enteritis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – enteritis PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3c0236-YTVlO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

enteritis

Description:

Enteritis in Poultry What is Enteritis? Coccidiosis Ulcerative enteritis Necrotic enteritis Malabsorption syndrome Stunting syndrome Dysbacteriosis Spiking mortality ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:2401
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 34
Provided by: protektCo
Learn more at: http://www.protekt.com.tr
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: enteritis


1
Enteritis in Poultry
2
Gizzard
Pancreas
Duodenum (E. acervulina)
Jejunum (E. maxima)
Meckels diverticulum
Ceca (E. tenella)
3
Poultry Digestion
  • Feed passes from mouth to cloaca
  • Normal reflux from posterior gut
  • Bile commonly in gizzard,
  • bile duct empties in jujenum
  • Cecal contents reflux
  • Cp normally in anaerobic ceca
  • With altered upper intestine Cp can survive and
    produce pro-toxins

4
Enteritis in Poultry
DAMAGE
E. acervulina
Damage to proximal intestine, like E.
acervulina, may create anaerobic conditions in
the upper intestine. Cp may replicate in the
upper intestine near ample trypsin available
from the pancreas. Trypsin may cleave
pro-toxin Cp metabolic by-product
producing intestine damaging toxin. Damage to
cecal lining, like E. tenella, may allow
proliferation of Cp above normal levels.
Cp
MULTIPLY
E. tenella
5
What is Enteritis?
  • Disease of small intestine that destroys the gut
    wall
  • Can be caused by Clostridium Perfringens
  • Produces powerful toxins, which
  • Damage intestinal mucosa
  • Impair nutrient absorption
  • Can lead to blood loss, toxemia, and death
  • Primarily occurs in broilers 2-6 weeks old and
    replacement pullets under stress
  • Threatens birds world wide
  • Can spread to subsequent flocks

6
Enteritis in Poultry
  • Disease of multiple etiology
  • A variety of diseases are associated with
    enteritis
  • Can be chronic or acute
  • Inflammation of the intestines
  • Economic effects can be devastating

7

Enteritis in Poultry
Conditions commonly associated
  • Coccidiosis
  • Ulcerative enteritis
  • Necrotic enteritis
  • Malabsorption syndrome
  • Stunting syndrome
  • Dysbacteriosis
  • Spiking mortality
  • Mycotoxicosis
  • Infections - viral, bacterial, protozoa
  • Nutrient deficiencies
  • Immune responses

8
Enteritis in Poultry
  • The problem with enteritis
  • Often misdiagnosed
  • Challenge related
  • Causative organisms can occur naturally
  • Can be sub-clinical while eroding performance
  • Etiology is mostly multi-factorial
  • Outbreaks cause severe economic losses
  • Prevention and control is the key

9
Enteritis in Poultry
  • Factors contributing to the
  • impact of enteritis
  • Management/Control
  • Environment
  • Genetics
  • Nutrients
  • Presence of infectious agents such as
  • Viruses
  • Bacteria
  • Mycotoxins
  • Protozoa (coccidiosis)
  • Parasites (nematodes)

10
The Enteritis Cycle
Toxins Release
Intestinal Damage
Clostridium Perfringens
11
Enteritis in Poultry
  • Types of bacterial enteritis
  • Clostridial enteritis
  • Necrotic enteritis
  • Dysbacteriosis
  • Ulcerative enteritis

12
Enteritis Economics
Costs of disease
Costs 20,000 birds/house
Also losses when mortalities not detected
Mortality 321.00 Extra Feed 327.60 Weight
losses 230.00
Total 878.60/ house Carcass quality/down
grading/ and processing
DETAIL
Norton, R. A. and Hess, J. B., Auburn University.
13
Enteritis Economic Losses
  • Necrotic Enteritis can have a significantly
    negative economic impact
  • Economic losses can escalate within a flock,
    along with subsequent flocks
  • A preventative strategy can minimize economic
    losses, thus resulting in maximum profitability

14
Enteritis in Poultry
  • The role of enteritis
  • influencing nutrient utilization
  • Ingestion
  • Digestion
  • Absorption
  • Transport
  • Storage
  • Mobilization
  • Metabolism

Reference Ruff Allen 1990 Baker 1993
15
Enteritis in Poultry
  • Bacterial enteritis
  • Subclinical infection of small intestine
  • Caused by mainly Gram positive bacteria
  • Most bacteria exist naturally in cecum and small
    intestine
  • Triggered by intestinal lesions, poor hygiene and
    digestion, immune suppression and other factors

