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Latino Family Engagement: How to Effectively Engage and Connect with Latino Parents and Youth Sue Rosman, Verona Roberts, and Andrew Behnke

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Title: Latino Family Engagement: How to Effectively Engage and Connect with Latino Parents and Youth Sue Rosman, Verona Roberts, and Andrew Behnke


1
Latino Family Engagement How to
Effectively Engage and Connect with Latino
Parents and Youth Sue Rosman, Verona Roberts,
and Andrew Behnke
2
The Rundown
  • Demographics and Culture
  • Case Studies
  • Parent Empowerment
  • Resource List
  • Next Steps

3
Foreign-Born Population in Other Countries (2003)
  • Germany 8.9
  • Canada 18.2
  • Switzerland 20.0
  • Australia 22.8
  • Costa Rica 24.9
  • Kuwait 44.1
  • Source OECD Factbook Axiss Australia.
  • 2006- Faith Action International House

4
Foreign-Born Population in Other Countries (2003)
  • Germany 8.9
  • Canada 18.2
  • Switzerland 20.0
  • Australia 22.8
  • Costa Rica 24.9
  • Kuwait 44.1
  • Source OECD Factbook Axiss Australia.
  • 2006- Faith Action International House
  • USA 12.4

5
What Factors Push Immigration
  • Pushed out by poverty
  • Pushed out by violence
  • Pushed out by natural disasters
  • What Factors Pull Immigration
  • Shrinking labor pool unfilled jobs
  • International competitive pressure on wages
  • Natural disasters requiring reconstruction
  • Family reunification
  • Source 2006- Faith Action International House

6
U.S. Population Today in Millions
(Migration Policy Institute, 2006 Pew Hispanic,
2007)
7
U.S. Latino Population Today in Millions
(Migration Policy Institute, 2006 Pew Hispanic,
2007)
8
NC Latino Population
  • 1990 56,667 1.1
  • 2000 378,963 4.7
  • 2007 643,333 7.1
  • 2009 ???? ???
  • Births to Latinos increased by 1208 from 1990 to
    2006.
  • The number went from 1,754 in 1990 to 21,202 in
    2006 or 17 of births.

(NC Vital Statistics, 2008 Census 2007)
9
Distribution of Latinos Across N.C.
Kasarda, J. D., and Johnson, J. H.(2006).
10
(No Transcript)
11
Countries in Continental Latin America the
Caribbean

12
Latino Family Diversity
  • Commonalities and Diversity
  • Immigrants from over 42 countries
  • One size does not fit all
  • Language
  • Acculturation
  • Generation Status
  • SES
  • Life history

13
Characteristics of Latino Culture
  • Relationships Personalismo
  • Language and communication
  • Family Familismo

14
Relationships Personalismo
  • Personal relationships are more important than
    institutional relationships.
  • Trust is placed in individuals, not in
    institutions.
  • Learn about the community and context in which
    people live, and get to know people as
    individuals on a one-to-one basis.

15
Language and Communication
  • 41.8 of Latinos in NC speak English very well
    (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006)
  • Determine the Spanish literacy level and English
    proficiency level of the families you are working
    with.
  • Check to see if the message was understood by
    asking questions related to the issue

16
Language and Communication
  • Latinos tend to avoid confrontation
  • Respect is shown by listening when a person is
    talking, by following his/her advice, and
    sometimes by looking down
  • Expect to be seen as an authority figure in
    learning situations.
  • Use cooperative activities rather that
    competitive activities

17
Language and CommunicationPersonal Space
  • Latinos tend to sit and stand close to each
    other. Touching is a gesture of friendship,
    i.e. kiss on the cheek to say hello and good
    bye.
  • Be prepared to share your personal space. You
    dont need to sit closer or kiss someone to say
    hello if that is not your preference.

18
Family Familismo
  • Family needs are a priority
  • Live in extended family groups. Children
    typically live at home until they get married.
    Family members care for elderly members and
    children
  • Prefer activities that involve all family members
  • In U.S. Latinos may lose the support provided by
    the extended family. As a result of this, there
    may be a shift in gender roles and change in
    roles of parents and children

19
Family Familismo
  • If working with Latino youth, plan on meeting
    his/her family.
  • Invite families to appropriate activities and
    events. Consider that extended family may also
    attend.
  • When invitations are for specific family members,
    be sure that the message is clear and explain why
    the invitation is limited.

