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Nanotechnology

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Zinc oxide nanoparticles Useful as antibacterial and antifungal agents when incorporated into materials, such as surface coatings (paints), textiles, and plastics. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nanotechnology


1
Nanotechnology
  • NANOMATERIALS

2
Outline
  • What is Nanotechnology?
  • How are nanotechnologies used today?
  • What is the history of Nanotechnology?
  • What is the future of Nanotechnology?
  • What are the safety, hazard and public policy
    issues with Nanotechnology?
  • Research development of nanoscience

3
What is Nanotechnology?
  • Nanotechnology is a catch-all phrase for
    materials and devices that operate at the
    nanoscale.
  • In the metric system of measurement, Nano
    equals a billionth and therefore a nanometer is
    one-billionth of a meter.
  • References to nano materials, nanoelectronics,
    nano devices and nanopowders simply mean the
    material or activity can be measured in
    nanometers.

4
How are nanotechnologies used today?
  • The majority of nanotechnologies commercially
    used today are based on nano-sized particles.
  • Nanoscale ZnO has been used for its UV absorbing
    properties to create sunscreen.
  • The particles' small size makes them invisible to
    the naked eye, so the lotion is clear.

5
A breakthrough in the clothing industry
  • Small whisker-like particles are used to coat the
    surface fibers of the fabric, creating a
    stain-repelling surface.
  • Healthcare companies are now marketing
    antimicrobial bandages coated with silver
    nanocrystals.
  • Meanwhile, silver nanoparticles on the surfaces
    of many new refrigerators, air conditioners, and
    laundry machines act as antibacterial and
    antifungal agents.

6
Semiconductor particles, or quantum dots
  • These fluorescent nanoparticles are being used by
    biologists to stain and label cellular
    components.
  • By changing the size of the quantum dot the color
    emitted can be controlled.
  • With a single light source, one can see the
    entire range of visible colors, an advantage over
    traditional organic dyes.  

7
Nanocomposites
  • Plastic nanocomposites are used for strong,
    lighter, and rust-proof car components. Toyota
    recently began using nanocomposites in bumpers
    that makes them 60 lighter and twice as
    resistant to denting and scratching.
  • The biomedical field is manufacturing artificial
    bone composites from nanocrystalline calcium
    phosphates. These composites are made of the same
    mineral as natural bone, yet have strength in
    compression equal to stainless steel.

8
Nano catalysts
  • For a given amount of material, as particle size
    decreases, surface area increases.
  • Nanoscale powders have extremely high surface
    area, and have found additional uses in
    applications such as catalysts.
  • Surface areas of nano materials can reach over
    100 m 2 /gram.

9
The history of Nanotechnology
  • The scientific community generally attributes the
    first acknowledgement of the importance of the
    nanoscale range to the brilliant Nobel Laureate
    physicist Richard Feynman in his famous 1959
    lecture There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom in
    which he first proposed that the properties of
    materials and devices at the nanometer range
    would present future opportunities. The term
    reached greater public awareness in 1986 with the
    publication of Engines of Creation The Coming
    Era of Nanotechnology by Eric Drexler.

10
The future of Nanotechnology
  • Nanotechnology is expected to have an impact on
    nearly every industry.
  • The U.S. National Science Foundation has
    predicted that the global market for
    nanotechnologies will reach 1 trillion or more
    within 20 years.
  • The research community is actively pursuing
    hundreds of applications in nanomaterials,
    nanoelectronics, and bionanotechnology.

11
  • Most near term (1-5 years) applications of
    nanotechnology are in the form of nanomaterials.
    These include materials such as lighter and
    stronger nanocomposites, antibacterial
    nanoparticles, and nanostructured catalysts.
  • Nanodevices and nanoelectronics are farther off,
    perhaps 5-15 years, and will have applications in
    medical treatments and diagnostics, faster
    computers, and in sensors.

12
The safety, hazard and public policy issues with
Nanotechnology
  • Numerous articles have recently been published
    warning of the dangers presented by unregulated
    nanotechnologies.
  • While many of these concerns seem less science
    than science fiction, the very scale range of
    these materials do present safety and
    environmental issues that should be addressed
    responsibly by industry at least in the same
    manner as fine particulate materials are
    currently handled under existing health and
    safety guidelines.

13
Zinc oxide nanoparticles
  • Useful as antibacterial and antifungal agents
    when incorporated into materials, such as surface
    coatings (paints), textiles, and plastics.
  • The bacteriostatic and fungistatic behavior of
    Zinc Oxide is utilized in personal care products.
  • The enhanced surface area of nanoparticles allows
    for increased interaction with bacteria. Smaller
    amount of Zinc Oxide for the same or improved
    biostatic behavior.

14
  • Zinc oxide is non-toxic, and compatible with
    skin, making it a suitable additive for textiles
    and surfaces that come in contact with humans.
  • Zinc Oxides UV attenuation properties also make
    it an effective additive to packaging plastics to
    prevent UV damage.
  • Zinc Oxide is also used as a catalyst for
    methanol synthesis. The increase in surface area
    of nanoscale Zinc Oxide compared to larger
    powders has the potential to improve the
    efficiency of these processes.

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Nanocatalysis
  • Manufacturing.
  • Environmental protection.
  • Energy security.

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Biological soft nanomaterials
  • Biological and soft nanomaterials include a
    variety of molecular structures, ranging from
    simple organic molecules to biological polymers
    and to hybrid organic-inorganic complexes.
  • The main focus is revealing the principles of how
    these structures self-organize into complex
    nanosystems, develop methods for their design and
    fabrication, and incorporate them into novel
    materials and devices.

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Electronic Nanomaterials
  • Heterogeneous nanomaterials create and control
    functionality through inhomogeneity
  • Correlations on the Nanoscale focus on
    low-dimensional correlated systems
  • Multiscale Magnetism clarify the effect of
    nanostructuring on the fundamental magnetic
    properties

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30
Nanamagnetism Materials Probes
  •   "Magnetic Properties of Self-Assembled
    Nanoparticle Assemblies"Sara A. Majetich,
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA
  •   "Biofunctionalization and Detection of
    Magnetic Nanoparticles"Glenn A Held, IBM T. J.
    Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY

31
Summary
  • What has been learned?
  • Request feedback of the session

32
Where to Get More Information
  • Nanomaterials nanostructure, by Zhang Lide and
    Xie Sishen, Chemical Industry Publishing, 2005
  • http//www.americanelements.co.uk/nanotech.htm
  • http//www.nanomat.com/nanoint.htm
  • http//pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/8135/8135nanote
    chnology.html

33
  • Wishing You A Very Happy New Year!
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