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Title: Media Owners Time Warner HBO CNN Court TV Time Warner Cable

Media Owners
Time Warner
  • HBO
  • CNN
  • Court TV
  • Time Warner Cable
  • Road Runner
  • Warner Brothers
  • Warner Brothers Studio
  • The CW Television Network
  • Warner Brothers Animation
  • Hanna Barbera Cartoons
  • Castle Rock Entertainment
  • Warner Home Video
  • Atlanta Braves
  • Netscape
  • Time, Life, Fortune and Sports Illustrated
  • People and Entertainment
  • In Style Magazine
  • Parenting Magazine
  • Sunset Magazine
  • Field Stream, Golf and Ski magazine
  • 50 more magazines
  • AOL
  • TBS
  • TNT
  • Cartoon Network
  • Turner Classic Movies
  • New Line Cinema

  • Walt Disney Pictures
  • Touchstone Pictures
  • Hollywood Pictures
  • Miramax Films
  • Buena Vista Home entertainment
  • Pixar
  • ABC
  • ESPN
  • ABC Family
  • Disney Channel
  • Toon Disney
  • SOAPnet
  • Lifetime Network (partial)
  • A E (partial)
  • E! (partial)
  • ABC Radio (75 stations)
  • Baby Einstein Company
  • Walt Disney Internet Group
  • Buena Vista Music Group
  • Walt Disney Records
  • Hollywood Records
  • Hyperion Books
  • Biography Channel
  • Discover
  • Disney Adventures
  • ESPN Magazine
  • US Weekly
  • Disneyland Resort
  • Walt Disney World Resort
  • Tokyo Disney Resort
  • Disneyland Resort Paris
  • Hong Kong Disney
  • Disney Stores
  • Disney Cruise Lines
  • ESPN Zone

News Corporation
  • Sky Radio
  • Fox Animation Studios,
  • Harper Collins
  • Avon Books
  • William Morrow Agency
  • TV Guide
  • 21 Australian newspapers
  • 9 in the United Kingdom
  • New York Post
  • The Sun
  • National Geographic
  • MySpace
  • National Rugby League
  • Wall Street Journal
  • Fox Broadcasting
  • DirectTV (partial)
  • Fox News Channel
  • Fox movie Channel
  • FX
  • Fuel
  • Fox Sports Net
  • 20th Century Fox
  • Fox Searchlight Pictures
  • Fox Television Studios
  • Los Angeles Kings (40)
  • Los Angeles Lakers (10)
  • Staples Center (40)

  • CBS Network
  • MTV
  • Nickelodeon
  • BET
  • Nick at Nite
  • TV Land
  • VH1
  • Spike TV
  • CMT
  • Comedy Central
  • Showtime
  • The Movie Channel
  • Flix
  • Sundance Channel
  • Paramount Pictures
  • Paramount Home Entertainment
  • Infinity Broadcasting
  • Blockbuster
  • Simon Schuster

General Electric
  • NBC
  • CNBC
  • Bravo
  • Sci-Fi
  • USA
  • Universal Pictures
  • Universal Parks Resorts

Radio A Wireless Wonder
  • With the passage of the Telecommunications Act of
    1996, the limits on the number of radio stations
    that a company can own was lifted, clearing the
    way for many companies to start buying up several
    stations in various markets.
  • This has created an environment where a company
    can own more than one station and hire
    individuals to work for all the stations at
    various management levels.
  • What does this mean for the industry?

Samuel Morse
  • Telegraph The system of coded messages over
    wires dots and dashes known as Morse Code
  • 1849 40-mile telegraph line between Washington
    DC and Baltimore, Maryland.
  • First transmission What hath God wrought.
  • 1861 First transcontinental line in place.
    The system was adequate for the current railroad
    system but was limited.
  • Last transmission as official means of
    communication in 2002 using the same famous first

Guglielmo Marconi
  • Father of Wireless Communication.
  • Most looked at wireless from a electricity point
    of view and not as a form of communications.
    Marconi exploited the potential. He was the
    first to take all that had been invented and put
    together a system to send signals across a
  • However, he was unable to convince the Italian
    government to invest in his invention, so he
    moved to London, where he was able to obtain