20
Teachers in Mexico
  • Seen as high ranking members of society, on par
    with doctors, lawyers and priests.
  • Children are taught to respect teachers and not
    to question them

21
Parental Involvement
  • Families see their essential role as ensuring
    that children have food, clothing, shelter and
    that they are socialized into the norms and
    expectations of the family.
  • Above all, they expect children to acquire Buena
    educación or good manners (Delgado-Gaitan
    Trueba, 1991)
  • Going into a classroom and questioning a
    teachers style or methods is not a common
    practice.


22
Education in Mexico
  • Free up to 9th grade.
  • Basic classes Math, Social Studies,
    Science/Biology, Spanish, History, Geography,
    Chemistry, and English.
  • Those that cant afford to continue their
    education look for work or immigrate to the U.S.

23
Education in Mexico
  • Schedule differences / uniforms
  • No school services such as free lunch, special
    education or school nurse
  • Parent-teacher relationships not generally
    encouraged

24
Culture Clash
  • Latino families must cope with the values and
    expectations of two very distinct cultures as
    they navigate their way through the multifaceted
    educational system.
  • They must deal with an unfamiliar system powerful
    enough to alter their relationships with their
    children, their extended families, and the
    communities where they live.

25
Case Studies
26
I thought I was preparing for a professional
career
  • In my school in Colombia, says Pati, a recent
    graduate, everyone studies what they need for
    college there are not separate honors classes
    and AP classes and vocational classes in high
    school. Everyone was getting the same degree.
  • Not knowing this difference, she accepted the
    courses she was assigned each year, graduating
    from a pathway that made her ineligible to
    apply to a pre-med program she has planned on
    attending.

27
Test Questions
  • A teacher was reviewing for the mid-term in a
    class with several minority students. Students
    were divided into teams and each team took turns
    answering questions. All students on the team
    who knew the answer stood up and the teacher
    picked one to answer. Since the team got points
    for all the students who were standing if the
    question was answered correctly,it paid to stand
    up and be counted. Many white students bluffed
    and stood up even if they didnt know the answer,
    laughing when they answered wrong and cost the
    team points. None of the Latino or
    African-American students ever stood up.

28
Potential Hispanic HS Students in NC
56000
4500
(Western Interstate Commission for Higher
Education WICHE, 2003)
29
Academic Achievement and Dropout Issues
  • In 2006, 44 - 52 of all H.S. Latinos did not
    graduate in 4 years in NC
  • Latino dropout rate is improving
  • still the highest large ethnic group
  • Currently, only about 3 of NC university
    students are Latino

(Laird, DeBell, Chapman, 2006 NCDPI, 2009
WICHE, 2003)
30
Recent Trends in NC Latino population
  • Latino boys are struggling more than any other
    group African American boys next.
  • More than half of North Carolina's Latino girls
    are expected to be pregnant before their 20th
    birthday.
  • (Hess, 2000 Zuniga, 2004)

31
Why Do Latino Students Leave School?
  • Grades and Attendance Issues
  • Working / Family Obligations
  • Generational Poverty
  • Marry Young / Childbirth

  • Gangs / Delinquency / Drugs
  • Limited Higher Education Opportunities

(NCDPI, 2009 Perriera, 2007)
32
How Dropouts Hurt North Carolina
  • Dropouts
  • Annual cost of 7.5 Billion in lost earnings
  • Aggregate of 712 Million in tax revenue
  • Lost State Income Tax Revenue 995
  • Incarceration Costs 1,946
  • Medicaid Costs 1,496
  • Annual Public Cost per Dropout 4,437

  • (Gottlob,
    2007)

33
Latino Parents Academics
  • Parental involvement has consistently been shown
    to be related to these outcomes (e.g.,
    Delgado-Gaitan, 1992, 1994 Flouri Buchanan,
    2004 Gutman, Sameroff, Eccles, 2002 Plunkett
    Bámaca-Gómez, 2003)
  • In fact, parent involvement was found the single
    strongest predictor of Latino academic
    performance (Zuniga, 2004)

34
Challenges for Immigrant Families
Language/Literacy
Unfamiliar and intimidating systems
Immigration Status
Life Factors
Mental Health Issues
Work schedules
Child care
Media/Public Opinion
Transportation
35
Suggestions for Parents
  • Read to their child.
  • Discuss the days events.
  • Help with homework and special projects.
  • Limit television viewing time.
  • Watch TV with their children and talk about
    program messages.

