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UNIT 1 The Human Body: An Orientation


UNIT 1 The Human Body: An Orientation An Overview of Human Anatomy and Physiology Levels of Structural Organization Homeostasis (8th edition) How to use your ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: UNIT 1 The Human Body: An Orientation

UNIT 1 The Human Body An Orientation
  • An Overview of Human Anatomy and Physiology
  • Levels of Structural Organization
  • Homeostasis

How to use your PowerPoint lectures
  • This PowerPoint lecture follows your textbook
    very closely read the slides along with the
    associated sections in Chapter 1 of your textbook
    (at the same time) be sure to view the
    associated figures and tables in your book
  • There is a lot of material in the textbook that
    we do not have time to cover in this course
    please read this extra content, but keep in mind
    that you will not find it on an exam use the
    lecture as your guide your exams are based
    mainly on your lectures and lab activities dont
    forget that you can download and print this
    lecture in the form of an outline (without
    multimedia content) the content of the
    PowerPoint and printable outline is essentially
    the same

Anatomy vs. Physiology
  • Anatomy - the study of the structure and
    organization of the human body
  • Physiology - the study of body function

Topics of Anatomy
  • GROSS Anatomy - the study of body structures that
    can be seen with the naked eye
  • SYSTEMIC Anatomy - all of the organs with
    related functions are studied together as a
    system for example, the skeletal system we
    will approach this class from a systemic point
    of view, because it is easier to learn
  • REGIONAL Anatomy - all of the structures in a
    single body region are studied together for
    example the head or arm this is more advanced
  • Microscopic Anatomy - the study of structures
    that must be seen with a microscope includes
    cells (CYTOLOGY) and tissues (HISTOLOGY)
  • Developmental Anatomy - includes structural
    changes that occur in the body throughout its
    life span, and the effects of aging EMBRYOLOGY,
    the developmental changes that occur before
    birth, is a subdivision of developmental anatomy
  • Pathological Anatomy - deals with structural
    changes in the body caused by disease
  • Radiographic Anatomy - studies internal
    structures of the body as visualized by X-ray
    images or other specialized scanning procedures

Topics of Physiology
  • Physiology is the study of the chemical and
    physical processes that allow the body to
    function, and maintain a relatively constant
    internal environment (in other words, maintain
    HOMEOSTASIS -- a topic that we will approach in
    later in this lecture)
  • Most students find studying the Physiology of the
    organ systems to be harder than learning the
    Anatomy moreover, you must understand the
    anatomy before you can approach the physiology

Levels of Structural Organization (fig. 1.1)
  • Levels 1, 2, and 3 (CHEMICAL, CELLULAR, and
    TISSUE) were covered in your BIO 156, or similar
  • BIO 201 focuses on the ORGAN, ORGAN-SYSTEM, and
    ORGANISMAL levels, and assumes that you already
    have a good understanding of the previous levels

Organ Systems Overview (fig. 1.3) the following
organ systems are listed in the order that you
will learn them in your 201 and 202 courses
  • (BIO 201)
  • Integumentary System skin, hair, and nails
  • Skeletal System bones and joints
  • Muscular System muscles
  • Nervous System brain, spinal cord, and nerves

Organ Systems Overview
  • (BIO 202)
  • Cardiovascular System heart, blood vessels
  • Lymphatic System spleen, red bone marrow,
    lymph nodes, and tonsils
  • Endocrine System hormone producing glands
  • (e.g. thyroid gland, adrenal
  • gland, pituitary gland, etc.)
  • Respiratory System larynx, trachea, and lungs

Organ Systems Overview
  • (BIO 202)
  • Digestive System esophagus, stomach, small and
  • large intestines, liver
  • Urinary System kidneys, ureters, bladder,
  • Male Reproductive System prostate gland,
    testes, ductus deferens (vas deferens)
  • Female Reproductive System ovaries, uterine
    tubes, uterus

Organ System Overview
  • Briefly read about the major functions of each of
    the organ systems (use fig 1.3) -- get familiar
    with the different systems of the body
  • Note that organ systems are not completely
    separate entities there are many
    interrelationships among the systems (including
    sharing of organs and sharing of functions)
  • The Nervous and Endocrine Systems are the major
    controlling systems of the body