Guglielmo Marconi
  • 1896 - At 22 he declared the patent on wireless
    transmission with the assistance of the British
  • 1897 Formed the British Marconi Company
  • 1901 picked up Morse Code (letter s) sent over
    international waters. Wireless became a way to
    transmit from ship to ship to shore.
  • 1902 - Established the American Marconi Company

Dr. Lee deForest
  • Considered to be THE FATHER OF RADIO as he saw
    radio as a way to broadcast voices to the masses.
    Marconi saw radio as point to point,
    whereas Lee saw it as point to masses.
  • Born in Iowa, he knew he wanted to be an inventor
    by the time he was 12. He spent his time in
    libraries learning.
  • He wrote to Marconi to ask if he could work for
    him, but Marconi never answered.

Dr. Lee deForest
  • In 1902, Reginald Fessenden, an engineer for
    Edison broadcasts O Holy Night from a ship.
    Some thought they were hallucinating and deForest
    would ignore the broadcast.
  • In 1906, deForest took a vacuum tube developed by
    J. Ambrose Flemming and by adding a grid it would
    become an amplifier. The vacuum tube would be the
    fundamental component of the radio receiver until
    1947 when the transistor was invented.
  • Flemming sued, but deForest won. He had an
    advantage . Money.

Dr. Lee deForest
  • In 1907, deForest would transmit a woman singing
    and promoted it as the first.
  • deForest would spend most of his career defending
    himself. Sometimes for theft, sometimes for
    fraud. He was even accused of selling stock and
    skipping town.
  • Married 5 times, he started and bankrupted more
    than 13 companies. At one point, he held more
    than 300 patents none were actually his.
  • He considered himself the father of radio and had
    one of his wives write a book called, I married
    a genius. He once sent a letter to himself and
    addressed it the father of radio. He put no
    address on it. It never arrived.

Edwin Howard Armstrong
  • Improved the system to enable radio receivers to
    pick up distant signals
  • In 1922 he sold his system to RCA for 200,000
    and 60,000 shares of stock, making him an instant
    millionaire and RCAs largest private
  • He later developed the REGENERATION CIRCUIT, the
    basis of FM Radio that would eliminate static
  • First station set up in 1937, but because of his
    lawsuits with deForest and his feud with Sarnoff,
    FM would not become popular until 1953.
  • In 1954, Armstrong would commit suicide.

Armstrong vs deForest
  • deForest was angry that Armstrong held the patent
    on the Regeneration Circuit and sued saying it
    was his.
  • There would be 13 lawsuits that lasted more than
    20 years. Armstrong won 12 on the basis that
    deForest could never describe how it worked.
  • The courts asked Armstrong to lease his system to
    deForest for a fee as he had the radio stations
    that could use the new circuit. Armstrong
  • deForest sued once more and won on a legal
    technicality. The engineering world today
    credits Armstrong for the invention.

David Sarnoff
  • Most notable figure in the development of radio
    broadcasting. Not an inventor, or an engineer.
  • He came to America when was 9, and learned to
    read English by gathering discarded newspapers at
  • At 15, worked for Marconi as a telegraph operator
    and right-hand man.
  • At 21, he received national recognition as an
    operator for the American Marconi Wireless
    Telegraph Company on April 14, 1912 when he
    became an internationally known figure with the
    sinking of the Titanic.

David Sarnoff
  • This event change radio forever as ships are now
    required to keep their radios on 24/7.
  • Sarnoff continued to work for the American
    Marconi Company until 1919 when General Electric
    purchased the equipment and patents after they
    discovered that during WWI, the only
    communications company was foreign-owned. They
    didnt think it wise and joined forces with ATT,
    Westinghouse, Western Electric and other smaller
    companies and formed RCA.
  • The next year at 28, Sarnoff was named president
    of RCA. In 1926 when RCA created NBC, he was
    named president where he remained until he
    retired in 1970.

The War
  • WWI put all patents on hold.
  • Edwin Armstrong would turn over his patents to
    the government and continue to enhance the
    communication system again developing new and
    improved systems.
  • Lee deForest found he could make a nice profit
    and leased his equipment.
  • Sarnoff would stay home due to an injury and
    become the head of RCA.