36
Connecting with the Hispanic Community and
Building Trust
  • Can be a slow process
  • Listening and observing
  • Establishing presence in the community attending
    fiestas,events
  • Talking with members of the community/identify
    leaders

37
Recruiting Parents
  • Latinos are not looking for a handout but for a
    handshake
  • Personally extend invitations through visits or
    phone calls.
  • Use (Spanish) radio spots to announce the
    meeting and/or program.


38
Recruiting Parents
  • Do presentations or hold information meetings at
    churches, other community organizations
    meetings, school parents nights
  • Introduce your organizations mission and goals
    and how they benefit families. They may have
    never heard of afterschool programs
  • Word of mouth better than flyers

39
Engaging Parents
  • Acknowledge and value the families strengths.
  • Resilience
  • Resourcefulness
  • Nurturance and support of extended family
  • High educational expectations for their children
  • (Behnke et al., 2005 Delgado-Gaitan, 1992
    Henderson Mapp, 2002)

40
Engaging Parents
  • Consult with parents about best time to meet be
    flexible.
  • Remember fútbol, telenovelas, local events.
  • Make things less formal
  • Fun activities role play, videos.
  • Provide resources in Spanish.

41
Engaging Parents
  • Allow them to interact
  • Make a warm and comfortable environment
  • Extend the invitation to all family members.
    Appeal to parents and to children
  • If possible provide childcare transportation,
    food, prizes.

42
Engaging Parents
  • Recruit parents as advocates, mentors, and
    volunteers
  • Ask active parents to recruit others
  • Involve parents in committees and advisory
    councils
  • Have interpreters, bilingual volunteers.
  • .
  • (Barbour Barbour, 2001 Delgado-Gaitan, 1992,
    1994 Epstein, 1995 Epstein Salinas, 2004
    Machado-Casas, 2005 Scribner, Young, Pedroza,
    1999 Valdes, 1996)

43
Remember
  • Do not get discouraged if outcomes are not what
    you expected, try again!
  • Building trust is a process that takes time

44
Next Steps
  • What is one thing you can do that will improve
    your effectiveness with Latino parents and youth?
  • What additional training or support do you need?

45
  • What will you do?

46
North Carolina Resources
  • Adelante Education Coalition www.adelantenc.org
  • Melinda Wiggins, Student Action With Farmworkers
  • 919 660-3616 or mwiggins_at_duke.edu
  • El Pueblo
  • www.elpueblo.org
  • Tony Asion, Executive Director
  • 919 835-1525 or tony_at_elpueblo.org

47
North Carolina Resources
  • College Foundation of NC
  • Donna Weaver, Spanish Services Coordinator
  • 336-256-0470 or dlweaver_at_uncg.edu
  • NC Society of Hispanic Professionals
  • www.TheNCSHP.org
  • Marco Zarate, President
  • 919 467-8424 or mailbox_at_TheNCSHP.org

48
Hispanic/Latino Organizations
  • NABE www.nabe.org
    National Association of Bilingual Education
  • LULAC www.lulac.org
    League of United Latin
    American Citizens
  • MALDEF Mexican American Legal Defense
    Education Fund, www.maldef.org
  • Nation Council of La Raza www.nclr.org
  • Pew Hispanic Centerwww.kff.org/kaiserpolls/pomr01
    2604nr.cfm
  • A Dream Deffered http//adreamdeferred.org/

49
Any Questions?
  • Sue Rosman
  • srosman_at_cisnc.org
  • 919 832-2700
  • Andrew Behnke
  • andrew_behnke_at_ncsu.edu
  • 919 515-9156

Gracias y Buena Suerte!
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