(Fig. 1.3)
Overview of HOMEOSTASIS - a major theme of
  • The topic of homeostasis is not covered
    adequately in your textbook! Much of the
  • material is not found in your textbook and/or is
    presented in a slightly different format
  • than the book
  • Fluid Compartments of the Body
  • INTRACELLULAR FLUID (ICF) is found inside of the
  • EXTRACELLULAR FLUID (ECF) is found outside of the
  • PLASMA - ECF of the blood
  • INTERSTITIAL FLUID - ECF of the body tissues

Overview of HOMEOSTASIS - a major theme of
  • Extracellular Fluid (ECF) is the bodys internal
  • Very few cells are in direct contact with the
    external environment (the environment outside of
    the body) thus, the body interfaces or interacts
    with the external environment via its
    Extracellular Fluid (ECF) or internal environment
  • Homeostasis is defined as the process by which
    the body maintains a relative constant internal
    environment (its ECF) as the external environment
    (outside of the body) changes internal
    mechanisms of the body are maintained within a
    certain range

Overview of HOMEOSTASIS - a major theme of
  • Examples of variables that need to be maintained
  • Homeostasis
  • pH
  • ion concentrations (e.g. sodium and potassium)
  • body temperature
  • water volume
  • blood pressure
  • nutrient concentrations (e.g. glucose)
  • wastes (e.g. CO2)
  • oxygen

Overview of HOMEOSTASIS - a major theme of
  • Failure to maintain homeostasis disrupts normal
    function and may result in a disease state or
    pathological condition it is the job of the
    health professionals (e.g. nurses, doctors, etc.)
    to help us keep our bodies in homeostasis!

Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
  • VARIABLE (e.g. temperature, pressure, etc.)
  • STIMULUS produces a change in the variable,
    leading to an imbalance
  • RECEPTOR (sensor) - monitors the value of the
    variable, detects change in the value, and sends
    this information (via an afferent signal) to the
    CONTROL CENTER (integrator)

(fig. 1.4)
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
  • CONTROL CENTER (integrator)
  • usually the brain or some other body organ
  • integrates incoming sensory information
  • compares the incoming info. to a SET POINT
    determines whether the value is equal to, less
    than, or greater than the set point
  • sends output (via an efferent signal) to the
    EFFECTOR to get the value closer to the set point
  • causes the RESPONSE or effect, which affects the
    variable and corrects the imbalance
  • In NEGATIVE FEEDBACK the response will be the
    opposite of the direction that the variable had
    originally changed (if it was going up, then it
    will be brought back down)
  • most body systems have a way to both increase and
    decrease the variable this is analogous to
    having both a heater and air conditioner to
    maintain the temperature of a room

(fig. 1.4)
Example of a Homeostatic Control Mechanism
involving negative feedback
  • Read about this example in the book (under the
    heading Negative Feedback Mechanisms) while
    viewing the associated figure Note that the
    variable in this case is TEMPERATURE

  • POSITIVE FEEDBACK loops are not Homeostatic, and
    are rare in the human body with positive
    feedback mechanisms stimulation drives more
    stimulation the variable is brought even farther
    from the set point see fig 1.6 for an example of
    a positive feedback mechanism involving blood
    clotting note that contractions during
    childbirth are another good example of positive
    feedback (contractions lead to even more

(fig 1.6)
  • FEEDFORWARD Control - allows the body to
    anticipate change and maintain stability
  • the body predicts that change is about to occur,
    and begins to respond ahead of the change
  • example this occurs when there is an
    expectation that food will be eaten soon there
    is perhaps the sight, smell, or even just the
    thought of food in anticipation the body begins
    to produce excess saliva in the mouth (your mouth

Is your mouth watering yet?
Photo Credits All images by Robert Wakefield
This concludes the current lecture topic
  • Be sure to read the next lecture topic The
    Language of Anatomy
  • (close the current window to exit the PowerPoint
    and return to the Unit 1 Startpage)
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