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Upgrading and Repairing your Personal Computer


Used by high end 386/486 machines to speed up graphics and/or hard drive access. ... Connecting the controller card and power to the hard drive (master-slave) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Upgrading and Repairing your Personal Computer

Upgrading and Repairing your Personal Computer
  • with
  • Iskandar Hack
  • IPFW

  • Introduction
  • to upgrade or not to upgrade (replace)
  • PC Overview
  • CPU - 86, 88, 286, 386, 486, SX, DX, DX2/4, 586
    class, 686 class. Pentium II
  • Math Co-processor
  • Types of Busses - XT (8 Bit), AT (16 Bit), PS/2,
  • Memory
  • Memory Addressing
  • Speed and Size
  • Locating and identifying RAM
  • RAM, ROM, SIM, Cache, BIOS, and CMOS Config.
  • Expansion limit of the computer

Outline (2)
  • Storage Devices
  • Floppy Drives - 5.25 (1.2 M, 360K, 180 K)
  • 3.5 (2.88 M, 1.44M, and 720 K)
  • Hard Drives
  • Controller Cards (MFM, RLL, SCSI, IDE)
  • Hard Drive unit - Matching card and Drive
  • Cost of Systems
  • Hard Cards
  • Tape Drives
  • CD ROMs

Outline (3)
  • DOS Versions (3.3 or Higher)
  • Video
  • Types - Monochrome, Hercules, CGA, EGA, VGA,
    SVGA, and Multisync
  • Resolution, pixels, dots/inch, of colors
  • Software Compatibility
  • Double graphics adapters
  • Power Supplies
  • Serial and Parallel Ports
  • Modems (FAX/Modems)
  • Mouse/Roller Balls
  • Cases
  • Future expansion of computer system
  • of slots
  • Memory

Some Definitions
  • Bit
  • One piece of information (1 or 0)
  • Byte
  • 8 Bits
  • Word
  • 2 Bytes (16 bits)
  • K or Kilo
  • 1024 Bytes (about a thousand)
  • M or Meg
  • 1024 K (about a million)
  • G or Giga
  • 1024 M (about a billion)

Types of CPUs
  • 8086 (TI PRO, Compaq, and other clones)
  • 16 Bit Bus, slow
  • 8088 (IBM-PC/XT)
  • 8/16 Bit Bus, very slow
  • 80286 (IBM-AT)
  • 16/32 Bit Bus, Faster Still

  • 80386
  • 32 Bit Bus, Faster Still
  • 80486
  • 32 Bit Bus, very fast
  • Pentium (80586) (MMX)
  • 32/64 Bit Bus, very very fast
  • This includes the Cyrix 6x86, AMD k series.
  • Pentium Pro (80686)
  • 32/64 Bit Bus, extremely fast
  • Pentium II (80786) (MMX)
  • 32/64 Bit Bus, extremely fast.

The Math Co-Processor
  • A microprocessor which increases the speed of the
    main processor by performing math operations.
  • 8088/86 8087
  • 80286 80287
  • 80386 80387
  • 80486SX 80487SX
  • 80486DX- Builtin
  • Pentium Builtin
  • When purchasing a Math Co-processor the speed of
    your system should match the speed of the

Types of Bus Structures
  • 8 Bit ISA
  • Used by most 8086/88 machines, slow but very
  • 16 Bit ISA
  • Used by IBM-AT, and most 286/386/486.. clones,
    Will accept 8 bit cards
  • ESIA
  • Used by high end 386/486 machines to speed up
    graphics and/or hard drive access. Will accept 8
    or 16 cards

  • VLB and PCI
  • Same concept as ESIA newer versions that are a
    little faster. Systems are also a little
  • Micro Channel
  • Used by IBM PS/2 family. 16 bit design that is
    not compatible with other systems. If you have
    this type it will be expensive to upgrade.
  • AGP
  • Advanced Graphics Port. Used for high speed
    video display.

  • USB
  • Still fairly new.
  • Daisy chainable like SCSI.
  • Can use cameras, scanners, mouse, keyboard, other
    devices that use the USB connector.

Mother Board Types
  • AT series
  • Fairly common but starting to fade out.
  • ATX series
  • No standard layout has been decided on. Most use
    a all ports, one location approach.
  • Pizza Box series
  • This type uses a riser card. Avoid this!!

