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Parent Involvement The Future of School Psychology Task

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Parent Involvement The Future of School Psychology Task Force on Family-School Partnership Margaret Beebe-Frankenberger University of Montana Gloria Miller – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Parent Involvement The Future of School Psychology Task


1
Parent Involvement The Future of School
Psychology Task Forceon Family-School
PartnershipMargaret Beebe-Frankenberger
University of Montana Gloria Miller University
of DenverLisa Persinger Tucson Unified School
District (AZ)
2
Parent Involvement PI Module Overview
  • Parent Involvement PI Definitions and Rationale
  • PI Relative to the Family School Partnerships
  • Characteristics of PI
  • Our Module definition
  • Three Evidence-based PI interventions
  • Parent Tutoring (PT)
  • Parents Encourage Pupils (PEP)
  • Reciprocal Peer Tutor and Parent Involvement
    (RPT-PI)
  • Enhancing PI tying to a 3-tier delivery model
  • Further Resources

3
Family School Partnerships - FSP
  • A FSP is a relationship involving close
    cooperation between parties having joint rights
    and responsibilities.
  • Effective FSPs enhance success for students and
    improve childrens academic, social, emotional
    and behavioral experiences and outcomes.
  • (Christenson Sheridan, 2001)

4
Review of the Characteristics for Effective
Family-School Partnerships
  • Parents are viewed as empowered partners.
  • Interactions among partners are collaborative and
    bi-directional.
  • Relationships are cooperative, interdependent,
    and balanced.
  • Maintenance of a positive relationship is a
    priority.
  • Services provided are flexible, responsive, and
    proactive.
  • Differences in perspectives are seen as
    strengths.
  • There is a commitment to cultural competence.
  • There is an emphasis on outcomes and goal
    attainment.
  • (Sheridan, 2004)

5
Review of the Characteristics for Effective
Family-School Partnerships
  • STOP here and Review
  • the M Ms of Parenting and Partnering, see
    Slide 8 and Activity 1 of the Family-School
    Partnerships Overview.
  • Developing Pathways to Partnerships, see Slide
    32 and Handout 11 of the Family-School
    Partnerships Overview.

6
Review of Effective Methods for a Multicultural
Approach to Partnerships
  • STOP and Review the Creating Partnerships with
    Culturally Diverse Families in Module 1
  • Specific to PI interventions, please use
    techniques and methods shown on
  • Slide 10 Building trusting relationships
  • Slide 11 Address diversity directly
  • Slide 12 Implement a family-centered approach
  • Slide 13 Enhance Communication
  • Slide 14 Enhance Communication (contd)

7
Parent Involvement Definitions
  • The participation of significant caretakers in
    the educational process of their children in
    order to promote academic and social well-being
    (Wolfendale, 1983).
  • A school-initiated and directed engagement of the
    parent that, under optimal conditions, evolves
    into a home-school partnership working towards a
    mutually agreed upon goal with shared
    responsibilities that results in positive
    student/child outcomes (Christenson, 1995).
  • The active engagement in home, school, and
    community activities initiated and maintained by
    the parent that supports the healthy development
    of their child(ren) (Epstein, 1986, 1995).

8
Epsteins 6 PI Categories (1987 1995)
  • Parenting parents provide for basic needs
    food, shelter, emotional support
  • Communicating methods that help parents and
    schools stay in contact
  • Learning at Home - home practices in which
    parents interact, monitor, or assist children in
    educationally related activities
  • Volunteering and/or Attending - parents coming
    into the school setting to either help or support
  • Decision Making - parents participating in
    parent-teacher organizations and school advisory
    or governance
  • Community Connections - parents collaborating
    with community and other agencies to facilitate
    students education

9
Evolving Definitions
  • Over time PI has changed from exclusive focus on
    one type of specific activity to a wide range of
    parent activities that support learning and
    achievement.
  • Now considered a multidimensional concept that
    can include parent behavioral, personal/emotional,
    and cognitive/intellectual overt actions and
    affective experiences in support of a childs
    schooling (Grolnick Slowiaczek, 1994).

10
Bottom-line
  • Effective Parent Involvement is designed to
    extend the education mission of the school to
    help students be successful by informing and
    engaging parents in the education of their own
    child and in school improvement efforts.

11
Mandates for Parent Involvement
  • STOP and Review Family-School Partnerships
    Overview history and current federal mandates
    for PI
  • Slide 19 1975, PL 94-142
  • Slide 20 1986, P.L. 99-457 and IDEA 1997
  • Slide 21 2002, The No Child Left Behind Act
    2004 IDEA Part B and Part C

12
Characteristics of Effective PI
  • Empowers parents as advocates and active
    participants in the education process.
  • Fosters teacher-parent collaborative
    relationships with a common goal of student
    success.
  • Provides additional support for teachers and
    students in the classroom.
  • Facilitates positive parent-child relationships
    implicitly related to educational success

13
A Rationale for PI
  • No matter how skilled professionals are, or how
    loving parents are, each cannot achieve alone
    what the two parties, working hand-in-hand, can
    accomplish together .
  • (Peterson Cooper, 1989 pp. 229, 208).

