Chapter 1: From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River-Valley Civilizations, 8000-1500 B.C.E - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 1: From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River-Valley Civilizations, 8000-1500 B.C.E

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Title: Chapter 1: From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River-Valley Civilizations, 8000-1500 B.C.E


1
Chapter 1 From the Origins of Agriculture to the
First River-Valley Civilizations, 8000-1500 B.C.E
  • By Estefany Ramos
  • Period 1

2
Geography on early Civilizations
  • The earliest societies developed in the
    floodplains of great rivers in Asia and Africa
    Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, Indus in Pakistan,
    Yellow River in China, and the Nile in Egypt.
  • The periodic flooding on the rivers brought
    benefits( deposits of fertile silt and water for
    agriculture) but threatened lives and property.
  • The climate made an impact of the crops.

3
Time-line Mesopotamia
3000-2350 B.C.E Early Dynastic ( Sumerian)
2112-2004 B.C.E Third Dynasty of Ur ( Sumerian)
1500-1150 B.C.E Kassite
1900-1600 B.C.C Old Babylonian ( Semitic)
2350-2230 B.C.E Akkadian ( Semitic)
4
Time-Line Egypt
2575- 2134 B.C.E Old Kingdom
2040-1640 B.C.E Middle Kingdom
1532-1070 B.C.E New Kingdom
3100-2575 B.C.E Early Dynastic
2134-2040 B.C.E First Intermediate Period
1640-1532- B.C.E Second Intermediate Period
5
Time-line Indus Valley
2600 B.C.E Beginning of Indus Valley Civilization
1900 B.C.E End of Indus Valley Civilization
6
Why they were called civilizations
  • Cities served as administrative centers
  • Had a political system on control of a defined
    territory rather than kinship connections
  • Monumental building
  • Major advances in science and technology
  • Long distance trade
  • System for keeping permanent records

7
Independent Invention vs. Diffusion
8
Indus Valley vs. Egypt vs. Mesopotamia
9
Activity
  • Take out a piece of paper and match the following
    terms

1. Paleolithic __ 2. Foragers __ 3.
Neolithic __
a. hunting and food-gathering people b. the New
Stone Age, which was associated with the origins
of agriculture, followed Old Stone Age. c. the
Old Stone Age, lasted until 10,000 years ago
about 3,00 years after the last Ice Age
10
Chapter 2 New Civilizations in the Eastern and
Western Hemispheres 2200-250 B.C.E
  • By Lyanne Danh

11
New Civilizations
  • China ( 2000 - 221 B.C.E )
  • Nubia ( 3100 B.C.E - 350 C.E )
  • Olmecs Chavin ( 1200 - 250 B.C.E )

12
China
  • Eastern edge of Eurasian landmass
  • Neolithic cultures developed in 8000 B.C.E
  • 2nd millennium Shang Zhou monarchs emerged and
    spread to the south and west
  • Such as Mesopotamia , Egypt, Indus Valley

13
  • Rise of cities and specialized in labor, beuratic
    government and writing
  • Were isolated from the eastern hemisphere
  • Highly decentralized , made Great Wall, collected
    taxes wrote the code of laws
  • Loess was a yellow - brownish dust that fell into
    the Yellow River giving it its name
  • Surrounded by mountains
  • Made transport , migration and communications
    difficult and slow

14
  • Shang and Zhou dynasties
  • Had pottery and forms of burials
  • Grew millet , raised pigs chickens and used
    stone tools
  • Originated by the yellow river
  • Made silk with silk worms
  • Extended to the Yangzi river and into Mongolia
  • Barbarians were highly nomadic people

15
  • Prisoners turned into slaves
  • Bronze was a sign of nobility
  • Shang artisans made weapons
  • Spoke Mandarin Cantonese hieroglyphics were
    replaced by simpler alphabet
  • Used divination and lasted more than 6 centuries

16
  • Zhou had longest line of kings
  • King chose the next ruler
  • Govt officials and king were models of morality,
    fairness concern for welfare of the people

17
Religions
  • Legalism - wealth and power of the state
    demands for obedience were justified by authorian
    political philosophy
  • Confucianism - Confucius emphasized benevolence,
    avoidance of violence, justice, rationalism,
    loyalty dignity
  • Daoism - Laozi emphasized to Follow your path

18
Nubia
  • Applied to the Nile Egyptians called it Ta-sety
    ( Land of the bow )
  • Served as a corridor for trade
  • Natural resources were gold, copper, and
    semiprecious stones
  • Got the name Kush
  • Kushite craftsmen were skillful metalworkers
  • Egyptians destroyed Kush by expansion

19
  • High ranking Egyptian officials called
    overseers of southern lands or Kings son of
    Kush
  • Retained Egyptian language, culture religion
  • 12OO B.C.E Collapsed

20
Olmecs Chavins
  • Migrated from Asia as early as 3500-2500 B.C.E
  • Was in Mesoamerica
  • Armenians specialized in obsidian, quartz, jade
    and in indigenous plants and animals
  • Had a lot of diversity between plants and fishing
  • Early Adv in agriculture
  • Cultural core in San Lorenzo

21
  • La Venta most important olmec center was
    destroyed in 600 B.C.E
  • High quality crafts had a more diverse diet
  • Combination of religious and secular roles
  • Best known for their sculptures
  • Associates with Gods by human sacrifices and
    giving them their blood

22
  • Chavins had a more diverse environment
  • Located in the Andean region
  • Most impressive of South Americas earliest
    civilizations
  • Dominated dense populated regions
  • Located on the intersection of trade routes

23
  • Made roads, bridges, temples, palaces, large
    irrigation, drainage and textiles
  • Used llamas to move goods
  • Decorated buildings with serpents, condors ,
    jaguars or human forms
  • Had a class system influenced Andean regions
    for centuries
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