in more depth.

Suggestions for Higher Grades cont.

- Create an interactive animated computer program

that demonstrates the experiment. - Example
- http//socrates.berkeley.edu7009/simple_machines/

Additional Exercises

- Compare the same material with different masses.
- Compare different materials with the same mass.
- Conduct a web search of items that use heat

sinks. - Examples
- Library of Thermodynamics Arizona State Univ.
- http//www.asu.edu/lib/noble/physics/thermo.htm
- Heating system (heat pipe sinks) and fans
- http//www.kita.or.kr/catalog/cheil/index.html
- Laptops
- http//www.indek.com/heatpipe/hp_app.htm
- Computers
- http//www.thermalloy.com/catalog/htm/dhs57.htm
- http//www.web_tronics.com/webtronics/heatredmouns

.html - http//www.heatsink.com/
- http//www.execpc.com/industrialelectronics/wakefl

d/wakepg19.html - http//www.marlow.com/d_heat.htm
- Dimmer
- http//home.swbell.net/evansjim/MyHomeRepair/Dimme

rSwitch.htm - http//www.thermalloy.com/catalog/htm/eprof41b.htm

Have Fun

Additional slides for advanced grades

THERMODYNAMICS

- The science of energy (or its ability to cause

changes), and - The relationships among the properties of

matter. - HEAT, Q, is the form of energy which melted our

ice cubes. - In the SI system, we measure Q in Joules.

THERMODYNAMICS

- Some important material properties
- m is the mass of the material (kg)
- V is the volume (m3)
- r is the density (kg/m3)
- C is the specific heat (J/kg-oC)

Some Material Properties

THERMODYNAMICS

- For a solid, Q m C DT
- This is the amount of heat corresponding to a

change in temperature - If you dont know the mass, calculate it from m

r V - DT is the change in temperature,
- (Tfinal - Tinitial)

How much heat does it take to melt one of our ice

cubes ?

- If the ice cube is at 0oC,
- Latent Heat of Fusion (amount of energy needed

to go from solid to liquid states. - For water, that is 333,700 Joules/kg.
- If our ice cube is 0.01 kg, the heat required

is 3,337 Joules.

Do we have enough energy in our test materials to

do that ?

- Example
- A 0.5 kg. chunk of steel, starting at 22oC,

releases 3255 Joules of heat when it is cooled to

7oC. - Q m C DT
- (0.5 kg)(434 Joules/kg-oC)(22-7 oC)
- 3255 Joules
- 3337 Joules is needed, therefore, there isnt

enough heat to melt the ice cube

Conservation of Energy

- Better yet, we can solve for the final

temperature of the steel to melt the ice

Conservation of Energy

- A 0.5 kg block of steel
- Cools from room temperature (22oC) to 6.62oC
- Gives up enough heat to melt a 0.01 kg ice cube.

Heat Transfer

- is the flow of energy which happens when a

difference in temperature exists. - can happen between two bodies or even within a

single body. - What was the difference in temperature between

our ice cubes and our test materials ?

CONDUCTION

- Heat flows through a material from

molecule-to-molecule. - Fouriers Law

Fouriers Law

- Q is the heat transfer rate
- k is a material property, thermal conductivity
- A is the area which heat flows through
- DT is the temperature difference
- Dx is the distance the heat must travel

Fouriers Law

- How do you make the ice cubes melt faster ?
- What do the terms in Fouriers Law show us ?
- Which variables can you control ?

Fouriers Law

- Fouriers Law tells us how fast heat will flow.
- Do we know if there is enough energy available

in our test materials to melt our ice cube ?

Fouriers Law

- The rate of heat flow is
- The steel block cools from 22oC to 6.62oC in

melting the ice which is 0oC. - As that happens, the value of DT decreases.
- Therefore, the rate of heat transfer to the ice

decreases. - How can we increase the rate for a given material

?

GO TO WORK !!!

- Determine if your test materials have enough

heat to melt an ice cube. - Measure the rate (time) of heat transfer.
- Tabulate your experiment data.

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