  • Up to this point, radio was an industry of
    struggle. It went from individuals who had toys
    and hobbies to two decades of patent fights,
    money and finally into national affairs.
  • During WWII, Armstrong again would donate his
    services and time deForest would lease his
    patents and equipment for a profit, and Sarnoff
    was appointed as communications director here in
    the states. When the war ended, Sarnoff asked
    that his staff call him General Sarnoff.

Commercial Broadcasting
  • 1920 Frank Conrad with CBS begin KDKA in
    Pittsburgh, the first fully licensed station with
    continuous programming.
  • RCA went on the air with WDY
  • ATT began WEAF
  • General Electric starts WGY
  • 1923- There were 1400 stations and radios were
    the furniture of choice. 1/3 of furniture money
    went toward radio for a total of 350 million.

Radio Act of 1927
  • Created to license frequencies to radio stations.
    Universities, banks, department stores, and
    corporations were forming stations and
    broadcasting information.
  • Federal Radio Commission is formed (FRC)
  • 1927 Call Letters were assigned as a norm
  • East Coast W West Coast K

Commercial Broadcasting
  • 1926 NBC-Red and NBC-Blue are formed
  • 1927- The Columbia Network is formed
  • 1934 Communications Act was created and the
    Federal Communications Commission (FCC) formed
    to regulate radio, telephone and television.
  • 1934- Mutual Broadcasting System
  • 1943- The FCC forces NBC to sell one of their
    networks. NBC-Blue becomes the American
    Broadcasting Company (ABC)
  • 1944 The Columbia Network becomes Columbia
    Broadcasting System (CBS)
  • 1996 Telecommunications Act adds the Internet.

Elite Phase
  • Availability of Airwaves
  • Equipment

Popular Phase
  • 1926 RCA figure out how to mass distribute the
    equipment. Radio provided people the opportunity
    to sit in their living rooms and hear people from
    different parts of the country.
  • 1930s The Depression hits. With the stock
    market crash, many lost their fortunes, and banks
    collapsed across the country causing many to lose
    their live savings. People needed an escape.
    And radio delivered. Radio provided information,
    companionship, free entertainment and

Popular Phase
  • 1933 The Fireside Chats
  • President Roosevelt used the radio as a tool to
    bring the people (the nation) together in a time
    of need. People hung his picture above the
    radio so they could see and hear him at the same
  • 1928 Amos Andy
  • Campbell's Soup was the sponsor, and pulled its
    sponsorship because of a shortage of TIN.
  • 1938 War of the Worlds
  • FCC after this airing banned fictional news
    bulletin from the airways. An estimated 6
    million believed the broadcast.
  • Mobility You can take it from place to place.

Specialized Phase
  • 1948 Television
  • Radio programs now were going to television.
  • CBS raided NBC of its radio personalities.
  • NBC responded by signing Milton Berle to a
    33-year contract. In 8 years he would be off the
  • As networks focused on television, radio ratings
    and earnings declined.
  • Radio had to change format or die?

Specialized Phase
  • Sports and Talk Radio
  • Country
  • Pop
  • Rock
  • Shlock
  • Contemporary
  • Easy Listening
  • Jazz
  • Folk
  • Religion

  • In 1925, Armstrong develops FM
  • Armstrong sets up first FM station in 1937.
  • Armstrong and Sarnoff partnered to bring FM to
    the masses. However, Sarnoff discovered that
    doing so would mean replacing all of his AM
    radios and televisions with FM sound. He wanted
    to sell his inventory before making the switch.
    He felt the masses would never know the
    difference and convinced the FCC that AM was to
    be used in all televisions.
  • Armstrong moved forward without him and Sarnoff
    could only suppress FM for so long. When Sarnoff
    gave in, Armstrong made him pay a fee for each FM
    radio. Sarnoff had no choice. Some say he
    cried as his lawyers signed the contract.
  • By 1953, FM was popular.

  • 12,500 stations in US
  • 70 of station are either co-owned with other
    stations or under larger conglomerates.
  • 91.1 million homes have radios.
  • 95 of all cars and homes have radios
  • Average listener 3 hours a day. College
    students are much higher.
  • Internet
  • XM/Satellite