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Pre-Columbian America, European Exploration and Spanish

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Pre-Columbian America, European Exploration and Spanish Conquest APUSH Ms. Weston 8.16.06 Introduction to the Colonial Period What were the motivations of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pre-Columbian America, European Exploration and Spanish


1
Pre-Columbian America, European Exploration and
Spanish Conquest
  • APUSH
  • Ms. Weston
  • 8.16.06

2
Introduction to the Colonial Period
  • What were the motivations of the original
    colonists?
  • Material wealth, freedom from religious
    persecution
  • NOT to start a new country.

3
Introduction to the Colonial Period ctnd.
  • How did the colonists start to view themselves as
    an independent nation?
  • Had things in common
  • Most English speaking
  • Wanted to create an agricultural society
  • Wanted to get rid of royal tyranny and social
    hierarchy
  • Accepted ideals of liberty, self-government, and
    religious toleration
  • Shared a willingness to oppress others Native
    Americans and Blacks

4
Introduction to the Colonial Period ctnd.
  • What were some divisions among the colonists?
  • Thirteen colonies very different
  • New England, Middle, and Plantation colonies
  • Why did America begin to break away from England?
  • Colonists caught in the middle of French/British
    rivalry in North America
  • At certain point, didnt need British protection,
    resented high taxes.
  • Increasing colonial unity throughout the colonial
    period!!!

5
The Shaping and Peopling of North America
  • How did North America get the shape it has today?
  • Pangaea
  • Continental shifting and foldingseparated
    continents and created landmasses of today
  • How and when did the first Americans arrive on
    the continent?
  • Crude boat theory
  • Most widely accepted? Bering Strait
    (35,000-10,000 years ago)
  • Migrations to South America (by 1492, 54 million
    people in both continents)

6
First American Civilizations
  • Central America Sophisticated civilizations
  • Incas
  • Mayans
  • Aztecs
  • What was the role of agriculture?
  • People settled where they could grow staple crops
  • CORN first major source of food in Mexico
  • Absence of agriculture explains lack of
    sophisticated and unified native populations in
    North America.

7
North American Native Populations
  • Smaller, more scattered populations
  • Ex. Mound Builders in Ohio River Valley,
    settlement of Cahokia, Anasazis
  • After 1000 A.D., developments in agriculture in
    North helped native populations grow.
  • Iroquois largest, most sophisticated native
    population in North America.
  • Small size and lack of unity meant natives in
    North especially vulnerable to European conquest.

8
Who were the indirect discoverers of the New
World?
  • Scandinavians in 1000 A.D.
  • Christian Crusaders (1000-1300)created cravings
    for exotic goods and shorter route to Asia.
  • Marco Polos tales of China (1295)
  • Portuguese advances Caravel and special routes
    that could get them to Africa and back

9
How did the slave trade begin?
  • Portuguese set up trading posts along West
    African coastto purchase gold and slaves
  • Slave trade had already started between Arabs and
    Africans
  • Portuguese sped up slave tradeused labor to work
    sugar plantations on African coastal islands.
  • Set up a system that Spain would later use when
    it began to colonize New World.

10
Why did Spain take the lead in European
exploration in 1492?
  • Unification under Ferdinand and Isabella
  • Expulsion of the Moors
  • Spanish eager to prove their power over
    Portuguese by exploring West.
  • Impact of Renaissance
  • New technology printing press, compassSPAIN HAD
    THE UNITY, WEALTH AND POWER TO UNDERGO DISCOVERY
    AND CONQUEST.

11
What was the impact of Columbuss voyages?
  • Voyage huge mistake Thought he would find
    shorter route to Asia (the Indies), then hit
    America!
  • Set up a new global, interdependent economy
  • Europe provided markets, money and technology
  • Africa labor
  • New World Raw materials

12
The Columbian Exchange
  • From the Old World Wheat, sugar, rice, coffee,
    HORSES, cows, DISEASE!!!
  • From the New World GOLD, SILVER, corn, potatoes,
    tobacco
  • IMPACT In the centuries after Columbuss
    arrival, about 90 of Native Americans killed.

13
The Spanish Conquistadores
  • Spain won domination of New World with Treaty of
    Tordesillas with Portugal (1494)
  • Spanish conquistadors went to Caribbean and New
    World for two reasons
  • To serve God
  • For gold and glory
  • Exploration in North America (Coronado, de Leon)
  • Conquest in South America (Pizarro and Incas,
    Cortes and Aztecs)

14
The Spanish in America
  • Empire grew quicklyesp. in Peru and Mexico
  • Competition with other powers for land (esp.
    French) led Spanish to build forts? St. Augustine
    in Florida (1565)
  • Spanish began exploring Northsettlements in New
    Mexico in 1609, Texas in 1716, San Diego in 1769

15
Spanish Treatment of Native Americans
  • Used Caribbean islands as bases for American
    conquest
  • Began encomienda system in West Indies
    enslavement of native population
  • Missions to Christianize and civilize Indians.
  • Resistance among Native Americans Pueblo Revolt
    in New Mexico
  • Black Legend?
  • Spanish empire v. British empire
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