Types of Memory
  • RAM
  • ROM
  • CPU Cache
  • Disk Cache
  • Video RAM
  • CMOS Setup Memory

RAM Random Access Memory
  • Read/Write Memory that the user applications and
    the operating system uses. This type of memory
    is what most people are talking about when they
    discuss computer memory. This type of memory is
    user expandable.

ROM Read Only Memory
  • Contains the basic input/output system (BIOS)
    that allows the machine to start (Boot
    instructions). Normally the user never modifies
    this memory device.

CPU Cache
  • This is very high speed memory that is located
    physically next to the microprocessor. If the
    processor can get its instructions from cache,
    it doesnt have to wait for the slower RAM. The
    purpose of this memory is to speed up the system.

Disk Cache
  • This memory is usually located on the disk
    controller. The disk controller will use this
    memory to read ahead from the disk, or store
    information prior to writing it to disk. This
    way the computer doesnt always have to wait for
    the physical drive to read and write.

Video RAM Memory
  • This type of memory is contained on the video
    card. The more video memory in the system can
    either speed up the screen writes, or improve the
    resolution of the display. Some video cards
    allow for expansion of video RAM.

CMOS Memory
  • This is low power memory that is backed up by
    battery when the system is turned off. This
    memory contains the configuration of your system.

Types of Floppy Drives
  • 5.25 360K
  • Standard on Older PCs
  • No longer used.
  • 5.25 1.2M
  • Standard on AT Class machines, 360K disks will
    work with the 1.2 Meg drives, but not the other
    way around.
  • 3.5 720K
  • Supported by DOS 3.2, used by older machines to
    be compatible with newer systems. Not standard
    on any class of machine.

Types of Floppy Drives (2)
  • 3.5 1.44 M
  • Supported by DOS 3.3. Standard on almost all
    current machines. Also support 720 K format.
  • 3.5 2.88 M
  • Supported by DOS 6. Not standard on most current
    machines. Also support 720 K and 1.44 M format.
  • Combo Drives
  • A 3.5 1.44 M and a 5.25 1.2 M in a single half
    height drive bay.

Hard Drives
  • MFM
  • Original Standard, relatively fast, but not much
    storage capacity for the money.
  • RLL
  • Slower than MFM, but has about 50 more storage
    for the same money. Most common drive used to
    upgrade older PCs.
  • ESDI
  • Much faster than MFM or RLL, and could handle
    larger drives. Not used much today.

Hard Drives (2)
  • Much faster than any of the above, and
    inexpensive. Current standard for most systems.
  • Ultra ATA/Ultra DMA
  • Twice as fast as IDE.
  • SCSI
  • About the same speed as IDE, but can handle
    multiple drives and larger drives. Used mainly on
    high-end systems, Macs, and UNIX.

  • Read only, write able and now re-write able.
  • Stores 640 M of data on a compact disk.
  • Much faster than floppy disks.
  • External using SCSI or Parallel.

CD ROM (2)
  • Internal using SCSI, IDE, or sound card hookup.
  • Single spin up to 100X (in increments of 2X)
  • Multi CD changers.
  • Can play music CDs.

  • Stores up to 4.7 GIG on a single side. Double
    sided available.
  • Usually needs special MPEG card to use to full
  • Compatible with most older CD ROMS.

Display Standards
  • Monochrome
  • No graphics capacity, very high resolution text.
    Not very common today
  • Hercules
  • Added graphics capacity to the monochrome
    display, 720 X 348 in two color
  • CGA
  • 640 X 200 two color, or 320 X 200 eight color

Display Standards (2)
  • EGA
  • 16 colors, 640 X 350
  • VGA
  • Up to 1024 X 768, 256 colors
  • More memory on the adapter increases the
    resolution up to 512K
  • SVGA
  • Enhanced VGA, additional memory, up to about 2-8
    Meg, and increase the number of colors (to over a
  • When purchasing a new video card make sure your
    current monitor will be able to handle the new

Power Supplies
  • Current Systems require a minimum of 200 Watts of
    power. If you have less replace before adding
    additional drives.
  • Most new computers come with 235 - 300 watt
  • Never try to repair a bad power supply unless you
    know what you are doing.

