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GEOE 324 Engineering Geophysics Lecture Notes, January 17, 2008

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GEOE 324 Engineering Geophysics Lecture Notes, January 17, 2008 Introductions Course information Goals of the course Grading, exams, term paper Important dates – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GEOE 324 Engineering Geophysics Lecture Notes, January 17, 2008


1
GEOE 324 Engineering GeophysicsLecture Notes,
January 17, 2008
  • Introductions
  • Course information
  • Goals of the course
  • Grading, exams, term paper
  • Important dates

2
Lecture Notes, January 22, 2008
  • Introduction to Geophysics
  • What is geophysics used for?
  • What is geophysics?
  • Heterogeneity
  • Define objectives
  • Limitations
  • Lack of contrast
  • Resolution
  • Noise
  • Multiple methods

3
Lecture Notes, January 24, 2008
  • Exploration With Gravity
  • Gravitational Acceleration
  • Measuring Gravity
  • Relative Measurements
  • Pendulum
  • Gravimeter
  • Absolute Measurements
  • International Gravity Standardization Net 1971

4
Lecture Notes, January 29, 2008
  • USGS Gravity Web Site for SD
  • http//pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/ofr-02-0341/
  • Adjusting Observed Gravity
  • Variation As A Function Of Latitude
  • Correcting For The Latitude Effect
  • Elevation Corrections
  • The Free-Air Correction
  • The Bouguer Correction

5
Lecture Notes, January 31, 2008
  • Elevation Corrections
  • The Bouguer Correction
  • The Terrain Correction
  • The Isostatic Anomaly
  • Field Procedures
  • Base Stations
  • Elevations and Horizontal Positions
  • Reduction Densities
  • Survey Procedure

6
Lecture Notes, February 5, 2008
  • Gravity Effects of Simple Geometric Shapes
  • Sphere
  • Horizontal Cylinder
  • Vertical Cylinder
  • Inclined/Vertical Rod
  • Horizontal/Faulted Sheet
  • Analyzing Anomalies
  • Regionals and Residuals
  • Trend Surfaces
  • Upward/Downward Continuation
  • Second Derivatives

7
Lecture Notes, February 7, 2008
  • Analyzing Anomalies
  • Regionals and Residuals
  • Filtering
  • Gravity Interpretation
  • Half-Maximum Technique
  • Second Derivative Technique
  • Applications of the Gravity Method

8
Lecture Notes, February 7, 2008(continued)
  • The Magnetic Method
  • Magnetic Force
  • Magnetic Field Strength
  • Magnetic Moment
  • Intensity of Magnetization

9
Lecture Notes, February 12, 2008
  • Magnetic Susceptibility
  • Remanent Magnetization
  • Earths Magnetic Field
  • Elements
  • Dipolar Nature www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/geomag/declin
    ation.shtml
  • Variations
  • Measuring the Magnetic Field
  • Flux-Gate Magnetometer
  • Proton-Precession Magnetometer
  • Field Procedures
  • Diurnal Corrections

10
Lecture Notes, February 14, 2008
  • Field Procedures
  • Elevation Corrections
  • Correcting for Horizontal Position
  • Magnetic Effects of Simple Geometric Shapes
  • Rock Susceptibilities
  • Effect of an isolated pole
  • Effect of a dipole
  • Effect of a sphere

11
Lecture Notes, February 19, 2008
Guest Lecturer Dr. Bill Roggenthen Deep
Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory
(DUSEL)
12
Lecture Notes, February 21, 2008
  • Magnetic Effects of Simple Geometric
  • Shapes (continued)
  • Thin horizontal sheet
  • Polygons with infinite strike length
  • Interpretation of Magnetic Data
  • Advantages/Disadvantages
  • Quantitative Interpretative Techniques
  • Half maximum techniques
  • Slope methods
  • Computer modeling

13
Lecture Notes, February 21, 2008(continued)
  • Applications of the Magnetic Method
  • Archeological Surveys
  • Detecting Voids
  • Detecting Metal Objects
  • Mineral Exploration
  • Love (2008) paper on magnetics

14
Lecture Notes, February 26, 2008
  • Examination I
  • Exploration with the gravity method
  • Exploration with the magnetic method

15
Lecture Notes, February 28, 2008
  • Paleomagnetism
  • Electromagnetic Surveying
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Wavelengths
  • Frequencies
  • AC/DC
  • Electrical Resistivity
  • Electrical Conductivity
  • Dielectric Properties
  • Absorption and Attenuation

16
Lecture Notes, March 4, 2008
Guest Lecturer Mark Anderson, USGS Using
microgravity techniques to measure change in
ground water storage
17
Lecture Notes, March 6, 2008
  • Seismic Refraction Lab Review
  • and Assignment
  • Electromagnetic Sounding
  • Frequency Domain EM Methods
  • (FDEM)
  • SLINGRAM
  • Tilt-angle/Dip-angle methods
  • Very-Low Frequency (VLF)
  • methods

18
Lecture Notes, March 11, 2008
  • Electromagnetic Sounding (continued)
  • Time Domain EM Methods (TDEM)
  • EM Field Techniques
  • Sounding
  • Profiling
  • Interpretation
  • Ground-Penetrating Radar

19
Lecture Notes, March 13, 2008
Seminar Jared Abraham, USGS Hydrogeologic
Framework Studies for Determining Surface
Water-Ground Water Relationships in the Glaciated
Region of Eastern Nebraska Using Airborne
and Ground Geophysics
20
Lecture Notes, March 25, 2008
  • Ground-Penetrating Radar (continued)
  • Radar Velocity
  • Data Acquisition
  • Wide Angle Reflection and
  • Refraction (WARR)
  • Common Midpoint (CMP)
  • Transillumination/Radar
  • Tomography
  • GPR Velocity Analysis

21
Lecture Notes, March 25, 2008(Continued)
  • Ground-Penetrating Radar (continued)
  • Walkaway Test
  • Diffraction Hyperbola
  • Applications of EM Surveying
  • Archeological Surveys
  • Geologic Applications
  • Snow and Ice Mapping
  • Environmental/Engineering
  • Applications

22
Lecture Notes, March 27, 2008
  • Seismic Waves and Wave Propagation
  • Wave Terminology
  • Elastic Coefficients
  • Youngs Modulus, Poissons Ratio,
  • Bulk Modulus, Rigidity Modulus
  • Seismic Waves
  • Longitudinal Waves
  • Transverse Waves
  • Surface Waves

23
Lecture Notes, April 1, 2008
  • Seismic Wave Velocities
  • Ray Paths in Layered Materials
  • Huygens Principle
  • Fermats Principle
  • Reflection
  • Refraction

24
Lecture Notes, April 3, 2008
  • Snells Law
  • Critical Refraction
  • Diffraction
  • Wave Arrivals at the Surface

25
Lecture Notes, April 8, 2008
  • Guest lecturers on geophysical well logs and 3-D
    seismic data, S.D. Oil and Gas Program
  • Fred Steece
  • Mack McGillivray

26
Lecture Notes, April 10, 2008
  • Examination II
  • Electromagnetic Surveying
  • EM waves and field techniques
  • Ground penetrating radar
  • Seismic Exploration

27
Lecture Notes, April 15, 2008
  • Wave Attenuation and Amplitude
  • Spherical spreading
  • Absorption
  • Energy partitioning
  • Energy Sources
  • Weight drops
  • Explosives
  • Vibratory techniques
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