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## Chapter 9 - Review States of Matter Chapter 9 - Review What

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Title: Chapter 9 - Review States of Matter Chapter 9 - Review What

1
Chapter 9 - ReviewStates of Matter
2
Chapter 9 - Review
• What happens to the range of energies of the
molecules in matter when the temperature is
increased?
• What happens to the average kinetic energy of the
particles in a sample of matter as the
temperature is increased?

3
Chapter 9 - Review
• Consider an iron ball and an aluminum ball. If
the two balls were at the same temperature, how
would their average kinetic energies compare?
• Which temperature scale provides a direct measure
of the average kinetic energy of a substance?

4
Chapter 9 - Review
• What instrument is normally used to measure
atmospheric pressure?
• What is the SI unit of pressure?
• How does the atmospheric pressure at altitudes
below sea level compare with atmospheric pressure
at sea level?

5
Chapter 9 - Review
• What volume does 3.00 moles of gas particles
occupy at STP?
• What is the volume occupied by 2.20 mol of
hydrogen at STP
• What is the number of moles of gas in 20.0 L of
oxygen at STP
• What is the number of molecules of nitrogen in
11.2 L at STP?

6
Chapter 9 - Review
• What is the volume occupied by 14.0 x 1023
molecules of fluorine at STP?
• What is the volume occupied by 71.0 g of chlorine
gas at STP?
• What is the number of grams of neon present in
78.4 L of neon at STP?

7
Chapter 9 - Review
• How many iron molecules are moving in a piece of
steel?
• Collisions between gas molecules are ____.
• The average speed of oxygen molecules in air is
approximately ___.

8
Chapter 9 - Review
• How far can a molecule travel in air before it
collides with another molecule?
• Which would have the greatest kinetic energy
steam at 200 oC, or water at 373 K
• Describe the kinetic theory of gases.

9
Chapter 9 - Review
• What happens when a gas is heated?
• The average kinetic energy of the particles of a
substance is proportional to the ____ of the
substance.
• The temperature at which the motion of particles
theoretically ceases is ____

10
Chapter 9 - Review
• What is the pressure of one standard atmosphere?
• Standard conditions when working with gases are
defined as ____.
• The pressure of a gas in a container is 152 mm
Hg. This is equivalent to _____ atm.

11
Chapter 9 - Review
• Compared with 1 mole of chlorine gas at STP, what
volume would 1 mole of hydrogen gas at STP
occupy?
• It is possible for equal volumes of gases, at the
same temperature and pressure, to contain equal
numbers of particles because ___.

12
Chapter 9 - Review
• Equal volumes of nitrogen and oxygen, at the same
temperature and pressure, would contain ____
numbers of particles.
• Which states of matter can flow?
• What happens to the temperature of a liquid as it
evaporates?

13
Chapter 9 - Review
• What happens to the evaporation rate of a liquid
as the liquid is cooled?
• Why does a liquids evaporation rate increase
when the liquid is heated?
• When the external pressure is 505 kPa, what is
the vapor pressure of water at its boiling point?

14
Chapter 9 - Review
• If heat is added to a boiling liquid, what
happens to the temperature of the liquid?
• What types of forces exist between particles of a
liquid?
• What are the condensed states of matter?

15
Chapter 9 - Review
• The first particles to evaporate from a liquid
are ____.
• Which of the following will evaporate fastest
water at 20 oC, or water at 40 oC?
• If a liquid is sealed in a container and kept at
constant temperature, how does its vapor
pressure change over time?

16
Chapter 9 - Review
• In a dynamic equilibrium between the liquid state
and the gas state, the rate of evaporation is
____.
• An increase in the temperature of a contained
liquid causes the vapor pressure above the liquid
to ___.
• The escape of gas molecules from the surface of
an uncontained liquid is known as ______.

17
Chapter 9 - Review
• What is the pressure when a liquid is boiling at
its normal boiling point?
• When the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to
atmospheric pressure, the liquid ____.
• Water could be made to boil at 105 oC instead of
100 oC by ___.

18
Chapter 9 - Review
• Crystals are classified into how many different
crystal systems?
• The boiling points of ionic solids tend to be
____.
• Crystals are characterized by particular patterns
that repeat ___.
• Different crystal systems differ in the _____.

19
Chapter 9 - Review
• The repeating group of a crystal is called the
___.
• Which of the following forms of carbon is an
amorphous solid graphite, diamond, or soot?
• Glasses are sometimes called ____ liquids.