Major DOS Versions
  • DOS 1.0 - 1.1
  • Initial Disk Operating System, allowed for the
    use of floppy disks only
  • DOS 2.0
  • Added support of Hard Disks (and subdirectories)
  • DOS 3.0
  • Added support of 1.2 Meg FD
  • DOS 3.2
  • Added support of 720 K 3.5 FD

Major DOS Versions (2)
  • DOS 3.3
  • Added support of 1.44 M FD
  • DOS 4.0
  • Added support of expanded memory, and Hard Disk
    partitions larger than 30 Meg
  • DOS 5.0
  • Included QBasic instead of the old basic
  • Included EDIT in addition to EDLIN
  • First attempt at a DOS Shell
  • Added Help Command

  • Included Virus protection
  • Improved DOS Shell
  • Initial release included Disk Compression
  • Included Disk Optimization
  • Included Unformat, and Undelete

Windows 3.x
  • 16/32 bit operations.
  • Needed DOS 5.0 or greater.
  • Graphical User Interface.

Windows 95/NT/98
  • 32 bit operations.
  • Eliminated DOS
  • Adds Plug and Play
  • Easy Networking
  • Built in Internet support
  • Improved user interface.

TOP 10 LIST Computer Precautions
  • Location of Computer
  • Temperature
  • Food and Drink
  • Smoke
  • Dust
  • Pets
  • Kids
  • Computer Viruses
  • Power Surges
  • Quick Fingers

Important Things to Remember
  • Fill out all warranties and send them!
  • Make copies of the original software.
  • Store all disks in a safe place
  • Record all settings from the CMOS menu
  • Record serial numbers and label for insurance.

  • Dont eat and drink near the computer
  • Dont ever use force on your computer
  • Ground yourself if you remove the cover
  • NEVER open the power supply
  • Handle circuits and cards with care
  • TURN OFF THE POWER any time you remove the cover

Rules for working on a PC
  • Switch off ALL devices before starting
  • Allow enough time
  • Have a good working surface
  • Have the correct tools
  • Keep all small parts together
  • Choose a good environment
  • Keep good records
  • Check and test the system before reassembling

Removing the Cover (desktop)
  • Turn off all power
  • Remove 5-6 bolts from rear of computer
  • Slide the cover forward to remove. A swift jerk
    might be needed to remove the cover.

Tower Case
  • Turn off all power
  • Remove plastic guard
  • Remove 5-6 bolts from rear of computer
  • Slide the cover forward to remove

Other Cases
  • Some cases will have bolts located on the side
    and back of the computer
  • Some cases will flip up instead of sliding off.

Installing a Second Floppy Disk Drive
  • Questions before you buy
  • Do you have an empty drive bay (5.25 or 3.5 bay)
  • Will your drive controller support an additional
  • What vendor and color?
  • Are side rails or mounting rails required?

Steps to Install additional Drive
  • Open the case
  • Remove the bay cover and store for future use
  • Attach rails or mountings
  • Check documentation for any drive settings
  • Slide disk drive into empty drive bay
  • Take extra power cable and connect to disk drive.
    The cable is keyed to prevent incorrect
    connections. If no extra power cable is found a
    Y adapter must be used.

Steps to Install additional Drive (2)
  • Attach ribbon cable coming from Drive A. The
    connector should be keyed.
  • The drive ribbon cable has two connectors
  • The connector with a twist is drive A
  • The connector in the middle is drive B
  • Insert drive and fasten any hardware

Steps to Install additional Drive (3)
  • Recheck all connections
  • Restart Computer
  • Do the following on the new drive
  • Enable drive in the BIOS.
  • Format a disk
  • Copy a file to the drive
  • Copy a file from the drive
  • Do a CHKDSK X command (xdrive letter of new
  • Place cover back on computer

Additional Step for 3.5 Drive in 5.25 Slot
  • Install adapter frame so that the 3.5 drive fits
    in a 5.25 bay.

Hard Drive Installation
  • Preparation for installing
  • Connecting the controller card and power to the
    hard drive (master-slave)
  • Partition the hard drive
  • Format the Drive
  • Install DOS - if necessary
  • Install the application programs

Preparation for Installing
  • Choose a matched controller and hard drive for
    your computer
  • Check if BIOS supports new drive.
  • Shut off power and remove case
  • Prepare an empty drive bay for hard drive. If
    needed, remove any extra disk drives
  • Set jumpers or switches on controller or hard
    drive. Most manufacturers have preset these
    switches to the correct settings.

Connection of the Cables and Power
  • The hard drive should come with one 40 pin ribbon
  • Look for pin one on both ends of the cables. It
    has either a arrow, or a red line on the ribbon
  • Take extra power cable and connect to disk drive.
    The cable is keyed to prevent incorrect
    connections. If no extra power cable is found a
    Y adapter must be used.
  • If needed add Power Cable adapter.

