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Finite Clauses

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Finite Clauses Types of Sentences Simple Compound Complex Compound Complex Clauses Word -- Phrase -- Clause -- Sentence Clauses have a verb - one main verb per ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Finite Clauses


1
Finite Clauses
2
Types of Sentences
  • Simple
  • Compound
  • Complex
  • Compound Complex

3
Clauses
  • Word --gt Phrase --gt Clause --gt Sentence
  • Clauses have a verb - one main verb per clause
  • Finite Clauses - Verb inflected for tense
  • Non-Finite
  • Infinitive
  • Participial, including Gerunds

4
Types of Embedded Sentences
  • Subordinate Clauses (Adverbial)
  • Indicate time, place, manner, cause, or condition
  • Usually preceded by a subordinator
  • Relative Clauses (Adjectival)
  • Relative Pronouns
  • Restrictive vs. non-restrictive relative clauses
  • Complement Clauses (Nominal)

5
Complement Clauses
  • Appear as an NP
  • Can be the subject of the sentence
  • That you like bananas is surprising.
  • Can be an object
  • I know that you like bananas.
  • Can be replaced by a pronoun
  • (It is surprising I know it.)
  • That is a complementizer.

6
Direct Discourse
  • Direct discourse is when a person is quoted
    He said, You took my cheese.
  • Indirect Discourse is when a person is
    paraphrased. He said that you took my cheese.
  • In direct discourse, time, place, and
    participants are tied to the original utterance.
  • She said, The treasure is buried here.
  • He said, Is your party tomorrow.

7
Interrogative Complement Clauses
  • One of the NPs in the complement clause is
    replaced by an interrogative pronoun
  • Examples
  • I know who stole my cheese.
  • I heard what you said.
  • I wonder how they did that.
  • Notice that the WH-word appears at the beginning
    of the clause and that no question mark is used.

8
Non-Finite Clauses
9
Non-Finite Clause Infinitives
  • Introduced by to or for to.
  • I want to buy the cheese.
  • To err is human.
  • For him to err is terrible.
  • Can also appear without to
  • I heard him break the cookie jar.
  • He made me eat my spinach.
  • Can be nominal, adverbial (I bought it to
    surprise you.), or adjectival (He was the last
    person to talk to me.). See page 357.

10
S
VP
NP
MVP
NP
S
MV
N
VP
NP
MV
NP
N
Chris wants (Chris) take my
cheese
11
to
take cheese
my
Chris wants
12
S
VP
NP
MVP
NP
S
MV
N
VP
NP
MV
NP
N
Chris wants Bill take my
cheese
13
Bill
to
take cheese
my
Chris wants
14
To and For/To Infinitives
  • Sentences with infinitive clauses as subject use
    for if the subject is part of the clause
  • For you to say that is shocking.
  • To say that is shocking.
  • Sentences with for/to clauses as direct objects
    are less direct than those with to
  • She sent him to buy supplies.
  • She sent for him to buy supplies.
  • She asked him to leave.
  • She asked for him to leave.

15
Bare vs. to Infinitives
  • Tied to degree of likelihood that event took
    place
  • She made him shave
  • She let him shave
  • --gt He shaved
  • She asked him to shave.
  • She wanted him to shave.
  • --gt He might not have shaved.

16
Types of Verbs Taking Complement Clause
  • Modality Verbs want, try, begin, fixing to
  • Manipulative Verbs make, force, beg, order,
    let, ask, tell
  • Perception see, hear, watch
  • Cognition know, understand, hope, think
  • Utterance say, reveal, announce
  • P-C-U verbs tend to take that complements

17
Reminder Non-Finite Clauses
  • Infinitives
  • To-Infinitives
  • For-To-Infinitives
  • Bare Infinities
  • Participles
  • Present Participial Clauses
  • Past Participial Clauses

18
Participial Clauses
19
Present Participial Clauses
  • Adverbial
  • Walking to work, I spotted an eagle.
  • While walking to work, I spotted an eagle.
    (elliptical subordinate clause)
  • Many people having seen the eagle, I am now
    satisfied.
  • Adjectival
  • The people standing on the street were watching
    the eagle.
  • Gerund (Nominal)
  • Watching the eagle was fun.

20
Usage Dangling Modifiers
  • Dangling Infinitives
  • Eager to work, my tools lay before me.
  • To feel rewarded, a job must be well-paying.
  • Dangling Present Participle
  • Flying high in the sky, I spotted an eagle.
  • Standing on a cliff, the ocean inspired me.
  • Dangling Past Participle
  • Hard boiled, I took the eggs out of the water.
  • Fed well, the entertainment began.
  • Sauced and seasoned, I tasted the entrée.

21
Nominative Absolutes
  • Actually Adverbials, but still called
    nominative
  • Tensed form of the verb or auxiliary BE is
    deleted
  • Examples (pp. 395-396)
  • His mind on the test, Bill entered the classroom.
  • The children fed and put to bed, Pat and Chris
    relaxed.
  • My hair a mess, I wandered into the classroom.
  • Eyes gleaming, they ran into the playground.
  • They ran into the playground, their eyes ablaze.

22
Practice Adverbial, Adjectival, or Gerund
  • The children playing in the street should be
    warned.
  • Visiting professors can be boring. (trick
    question)
  • Whistling loudly, I walked into the dark.
  • Educated as to the facts, the citizen voted.
  • My jumping into the lake amused my family.
  • The test given to the students was easy.
  • Pumped, the kids began the contest.

23
Adverbial Present Participle
I spotted eagle
an
wal
ki
ng
to
work
24
Adverbial Present Participle
S
VP
NP
MVP
ADVP
NP
S
MV
PRO
N
DET
VP
NP
MV
PREPP
PRO
I spotted an eagle (I)
walking to work
25
Adjectival Present Participle
I spotted eagle
an
wal
ki
ng
on
street
the
26
Adjectival Present Participle
S
VP
NP
MVP
NP
ADJP
S
MV
PRO
N
DET
VP
NP
MV
PREPP
I spotted an eagle (eagle) walking
on the street
27
sing
ing
his
song
that
We enjoyed
28
S
VP
NP
MVP
NP
S
MV
PRO
VP
NP
MV
NP
N
We enjoyed he singing that
song
(his)
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