16
Enteritis in Poultry
  • Predisposing factors of bacterial
    enteritis
  • Increased gut viscosity caused by wheat, barley,
    rye and fiber diets
  • Some performance enhancers and chemical
    anticoccidials ineffective against Clostridium
    perfringens
  • Stress, crowding, ventilation, wet litter
  • Immune suppression
  • Diseases, infections and coccidiosis
  • Poor hygiene/sanitation

17
Enteritis in Poultry
  • Clinical Symptoms of Bacterial enteritis
  • Depression
  • Loss of appetite
  • Diarrhea
  • Dark feces
  • Blood in feces can be present
  • Increased water consumption
  • Wet litter
  • Mortalities

18
The Elanco Commitment
  • Consistent scoring guide
  • EHTS
  • MIC - Studies
  • Ongoing efficacy studies
  • Global impact assessment
  • Product Portfolio

19
"Building the Wall of Protection"
Wall of Protection
Line of Treatment
Clostridium
Enteritis
Challenge
Feed Composition/
Genetics
20
And The Research Goes On ..
21
Enteritis in Poultry
  • Controlling Enteritis
  • Clean and disinfect buildings
  • Maintain dry litter
  • Ensure proper ventilation
  • Avoid overcrowding
  • Reduce immunosuppresive stress and disease
  • Evaluate nutritional and fiber content of feed
  • Control coccidiosis by using stable programs and
    ionophores vs. chemicals
  • Use preventative as well as controlling
    medication with effective MIC against Clostr.
    Perfr.

22
Enteritis in Poultry
Controlling Enteritis
  • Productivity Enhancer
  • Use a productivity enhancer with effective MIC
    against Clostridium perfringens
  • This provides a combination of prevention and
    performance

23
Enteritis in Poultry
Controlling Enteritis
  • Develop preventative coccidiosis control program
  • Create stability and immune stimulation
  • 2-3 programs/year
  • Manage cocci vs. eradication
  • Use primarily ionophore vs. chemicals
  • Specifically select appropriate ionophore

24
Elanco BreaksThe Enteritis Cycle
Clostr. Perf. control Surmax/ Maxus
Elancoban Monteban Maxiban Tylan
Cocci control Monteban Elancoban Maxiban
Toxins Release
X
X
Intestinal Damage
Clostridium perfringens
25
Ulcerative Enteritis
  • Caused by Clostridium colinum
  • Ulcerative enteritis in small intestine
  • Small yellow foci with hemorrhagic borders
  • Often liver lesions
  • Congested enlarged spleen

Reference Berkoff, 1997
26
Necrotic Enteritis
  • Caused by Clostridium perfringens Type A or C
  • Lesions usually confined to the small intestine,
    primarily jejunum and ileum
  • Severe necrosis of intestinal mucosa
  • Distention due to gas production
  • Swollen livers with necrotic foci

27
Necrotic Enteritis
  • Cannot normally survive in the small intestine
    since it is an aerobic environment
  • Changes can lead to an anaerobic environment in
    the small intestine
  • Migration from the cecae and proliferation of CP
    in the small inestine is associated with protoxin
    elaboration
  • Trypsin will release the toxin from the pro-toxin
    and initiate necrotic enteritis

28
Dysbacteriosis
  • Also known as
  • Clostridial enteritis
  • SIBO (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth)
  • "summer gut"
  • "hit the wall"
  • "flushing"
  • "feed passage"

29
Dysbacteriosis
  • Forced by the economic and genetic demands, the
    composition of broiler feeds have changed.
  • This could result in dysbacteriosis where birds
    quit eating and growing. Many broiler producers
    are faced with this problem

30
Dysbacteriosis
  • Droppings
  • loose threadlike and sticky
  • Water/Feed
  • lower feed intake with water consumption normally
    staying constant
  • Consequences
  • reduced growth and uniformity

31
Clostridium Perfringens
  • In the cecum
  • Co-exist naturally
  • In the small intestine
  • Proliferate and release harmful toxins
  • Destroys gut wall
  • Thickened and inflamed walls

32
Mortality Death loss 3/week Mortality age
4 weeks Bird cost 19/bird Feed cost
34.5/bird Mortality cost 53.5/bird
Morbidity Sick birds 20 50-day target
weight 5 lbs./bird FCR 2.20 (.20
worse) Weight loss .25 lbs./bird Extra feed
.84 lbs./bird Feed cost 195/ton Production
cost 23/lb.
33
Nutritional Influences
  • Raw Materials
  • Wheat/low quality corn
  • Fishmeal
  • Bakery byproducts
  • Enzymes
  • Rape seed
  • Fusaria sp.
About PowerShow.com