20
Chapter 9 - Review
• Most solids are ___ and _____.
• Which of the following elements is characterized
by its ability to undergo sublimation iodine,
carbon, sodium, or oxygen?
• Which of the following is NOT a phase change
melting, diffusion, sublimation, or vaporization?

21
Chapter 9 - Review
• The direct change of a substance from a solid to
a gas is called ____.

22
Chapter 10 ReviewThe Behavior of Gases
23
Chapter 10 - Review
• Know the assumptions of the kinetic theory.
• Why does the pressure inside a container of gas
increase if more gas is added to the container?
• Why does air leave a tire when the tire valve is
opened?

24
Chapter 10 - Review
• If 4 moles of gas are added to a container that
already holds 1 mole of gas, how will the
pressure change within the container?
• Increasing the volume of a given amount of gas at
constant temp. causes the pressure to decrease
because _______.

25
Chapter 10 - Review
• If the volume of a container holding a gas is
reduced, what will happen to the pressure within
the container?
• What happens to the temperature of a gas when it
is compressed?

26
Chapter 10 - Review
• What happens to the pressure of a gas inside a
container, if the temperature of the gas is
lowered?
• If a balloon is squeezed, what happens to the air
pressure within the balloon?

27
Chapter 10 - Review
• The volume of a gas is doubled while the
temperature is held constant. How does the gas
pressure change?
• The volume of a gas is reduced from 4.0 L to 0.5
L while the temperature is held constant. How
does the gas pressure change?

28
Chapter 10 - Review
• A gas occupies a volume of 0.7 L at 10.1 kPa.
What volume will the gas occupy at 101 kPa?
• A sample of gas occupies 40 mL at 123 oC. What
volume does the sample occupy at 27 oC?
• What type of changes could cause an increase in
the pressure of a gaseous system?

29
Chapter 10 - Review
• Why does an aerosol can become cooler when gas is
released?
• As the temperature of a fixed volume of gas
increases, the pressure will _____.
• As the temperature of a balloon decreases, the
average kinetic energy _____.

30
Chapter 10 - Review
• Boyles law states that _____.
• When the temperature and number of particles are
kept constant for a sample of gas, what is also
constant for the sample?
• Charles law states that _____.

31
Chapter 10 - Review
• If a balloon is rubbed vigorously, what happens
to the volume of the air in the balloon if the
pressure is held constant?
• When the pressure and number of particles are
kept constant for a gas, what else is kept
constant?

32
Chapter 10 - Review
• If a capped syringe is plunged into cold water,
in which direction will the syringe piston slide?
• If a balloon is rubbed vigorously, what happens
to the pressure of the air inside the balloon if
the volume remains constant?

33
Chapter 10 - Review
• Generally, for a gas at a constant volume, the
pressure is _____ proportional to its temperature
in Kelvin.
• If a capped syringe is heated, in which direction
will the syringe piston move?
• The combined gas law relates to what variables?

34
Chapter 10 - Review
• If a balloon containing 1000 L of gas at 50 oC
and 101 kPa rises to an altitude where the
pressure is 50.5 kPa and the temperature is 10
oC, the volume of the balloon under these new
conditions would be _____.

35
Chapter 10 - Review
• At very high pressures, how does the volume of a
real gas compare with the volume that would be
predicted for an ideal gas under the same
conditions?
• At low temp. and pressure, how does the volume of
a real gas compare with an ideal gas?

36
Chapter 10 - Review
• An ideal gas CANNOT be converted to a ____.
• When the volume and number of particles are held
constant for a sample of gas, what else is kept
constant?
• Which is constant for 1 mole? PT/V or PV/T

37
Chapter 10 - Review
• What does the ideal gas law allow a scientist to
calculate that the other laws do not?
• What is the normal form of the ideal gas law
equation?

38
Chapter 10 - Review
• At a certain temperature and pressure, 0.20 mol
of CO2 has a volume of 3.1 L. A 3.1 L sample of
hydrogen at the same temperature and pressure
contains ______ molecules.
• Under what conditions is the behavior of a real
gas like that of an ideal gas?

39
Chapter 10 - Review
• If oxygen is removed from the air in the process
of rusting, what happens to the partial pressure
of oxygen in the air?
• If oxygen is removed from the air in the process
of rusting, what happens to the total pressure of
the air?

