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??????? Thin Film Solar Cells

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Title: ??????? Thin Film Solar Cells


1
???????Thin Film Solar Cells
2
?????????
3
?????????
4
C-Si Technology in Historic Perspective
5
??PV ?????
6
?????????????
7
????????????
8
??????????
  • ???(Amorphus Silicon, a-Si)
  • ???(Microcrystalline Silicon, µ c-Si)
  • CIS/CIGS(?????)
  • III-IV?GaAs(???)II-VI? CdTe(???)
  • ??????(Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell)
  • ???????(Organic/polymer solar cells)

9
???????(Organic/polymer solar cells)
???????????????????????????(??????100nm)??????????
??????????,?????????(????????????),???????????????
??,?????,?????????????????,????,??????????????????
????????,???????????NB?PDA???????,?????????Konarka
?????,????????(?45)?????,???????????????????????
?????????
10
???????????
  • ????? p-i-n ? n-i-p ?
  • p??n????????? ?,i?????????

11
???(µ c-Si)
??????????????,??????????????,???????????????????,
??????????????,???????,??????????,?????????????,??
?????? ?????a-Si?µ c-Si???????????????(???Sanyo???
?),???????????,????????,??????????????????????????
????
12
Thin-film solar cells
13
Need of raw material
14
?????????????

15
?????????????
16
?????????????
17
???(Amorphus Silicon, a-Si)
  • ??
  • ??????????????
  • ??Sputtering ?CVD?????????
  • ???????????????????????

????BP 2002?World Nuclear Association
18
???(Amorphus Silicon, a-Si)
  • ??
  • ?????(?57) ?
  • ??????????????,?????????????,???????????????????
  • ???????????????(MultijuctionCell)?????????????????
    ??,????????68,????????????????????????,?????????
    ?????????

19
????????????
a-SiH Thin-film Solar Cell (UniSolar )
20
CIGS????
???????????????(??CIS),??????????(??CIGS)????????
???????,??????????????CIGS???,?????????19.88,?????
,??????13?(CIS ?10)?CIGS?????????,????????1.02ev?
1.68ev,????????????????,??????????????????????(agt1
0E410E5?-1),????????????1µm,99???????????,???????
????,????????????US0.03/W?
21
CIGS????
22
Chalcopyrite ??????
23
CIGS???????????
24
CIGS???????????
25
CIGS ??????????
26
CIGS?????-????
27
??????- Co-evaporation
28
??????- Sputtering
29
CIGS?????-?????
30
???????- electrodeposition
31
???????-Metal Oxide Ink
32
CIS??????
245-kW rooftop, thin-film CIS-based solar
electric array, Camarillo, California (Shell
Solar Industries. )
85-kW thin-film CIS-based BIPV facade, North
Wales, UK
33
CIGS??
  • ???????,CIGS???????????????
  • ???CIGS??????????????????,?????????????????
  • CIGS??????????????????????????,??????????????????
    ?????CIGS??????

34
CIGS??
  • CIGS??????????????????????????????,???????????????
    ??
  • ?????????????,????????,???????????????????,??????
  • ????????????????????????,????????????????????
  • ??????? (???????????),???????????,?????,????10????
    ??,???????CIGS?????????,?????????

35
CdTe(???)
CdTe??????????,???????????????(600?C)???????????
???16,????????????????????????12?????,??????????
?????,CdTe??????,????????CIS?CIGS????,????????????
??(????),???????,????????????,???????????????,????
?11???,??CdTe???????,????????????????????,???????
??????????????
36
CdTe thin film solar cell
37
CdTe Film Deposition
38
CdTe Film Deposition
39
CdTe Film Deposition
40
CdTe??????
SAGFirst Solar ----CdTe Rooftop
Katzenbach Juwi? ? ? ? ? ? Memmingen SAG
41
??????(Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell)
  • ???????????????????????,????????????(TiO2)????????
    ?(????)?????ITO??????
  • ??
  • ?????????????????,??????????????,???????????
  • ??
  • ?????????(????78,???????10),??UV??????????????
    ???,
  • ????????(??????????????),??????????????????,??????
    ?????????????,???????????????????

42
DSSC
43
Advantage of DSSC
  • Ease of fabrication for large area from solution
  • Transparent
  • Conformal and flexible
  • Low cost of manufacturing

Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
44
Principle of the DSSC
Basic mechanisms in a DSSC
  • h? photon absorption
  • a electron injection
  • b recombination
  • c e- transport and collection at conducting
    substrate
  • d I- oxidation
  • e I3- reduction
  • f ion transport

I/I3- redox electrolyte
a
c
h?
E
b
f
e
3I-?I3 - 2e-
d
TiO2
2e- I3?3I-
dye
TCO
Counter electrode
45
DSSC????
46
Principle of Dye-Sensitized Solar cells
Gratzel, Nature, 2001
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
  • Low photocurrent could be the result of
  • Inefficient light harvesting by the dye
  • Inefficient charge injection into TiO2
  • Inefficient collection of injection electron