14
Another Rationale for PI
  • Specific things families do facilitate a childs
    learning educational success more than specific
    descriptions of who families are.
  • (Kellaghan et al., 1993)

15
Support for PIChild Outcomes
  • There is empirical evidence supports the
    relationship between PI and improvements in
    school achievement and students educational
    success.
  • Parent Involvement was found to be the strongest
    moderator of literacy performance in fifth grade
    students across both low and high income families
    (Dearing, Kreider, Simpkins Weiss, 2006)

16
Support for PIParent Outcomes
  • Parents indicate more involvement in learning
    activities at home and more positive attitudes
    and behavior towards and understanding of the
    work of schools (Epstein, 1986, 1995).
  • Contact and communication with educators
    increases and parents indicate a desire for more
    involvement (Hoover-Dempsey Sandler, 1997).
  • Parents report improved communication with their
    children, parent-child relationships, and develop
    effective parenting skills (Becher, 1984)

17
Support for PITeacher Outcomes
  • PI also improves teacher and staff morale and
    satisfaction (Becher, 1984).
  • PI increases classroom prosocial conduct
  • PI increases academic achievement in other
    academic areas. (Heller Fantuzzo, 1991)

18
How Parent Involvement Relates to Multi-tiered
Family School Partnerships
Tier 3 Intensive, Individual PI
Interventions Parents as collaborative partners
for individualized intervention for child with
poor response to the first two tiers. Examples
parents as academic tutors at home for reading
fluency (Parents Encourage Pupils)
Tier 3 1-7
Tier 2 Targeted Group PI Interventions PI
interventions for targeted groups of students
identified as at risk for specific academic
difficulties (ie. Reading, math). Example
Parents assist in reading or math intervention
(Parent Tutoring Reciprocal Peer Tutoring with
Parent Involvement)
Tier 2 5-15
Tier 1 Universal PI Intervention Engaging
parents as collaborative partners by involvement
in their childs education process. Examples
Homework expectations and stations interactive
conversations about progress home rewards
Tier 1 80-90
19
  • Three Evidence-Based
  • Parent Involvement Programs
  • Fishel Ramirez, 2005

20
  • Parent Tutoring (PT)
  • Duvall, Delquadri, Elliott Hall (1992)
  • Hook DuPaul (1999)
  • Parents Encourage Pupils (PEP)
  • Shuck, Ulsh, Platt (1983)
  • Reciprocal Peer Tutoring and Parent Involvement
    (RPT-PI)
  • Heller Fantuzzo, 1991

21
Evidenced-based Selection Criteria (Kratochwill
Stoiber, 2002)
  • Strong empirical/theoretical foundation, design,
    and statistical qualities.
  • Demonstrated effectiveness on school-based
    outcomes OR conducted in a school setting.
  • Demonstrated efficacy under the conditions of
    implementation and practice.
  • Evidence of external validity and utility.
  • Also see Fishel Ramirez, 2005

22
Similarities Across PI Programs
  • Utilize collaborative parent-teacher
    instructional involvement efforts to improve
    students academic success.
  • Parents learn to directly assist in their childs
    education at school and/or at home through
    academic tutoring approaches.
  • Employ parent reinforcement of positive academic
    behavior through praise, earning points for
    home/school rewards, and one-on-one parent-child
    attention.
  • Parent-teacher partnerships are primarily
    directed by teachers and focus on a single
    specific home-based activity.

23
Enhancing PI
  • Foster bi-directional communication
  • Enhance problem solving across home and school
  • Encourage shared decision making
  • Reinforce congruent home-school support
  • Consider flex time to accommodate flexible
    scheduling
  • Provide workshops and in-service training for
    teachers
  • Conduct scheduled home visits
  • Establish parent centers within schools
  • Conduct activities/social events to increase
    parents opportunities to communicate with
    educators

24
Enhancing PI
  • Establish Universal climate
  • Strategic and intensive parent involvement is
    more targeted
  • PI in intervention increased involvement with
    riskproduces culturally appropriate and more
    effective interventions and outcomes
  • Add here..best practicenext is definition of PI
    specific to this training module for strategic
    and intensive interventions

25
Additional Resources
  • The Harvard Family Research Project has compiled
    and categorized a large body of resources on
    parent involvement to make it easier to access
    and use.
  • This resource guide contains web links to
    research, information, programs, and tools from
    over 100 national organizations. It provides
    information about parenting practices to support
    children's learning and development, home-school
    relationships, parent leadership development, and
    collective engagement for school improvement and
    reform.
  • Available online at http//www.gse.harvard.edu/hfr
    p/projects/fine/resources/guide/guide.html
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