40
Chapter 10 - Review
• What happens to the partial pressure of oxygen in
the air if the air temperature is increased?
• If the volume of a container of air is reduced by
one-half, what happens to the partial pressure of
oxygen within the container?

41
Chapter 10 - Review
• A breathing mixture used by deep-sea divers
contains helium, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
What is the partial pressure of oxygen at 101
kPa, if PHe 84 kPa and PCO2 0.1 kPa?

42
Chapter 10 - Review
• When a container is filled with 3 moles of H2, 2
moles of O2, and 1 mole of N2, the pressure in
the container is 8787 kPa. What is the partial
pressure of O2?

43
Chapter 10 - Review
• If the atmospheric pressure on Mt. Everest is
one-third the atmospheric pressure at sea level,
the partial pressure of oxygen on Mt. Everest is
_____.
• The tendency of molecules to move toward areas of
lower concentration is called _____.

44
Chapter 10 - Review
• A box with a volume of 22.4 L contains 1.0 mol of
nitrogen and 2.0 moles of hydrogen at 0 oC. What
is the partial pressure of the nitrogen?
• Which gas would effuse most rapidly chlorine or
hydrogen?

45
Chapter 10 - Review
• Which of the following atoms would have the
greatest velocity if each atom had the same
kinetic energy hydrogen or bromine?

46
Chapter 10 - Review
• Which of the following gases is the best choice
to serve as the inflating gas of a balloon that
must remain inflated for a long period of time
hydrogen or argon?

47
Chapter 5 - ReviewChemical Names and Formulas
48
Chapter 5 Review
• What type of ions have names ending in -ide?
• What is the electrical charge of a cation?
• Give the charge and number of electrons for the
calcium ion.
• How many electrons in Sr2 Kr Br1-?

49
Chapter 5 Review
• How are cations formed?
• Ions form when atoms gain or lose _____.
• Which is a pure compound fresh air salt water
calcium iodide?
• In any chemical compound, the elements are always
combined in the same proportion by ____.

50
Chapter 5 Review
• The Law of Definite Proportions applies to what
type of materials?
• Know the properties of molecular compounds.
• What are ionic compounds composed of?

51
Chapter 5 Review
• What is the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in
an ionic compound called?
• Which of the following formulas represents an
ionic compound Kr BaI2 N2O4
• Which represents a molecular compound Xe ZnO
SO2

52
Chapter 5 Review
• What are molecular compounds usually composed of?
• Which element when combined with fluorine would
most likely form an ionic compound phosphorus
lithium chlorine
• Ionic compounds have relatively _____ melting and
boiling points.

53
Chapter 5 Review
• What information is obtained about the formula
C2H6O?
• What is the charge on a formula such as K2O?
• Ionic compounds are composed of ____ and ____
ions.
• What information does a molecular formula give?

54
Chapter 5 Review
• Which of the following pairs of substances best
illustrates the Law of Multiple Proportions NO
and NO2 P2O5 and PH3
• What is the usual charge on an ion from Group 7A?
• What is the charge on an ion of potassium
strontium oxygen

55
Chapter 5 Review
• Give the name for the following ions Fe2 and
Fe3
• What is the charge on an ion of calcium
aluminum bromine
• How does an element from Group 2 form ions?
• Give the name and symbol for an ion of copper
(I) fluorine

56
Chapter 5 Review
• What type of ions are commonly formed from Group
4A elements?
• How do the metals in Groups 1A, 2A, and 3A form
ions?
• Name the following OH1- O2-
• Polyatomic ions are tightly bound groups of _____.

57
Chapter 5 Review
• Name CrO42- and Cr2O72-
• An -ate or -ite at the end of a compound name
usually indicates that the compound contains ___.
• What is the ionic charge on the zirconium ion in
the ionic compound zirconium oxide, ZrO2?

58
Chapter 5 Review
• What is the correct name for the N3- ion?
• What is the correct formula for potassium
sulfite?
• What is the correct formula for barium chlorate?
• Ternary ionic compounds contain three different
______.

59
Chapter 5 Review
• What is the correct formula for calcium
dihydrogen phosphate?
• Why are systematic names preferred over common
names?
• What compound is formed by combining Au3 and S2-?

60
Chapter 5 Review
• What is the ionic charge on the thorium ion in
ThO2?
• What is the formula of the ionic compound from
combining Sc3 and S2-?