Master - Slave Configuration
  • If you are installing a second drive, one drive
    must be assigned as the master. And the other as
    a slave to the master. (all but SCSI)
  • Master Drive will contain boot sector.
  • Check documentation for jumper configuration on
    each drive.
  • With SCSI controller set SCSI number on drive

Partitioning the Hard Drive
  • Boot your system with DOS 5.0 or later.
  • At the DOS prompt type fdisk
  • Go to Create a DOS Partition, Create a primary
    partition of any size and use the rest in a
    extended partition.
  • The primary drive will be the next available
    drive letter (C if first hard drive, D if
    second), and the extended will be the next. C
    will be the bootable drive.

Format New Drive
  • With the system booted with Dos 5.0 or later,
    type format x /s
  • x is the drive letter of new drive, and /s is
    used if you wish to install the OS on this drive.

Types of Tape Drives
  • External Using Printer Port or SCSI
  • Internal with interface card
  • Internal using Floppy controller, SCSI, or IDE
  • All come with software and instructions,
    internals install similar to FD or HD

  • Internal (norm. set to Com2)
  • External using Serial port
  • Most modems come with FAX built-in and software
  • Speed

  • Most have own controller and software
  • Hand Held
  • Flat Bed
  • Black and White
  • Gray Scale (16 to 256 levels)
  • Color (8 bit or 16 bit)
  • 150 to 1200 DPI

Special Purpose Cards
  • TV/VGA
  • Sound Cards
  • NTSC Output cards
  • Video Editors
  • Telephone Voice Mail Systems

Installing The Math Co-Processor or Processor
  • Turn off power and remove case
  • Static Electricity can damage IC, thus ground
    yourself before handling co-processor
  • Place Co-processor in socket on motherboard.
    (Check for pin 1 and align) (may have to remove
    expansion cards)
  • Double check that IC is properly seated
  • Reinstall any removed cards, install case
  • Check CMOS to insure its been updated

Installing a Power Supply
  • Select power supply that matches existing supply
  • Disconnect power and open case
  • Disconnect power cords from motherboard and disk
  • Remove from exterior of case to free supply
  • Install the new power supply and secure it with
    the bolts.
  • Reconnect the power supply to the drives and shut

Adding Additional Memory
  • There are three types of memory devices. The
    current standard are SIMM (single in line memory
    module) packages. The DIMM (Dynamic in line
    memory module) is currently available. The
    previous standard was SIP (single inline package)
  • Memory is installed in banks, all memory in a
    single bank MUST be the same size and speed.
  • Some motherboards have 1 SIMM per bank, some 2
    SIMM per, and other have 4 SIMMs per bank.

Adding Additional Memory (2)
  • Before purchasing memory check your motherboard
    manual to see if you need Parity, Non-Parity, EDO
    or DIMMS. Also if it needs a certain speed.

Installing Memory (SIMM or DIMM)
  • Open the case
  • Locate existing SIMM packages, and remove
    expansion cards if necessary
  • Remove existing SIMM if necessary
  • Insert SIMM at 45 degree angle and snap into
    place (check orientation and seating)
  • Repeat above for each SIMM in bank
  • Replace cards and cover/check CMOS

Installing Memory (SIP)
  • Open the case
  • Locate existing SIP packages, and remove
    expansion cards if necessary
  • Remove existing SIP if necessary
  • Insert SIPs in full banks, making sure not bend
    pins. (check orientation and seating)
  • Repeat above for each SIP in bank
  • Change Switch Settings on older machines if
  • Replace cards and cover/check CMOS

Swapping the Motherboard
  • The case and new motherboard must match in the
    following ways
  • The expansion slots
  • The opening for the keyboard
  • hardware mounting
  • Shut off power and remove case
  • Remove disk drive(s), hard drive(s), and all
    expansion cards
  • Disconnect the power cords and speaker cords (may
    be more)
  • Remove the bolts connecting the board to the
    case. Slide board out of case and place on
    NON-conducting surface

Swapping the Motherboard (2)
  • Remove RAM and Co-processor from Old board and
    install them on the new motherboard (if
  • Slide new board into computer and fasten all
  • Reconnect the power cords, speaker cords and any
    other cables
  • Reinstall the expansion cards, and disk drive(s)
  • Recheck and close case
  • Set up CMOS

Things on the Horizon
  • 100 MHz system buses.
  • Rambus Ram
  • Faster Processors (of course)!!
  • New mother board buses
  • AGP 2
  • Faster PCI
  • Faster USB
  • 1394
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