47
Special Features of a DSSC
  • Semiconductor not excited directly
  • Photo carrier generation transportation are
    well separated the probability of recombination
    can be drastically reduced.
  • Positive charge transport via ion transport in
    the electrolyte, rather than hole condition
  • No electric field, electron transfer has been
    described as diffusion
  • Jn n ?n ?Ecb q Dn?n
  • Nanoparticle structure

TiO2 / dye / electrolyte(I-/I3-)
glass
0
Counter electrode
TCO
e-
48
Performance of Photovoltaic and DSSC
49
TCO Electrode
  • Role of the TCO electrode in a DSSC
  • Electrons transportation and collection
  • Characteristics
  • High transmittance in visible region (?)
  • High electrical conductivity (?)
  • Thermal endurance (?)
  • Corrosion resistance
  • Energy level not higher than nanoparticle oxide

I
T
R
e-
(?) present the issue still for improving
50
Materials and Processes of TCO Electrodes
  • Materials
  • ITO, ZnS, ZnO, SnO2
  • (energy gap higher than photo energy in visible
    region)
  • Processes
  • Sputtering deposition
  • Plasma ion assisted deposition

Ref (3)
51
Passage of Light Through a Material
  • Incident Reflection Transmittance Absorption

related to refractive index, thickness, particle
size
Depend on Eg
Particle size effect
Interference effect
Nano-material transmit light
Micro-material scatter light
52
Dye
  • Role of dye in a DSSC
  • Photoexciting injecting electrons into the
    conduction band of the oxide
  • Characteristics
  • Absorb all light below 900nm ()
  • Molecular dispersion in nanostructure oxide ()
  • Carry attachment group(eg. carboxylate or
    phosphonate) to firmly graft to the oxide surface
  • The Energy level of excited state higher than
    conduction band of oxide
  • The redox potential sufficient high to be
    regenerated via electron from the electrolyte
  • Sustain high cycle usage

Ru2? Ru2? Ru3e-
h?
dye
TiO2
e-
53
Common Materials of the Dye
  • General structure ML2X2
  • ( L 2.2-ipyridyl-4,4-dicarboxylic M Ru or Os
    X halide,-CN,-SCN )

N3
Absorption Spectrum of N3 and dark gray
N3
2.0
1.5
A
1.0
Dark gray
0.5
nm
0
400
500
600
700
800
900
AM1.5 solar spectrum
Dark gray
54
Oxide Film--one of the major components in a DSSC
  • Role of the oxide in a DSSC
  • Receive electrons from the dye
  • Efficient transport electrons in the media
  • Characteristics
  • Ultra fine structure(nm-crystal, mesoporous)
    interconnected ()
  • Good electrical conduction properties ()
  • Conduction band edge is more negative than HUMO
    of the dye

TiO2 nanoparticles
ultra fine structure enable.
100
0.15
0
0
300
800nm
800nm
300
Single crystal anatase
Nanocrystal anatase
55
Common Materials and Processes of the Oxide film
  • Material
  • TiO2(cheap, non-toxic), ZnO, Fe2O3, Nb2O5, WO3,
    Ta2O5, CdS, CdSe
  • Common processes
  • Hydrolysis
  • solvent
  • binder

TiO2 particles (Finely divided monodispersed
colloidal)
Coating, sintering
TiO2 film
Ti sault
(1-20?m)
Factors influence properties Material
content Chemical composition Structure Surface
morphology Grain size, porosity pore size
distribution Crystalline form (anatase,rutile..)
Control hydrolysis and condensation kinetics
Process parameters Precursor chemistry Hydrother
mal growth Temp Binder addition Sintering
condition
56
Electron Transport in the DSSC-- An important
factor affecting IPCE
  • De in the porous film ltlt De in the bulk crystal
  • Multi-trapping model electron transport is
    mediated by the conduction band and is
    interrupted by trapping.
  • The traps could be formed by oxygen defects,
    amorphous layer on the particle surface, chemical
    surrounding, and lattice mismatch at boundaries.
  • Injection electrons are slow down by trapping at
    the surface of the particle and may back reaction
    through combination with I3- iron.

57
The Electrolyte --one of the major components in
a DSSC
  • Role of electrolyte in a DSSC
  • Restore the original state of the dye by electron
    donation from the electrolyte
  • Characteristics
  • Oxidation ? Reduction
  • Highly reusable
  • Redox potential lower than dye

oxide
e-
dye
e-
e-
electrolyte
I-
I3-
I3-
I-
58
Conclusion
  • For improving conversion efficiency
  • Increase the transmittance of TCO
  • Increase the light harvesting of dye(LHE)
  • Improve the electron injecting into oxide (?in )
  • Improve the collection of injection elections in
    TCO (?c)
  • Reduce the recombination of e- h
  • Durability process concern
  • Thermal stability of components
  • Corrosion resistance

IPCE LHE ?in ?c LHE light harvesting
efficiency ?in charge injection efficiency
?c charge collection efficiency
Ref (27)
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