61
Chapter 5 Review
• Name SnF4 and Na2O.
• Which of the following contains the lead (IV)
ion Pb4O3 Pb2O PbO2
• Which contains the Mn3 ion Mn2O3 or Mn3O2

62
Chapter 5 Review
• The procedure for writing formulas for ternary
ionic compounds is the same as that for binary
ionic compounds, with the exception that _______.

63
Chapter 6 ReviewThe Periodic Table
64
Chapter 6 Review
• Which of the following groupings contains only
representative elements a) Cu, Co, Cd, or
b) Al, Mg, Li?
• What is true about the electron configurations of
the representative elements?
• The metals in Groups 1A, 2A, and 3A ___ electrons
when forming ions.

65
Chapter 6 Review
• What are the Group 1A and Group 7A elements
examples of?
• Which of the following elements has the smallest
radius a) chlorine, or b) bromine?
• How does the size of an ion compare to the atom
it came from?
• The modern periodic table is arranged according
to _____.

66
Chapter 6 Review
• In which of the following groups of ions are the
charges all shown correctly a) Li1-, O2-, S2,
or b) Ca2, Al3, Br1-?
• Which of the following elements are nonmetal
Pt, V, Li, and Kr
• Know the characteristics of cations and anions.

67
Chapter 6 Review
• What is another name for the transition metals?
• Which of the following elements is a transition
metal a) copper, or b) cesium?
• What is the factor that contributes to the
increase in ionization energy from left to right
across a period?

68
Chapter 6 Review
• To what category of elements does an element
belong if it is a poor conductor of electricity?
• What is the charge of a cation?
• Which of these elements has the lowest
electronegativity value a) cesium, or b)
calcium?
• Which of the following is correct a)
In, 49 protons, 49 electrons, or b) Zn,
30 protons, 60 electrons?

69
Chapter 6 Review
• What element in the second period has the largest
• Which of the following elements is in the same
period as phosphorus a) magnesium, or b)
nitrogen?
• Who arranged the elements according to atomic
mass, and used the arrangement to predict the
properties of missing elements?

70
Chapter 6 Review
• What causes the shielding effect to remain
constant across a period?
• For Group 2A metals, which electron is the most
difficult to remove?
• What is true about the electron configurations of
the noble gases?
• What category includes the majority of the
elements?

71
Chapter 6 Review
• What is the element with the highest
electronegativity value a) calcium, or b)
fluorine?
• Which subatomic particle plays the greatest part
in determining the properties of an element?
• Of the following, which one has the smallest
first ionization energy a) aluminum, or b)
silicon?

72
Chapter 6 Review
• What element has the electron configuration of
1s22s22p63s23p2?
• In which of the following sets are the charges
given correctly for all the ions a) Na1, Mg1,
Al1, or b) K1, Sr2, O2-?
• Which of the following elements has the smallest
ionic radius a) Li, or b) K?

73
Chapter 6 Review
• What electron configuration is most likely to
result in an element that is relatively inactive?
• How does atomic radius change from left to right
across a period in the periodic table?
• How does atomic radius change from top to bottom
in a group in the periodic table?

74
Chapter 6 Review
• Elements that are characterized by the filling of
p orbitals are classified as _____.
• As you move from left to right across the second
period of the periodic table, ionization energy
__.
• Atomic size generally decreases as you ____.

75
Chapter 6 Review
• Which of the following is a representative
element a) Fe, or b) Te
• Cations form when an atom ____ electrons.
• What is the energy required to remove an electron
from an atom in the gaseous state called?

76
Chapter 6 Review
• Which of the following decreases with increasing
atomic number in Group 2A a) ionization energy,
or b) ionic size?
• What is another name for the representative
elements?
• Each period in the periodic table corresponds to
____.

77
Chapter 6 Review
• Which of the following elements has the smallest
first ionization energy a) potassium, or b)
magnesium?
• Compared with the electronegativity of elements
on the left side of a period, the
electronegativity of the elements on the right
side of the same period tend to be ____.

78
Chapter 6 Review
• The atomic number of an element is the total
number of what particles in the nucleus?
• How many electrons does the ion Ca2 contain?
• How many electrons are there in the highest
occupied energy level of atoms in Group 5A
elements?

79
Chapter 6 Review
• How many electrons are in a rubidium ion, Rb1?
• How many electrons are present in the d sublevel
of a neutral atom of nickel?
• What is the usual charge on an ion from Group 7A?

80
Chapter 6 Review
End of Chapter 6 Review